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Author of ** Records of Waltnery 

Privately Printed. 

Cross & Jackman, 6, High Street. 


fv s^.it^'^'}'- 

JUN 14 1918 


Her Most Excellent Majesty 

Queen of Great Britain and Ireland^ 

Empress of India, 

This Work 


History of Walmer and Walmer Castle, 

By Her Majesty's Gracious Permission, 

MOST humbly inscribed, 

Her faithful and devoted subject and servant. 

The Author. 


IN the following pages, an attempt has been made, to give, in 
as connected a form as possible, the history of a place and 
castle, which, as the official residence of the Lord Warden of 
the Cinque Ports, has been during a long period the abode of 
many of England's most illustrious statesmen. Hence the 
history of Walmer should prove of interest to many others than 
purely local readers. 

To mention Walmer Castle is to awaken memories of Pitt, 
and Nelson, and Wellington, and many another name of undying 
renown. Here the two former, in the dark days of the French 
Revolutionary period, consulted together, over the operations 
which should deliver Britain from fear of invasion, and Europe 
itself from the ambitious schemes of a too-successful tyrant. 
Here, too, the Iron Duke— hero of a hundred fights; spent 
much of the hard-earned rest of his declining years ; and here 
at length he breathed his last, full of years and honours — 
honoured indeed above all. and truest of men ! 

The roll of Lord Wardens who have made their abode 
here, includes also such men as James Stuart, Duke of Richmond, 
who lived here, at all events temporally, during some part of the 
great Civil War, and, during the last two centuries, the Duke of 
Dorset, Lord North, the Earl of Liverpool, the Marquis of 
Dalhousie, Lord Palmerston. and Earl Granville. The late Mr. 
W. H, Smith spent his last days here, and here too, like 
Wellington, he passed away. The present Lord Warden brings 
the lustre of his name to grace the office. 

No official record has been discovered to shew when this 
castle first became the recognised abode of the Chief Officer of 
the Ports, but it appears to have been at an early date in the 
last century. 

Much has been written, by previous authors, on the subject 
of the Cinque Ports, and the antiquity of the office of Lord 
Warden; yet a few of the more generally interesting particulars 

ii. Preface. 

may not be thought out of place in the preface to this work. 
The origin of the Lord Warden is traced back by authorities to 
the Tracius Mariitmt Comes^ or Comes Littoris Saxonici^ of the 
Roman period, who presided over the sea-coast from Brano- 
dunum (Brancaster in Norfolk) to the Portus Adurni (near 
Shoreham in Sussex), and whose jurisdiction included nine 
principal ports, of which the five following were in Kent: — 
Dubris, Lemanus, Regulbium, Rutupia, Anderida. The office 
was extinguished imder the Saxon Heptarchy, when each king 
looked after his own coast-line, but was revived under Edward 
the Confessor ; who, on account of frequent services against the 
Danes, rewarded five towns with great privileges, and appointed 
his officer over them, in the person of Earl Godwyne ; from 
whom the succession has continued to the present day, with no 
other interruption than that caused by the appointment of a 
commission to execute the office, in the time of the Common- 
wealth. After the Conquest, William I. invested this officer with 
a distinct jurisdiction, and appointed one of his barons with the 
title of Constable of Dover Castle, Warden, Chancellor and 
Admiral of the Cinque Ports. Thus united, the offices of 
Constable and Warden have seldom been dissociated, and have 
always been held by a person of the highest distinction, some- 
times even by a prince of the blood royal ; of which we have 
instances in Edward, Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward I. ; 
Henry Plantagenet, Prince of Wales, afterwards Henry V. ; 
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester ; Henry, Duke of York, after- 
wards Henry VIII. ; James, Duke of York, afterwards James II. ; 
and Prince George of Denmark, husband of Queen Anne. 
Twice only within the last two centuries has the office been 
conferred on a commoner, those distinguished exceptions having 
been William Pitt, and the immediate predecessor of the present 
Warden. Until the reign of Richard I. the joint offices of 
Constable and Lord Warden were hereditary. 

To trace the history of the Lord Warden is to trace the 
origin of the confederacy over which he presides : and of the 
Cinque Ports it may be said that three of them, Dover, Sandwich 
and Romney, are expressly mentioned in Domesday Book; 
Hastings and Hythe were added by William I. ; and the twa 
ancient towns, Rye and Winchelsea, came in before the reign of 
Bang John. In the time of Edward I., the charters of Edward 
the Confessor, William I., William II., Henry I., John, and 


Henty III,, were still in existence, and are expressly slated to 
have been examined by the King before the granting of his own 

Exposed by their position to the incursions of foreigners, 
the Cinque Ports were first of all incorporated for mutual 
defence, but soon became possessed of great and valued 
privileges in return for their services to the King and nation. 
Of these privileges something has been said in the body of this 
work, but there sti!! remains one especial privilege, not there 
mentioned, but highly prized by the Ports, that of bearing the 
canopies over the King and Queen at the Coronation. This 
privilege belongs to thirty-two barons of the Cinque Ports — as 
the freemen of the Ports are invariably denominated in the 
charters — elected for that special service ; and has been 
exercised, without interruption, from the lime of Henry III. to 
the coronation of Queen Victoria. In return for this service, 
the barons were ever entitled to dine at the uppermost table in 
the great hall, on the King's right hand; a right which has 
rarely been disputed. In 1761, when the table provided for 
them was found not to be in its proper place, they refused to 
take their seats. Formerly each port returned two barons to 

In course of time the jurisdiction of the Ports came to be 
extended over various adjacent places, until it embraced almost 
the entire stretch of coast from the north part of Thanet as far 
as Hastings; the additional places thus included being denom- 
inated Limbs, or Members, of some one or other of the various 
Head Ports. It was in this way that Deal and Walmer at a very 
remote date became included in the port of Sandwich. The 
earliest allusion to the Limbs occurs in the Red Book of the 
Exchequer, said by Lord Coke to have been written in the time 
of Henry I., but they are not mentioned in the charters till 
Edward IV. This annexation of members came about partly 
from the wish of the members themselves, who were anxious to 
share in the peculiar privileges of the Ports, and partly from the 
anxiety of the latter for assistance in their very expensive service 
of shipping; which, according to the charter of Edward I,, con- 
sisted of fifty-seven ships properly fitted out and accoutred, to be 
ready at the King's summons, and each to contain a master, 
twenty men, and aboy calledagromet. This fleet, of which Dover 
fotind twenty-one ships, Winchelsea ten, Hastings six, and 

iv. Preface. 

Sandwich, Romney, Hjrthe and Rye each five, was known as 
the Royal Navy of the Cinque Ports. It was to be ready upon 
forty days' summons, and to serve for fifteen days at the cost 
of the Ports, after which, if detained, it should be at the cost 
of the King. In course of time, when the King had vessels 
of his own and ships began to be employed of a greater 
tonnage, the whole number of vessels ceased to be required 
of the Ports, and not unfrequently a contribution of money 
was accepted instead. On the coming of the Spanish Armada, 
in 1588, the Ports did their duty nobly, having fitted out, in 
addition to their proper complement, five large vessels, at a 
cost of £43,000 ; and in the second year of Charles I., they 
performed this duty for the last time, when they sent out two 
serviceable ships for three months, at a cost of £1,825 8s. Od., 
in view of the threatened war with Spain. This system of 
defence was totally abolished by Charles II., who, in his 20th 
year, granted a new charter, under which the Ports continued 
to be governed till the passing of the Municipal Reform Act 
in 1834. 

The Lord Warden being the immediate officer of the 
King to the Ports, was likewise chancellor and admiral of 
the coasts where the Ports lie, and held his Courts of Chancery 
and Admiralty when and where he thought fit— generally at 
Dover. His duty was not merely to conserve and maintain 
the privileges of the Ports — which he solemnly undertook to 
do at a Grand Court of Shepway, held shortly after his appoint- 
ment for the express purpose of inauguration into his office — 
but also to direct and enforce the duties of the Ports to the 
King. He had also his Court of Lodemanage for direction 
and appointment of the Cinque Ports' lodesmen, or pilots ; 
who, by an act of George I., were to be fifty at Dover, fifty 
at Deal, and thirty in the Isle of Thanet. 

The three castles of Walmer, Deal and Sandown, erected 
by Henry VIII. from the spoils of some of the suppressed 
monasteries, were, immediately after their completion, placed 
under the control of the Lord Warden for the time being, by 
the statute 32 Henry VIIL, cap. 48, sect. 6 ; which gave him 
" full power and authority . . to survey viewe and comptroll as 
often as by his discretion he shal think necessary or expedient, 
all and singulier Capitaynes Kepers and other hed officers of 
every of the said newe Castellis etc. and all souldiours gonners 


and other ministres and psonnes of any of ihem etc.", and, 
in case of resistance to his authority or commands, " to comytt 
every suche offendour to Waide" in the castle of Dover or 
elsewhere within his jurisdiction, " there to remaine by the 
discretion of the said warden." 

Originally the Lord Warden, by viitue of his first and 
superior title of Constable, had the supreme command of the 
forces within Dover Castle, and of all the forces that might 
be raised within his jurisdiction ; but this litle has long ceased 
to be more than honorary. He still appoints the captain of 
Deal Castle, who has, however, no duties connected with hia 
office, and receives no emolument, but enjoys the life-tenancy of 
his castle. Twice during the tenure of Lord Granville, this 
appointment fell vacant, and on the first occasion his right to 
appoint was disputed by Lord Beaconsfield ; who, on hearing 
that Lord Sydney had been appointed, wrote somewhat testily to 
Lord Granville, to claim the appointment as Prime Minister. 
Lord Granville replied that the appointment was unquestionably 
in the gift of the Warden of the Cinque Ports ; but it was not 
until he had been fuily supplied with facts and precedents, that 
the Prime Minister would be satisfied, when he is said to have 
written briefly as follows; — "My dear Lord Granville, — Happy 
Sydney to have you for a neighbour 1 " 

According to received authorities the present Lord Warden, 
the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, is the ISOth in succession 
from the time of Gndwyne. Earl of Kent, who died in A.D. 1053 ; 
but the accuracy of this is rendered more than doubtful by the 
circumstance that Nicholas de Criol, the third of that name to 
hold the manor of Walmer, and whose name does not occur in 
any of the lists, is proved conclusively to have been Lord 
Warden by the Municipal Archives of Faversham.* 

There is no longer any salary attached to this office, 
though it was formerly worth £3.000 a year, besides certain 
small dues amounting to a few hundreds more. It was so in 
the time of Pitt, which gave peculiar point to the compliment 
paid him by the King, who, immediately on hearing of the 
death of the Eari of Guilford, wrote to Mr. Pitt that he would 
receive no recommendation from him for the vacant office, 
being determined to bestow it on Pitt. The salary ceased with 

• See p. 45. 

vi. Preface. 

the death of the Earl of Liverpool in 1828, the saving thus 
effected of the salary, which was borne on the civil list, having 
been from that time to the death of George IV., carried to 
the credit of the consolidated fund. On the settlement of the 
civil list at the accession of William IV., the charge was struck 
out altogether. The warrant for the appointment still grants 
** all manner of wrecks," and of " fees, rewards, commodities, 
emoluments, profits, perquisites and other advantages whatsoever 
(appertaining) to the said office," which, although a mere form 
of words, appeared to necessitate the re-election by his con- 
stituents of Mr. W. H. Smith, who was First Lord of the 
Treasury at the time of his appointment. The Lord Warden, 
it is needless to say, is entitled to the life-tenancy of Walmer 

The salaries formerly paid to the officers in the establish- 
ment of the Cinque Ports, were included in the Army Estimates, 
but many of them the Government had already ceased to pay 
in the time of the Duke of Wellington, who therefore ceased to 
fill up vacancies. It is related by Lord Stanhope that the Duke 
wrote, by arrangement, to Lord Howick, the Secretary of State 
for War, as to what offices he considered really serviceable for 
the due defence of the coast, but never received any answer. 

Besides forming a complete history of Walmer Castle, much 
will be found in these pages relating to the neighbouring 
castles of Deal and Sandown, which, from their first establish- 
ment, have been closely affiliated with Walmer. Sandown 
Castle is known in stor}' as the prison-home of the celebrated 
Colonel Hutchinson ; and the captaincy of Deal Castle has 
been held by many prominent men, amongst whom may be 
mentioned the Marquis of Carmarthen — afterwards Duke of 
Leeds — Lord North, Lord Carrington, the Earl of Mornington, 
the Earl of Dalhousie — before his appointment as Governor 
General of India — the Earl of Clanwilliam, Earl Sydney, and 
Lord Herschell, the present captain. Lord High Chancellor of 
Great Britain. 

Among the earlier captains of Deal Castle was Silius, or 
Silas Titus, author of the famous pamphlet Killing no Murder^ 
written to incite persons to assassinate the Protector Cromwell. 
At the outbreak of the Rebellion Silas Titus served under the 
Parliament, and was one of the commissioners to wait on the 


King at Newcastle and Holdenby, and from the latter place 
was sent to notify to the Parliament the seizure of the King 
by Cornet Joyce. Probably, the treatment that Charles now 
received caused him to change sides, as he shortly afterwards, 
while in attendance on the person of his royal master during 
his confinement in Carisbrook Castle, incurred the suspicion of 
Cromwell, and was obliged to flee the country ; when he joined 
the Prince of Wales, was appointed his groom of the bed- 
chamber, and was present with him in the battle of Worcester. 
At the Restoration he was appointed Colonel of the East 
Regiment of the Cinque Ports Militia, and was confirmed in 
his appointment of groom of the bed-chamber.* 

Apart from its connection with the Cinque Ports, and their 
illustrious Lord Wardens, there is much of interest in Walmer, 
as well to the antiquary as to the student of history. Its very 
name in fact appears to link its origin with the Roman 
occupation ; and the discovery, in 1866, of a Romano- British 
burial-ground confirms the supposition. The history of the 
manor and of the ancient Norman church are connected, 
moreover, with some of the most pre-eminent families of by- 
gone centuries ; — the Aubervilles and Criols of the Norman 
and Plantagenet periods ; the Fogges of the declining Middle 
Ages ; the Lisles and Boys's of Stuart times. Here, too, 
during the period of the Great Rebellion, that change of front 
took place, which, with a little more energy, might at least have 
saved the King from martyrdom ; for the rising in Kent and 
other counties would have been nothing without the revolt of 
the fleet in the Downs ; but, with the co-operation of the 
ships, the castles were enabled to hold out for nearly three 
months after the defeat of the Royalists at Maidstone. 

In recording these and many other topics, every original 
source of information has been studied as far as possible, the 
greatest care being taken throughout to ensure accuracy, but 
references — which have been already fully given in the larger 
Records of Walmer — have been to a great extent dispensed with. 

Writing immediately after the centenary of Lord Howe's 
[ great victorj- of the " glorious " first of June, a brief allusion 
• Edye's History of the Royal Marines, p. 65-66. 

viii- Preface. 

here will be pardoned to the family of Harvey, so closely 
associated with the success of that day. The last surviving 
\iS^ ' grandchil(?-and they numbered thirty-nine — of Captain John 
Harvey, who commanded the Brunswick^ second ship astern, 
and who may justly be called the hero of that day, is still living 
at Walmer, and is justly proud of the circumstance that both her 
grandfathers and her father fought in that action. 

As regards the connection of the Royal Marines with 
Walmer, I have stated on p. 179 that they were first permanently 
quartered here in 1854, my information on this point having 
been obtained from the Admiralty and being I think sub* 
stantially correct, though it is certain that the connection, 
although not permanently established before that time, is of 
much older date; the "yellow company" of Colonel Titus, 
mentioned on pp. 124-125 in connection with the events of 
1667, having been — as I learn from Major Edye's admirable 
History of the Royal Marine Forces — a company of the Admiral's 
or Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment, stationed at 
Deal and Walmer ; concerning whom Major Edye writes to 
me, that, although not called by the name of Marines, they 
were, nevertheless, generally known so, as shewn by a letter of 
a certain Captain Sylas Taylor, dated Harwich, 30th May, 1672, 
addressed to Lord Arlington's secretary, and referring to the 
battle of Solebay, wherein the writer says : — ** Those marines of 
whom I soe oft have wrote to you behaved themselves stoutly." 

Major Edye has also a right to be heard respecting the 
name of Adie, which I have included, on p. 189, in the account 
of refugee names occurring at Walmer. Writing to me on the 
6th June in the present year, and therefore subsequently to the 
printing of the body of this work, he says : — " Perhaps there is 
no more ancient family in England than the Adye's qua Edye's. 
For the Kentish branch of this family see Hasted's Kent ; for 
the Devonian to quote the Edye-stone, now Edystone, 
commoner Eddystone, is sufficient. Adye, Adie, Edye, Edie, 
Eddye, and Eddy, all are of the same original stock, and if you 
will turn to the *Pipe Rolls' of the 13th century, you will 
find both names." 

In compiling the lists of captains of the several castles, 
the Calendars of State Papers, the books of the Registrar of 

Preface. ix. 

the Cinque Ports, the Dering MS in the Maidstone Museum, 
and the original Muster Rolls of the garrisons, have been 
consulted ; and I wish here to record my obligation to the ' 
Registrar of the Cinque Ports, Colonel E. W. Knocker, of 
Dover, who has been most courteous in his endeavours to clear 
up any query that has been submitted to him. 

With the faults and failings of this book, I trust my readers 
will be lenient, especially as it has been written during the odd 
moments of a busy life. 


June \^th, 1894. 



Illustsatioss . , . . . . . . • • ■ • s 

List of Scbsckibbes .. .. .. .> •■ 


Position and Area — Leland's Description — Coast Changes — Perambulation 


Etymology^Romano-Britisli remains— The Borsholdet of WaLner — 
Watch on sea-coast, tatip. Edw. Ill and Hen. TV— Connection with 
the Citique Ports — Petition to Lord Warden— Walmer in l6*6 — Men 
pressed at Walmer in 1618 — Blake and Van Ttomp — The Plague in 
thcEe parts— Ne« Charter granted to Sandwich. . , . . , , 


He superior Lords — D'Anberville — De Criol — Fogge 1 
Isham to Hugesseo — Hugessen to Leith. . . 


The Old Parish Church — Foundation — Connection with Langdon Abbey 
—The Dissolution— Fnte of Walmet Church— Ancient Church Plate 
— Comnranicants temp. Eliiabeth^The Great Rebelh'on— Solemn 
League and Covenant — The Walmer Copy — Petition trBromstonc — 
The Restoration — Architectural features — Monuments — The Benefice 
— Incumbents — Registers — St. Saviour's — The New Parish Church 5J 

Contents. xi. 



The Bulwarks at Walmer and Deal — Foundation of the Castles - Estab- 
lishment and Pay — Description — Reinforcements — The Spanish 
Armada — Encroachment of the Sea — Garrison presentments — Decay 
of the Castles — Hollanders made to salute— Similar incident with the 
French — Repairs to the Castles — The King v. The Lord of the Manor 
— Engagement between Spanish and Dutch fleets. , . • • 75 


THE CASTLES (continued). 

The Great Rebellion — Insurrection in Kent — ^The Kentish Petition — 
Rendezvous on Barham Downs — Sir Richard Hardres at Sandwich — 
Dover Castle besieged — Admiral Rainsborough — Revolt of the Navy 
— Surrender of the three Castles — Declaration of Navy — The sea- 
men's oath — Advance of Royalists to Blackheath — Defeat at Maid- 
stone — Storming of Dover Castle — The siege raised - Fight at Sea — 
Storming of Walmer Castle — Relief of Sandown and Deal — Fight 
at Walmer — ^Further Declaration of Navy — Reduction of Walmer 
Castle —Engagement at Deal — The Prince s First Fnuts — Colonel 
Rich*s despatch — Letter describing the Victory — Royalist Victory at 
Sea — The Earl of Warwick — Garrison and pay temp. Common- 
wealth — Dutch War of 1652 — Prisoners— Charles II. and the Castles 
— The garrison at various periods. . . . , . . . . 91 


THE CASTLES ( contimicd ) . 

Colonel Hutchinson — The War with France and Holland, A.D. 1666- 1667 
— Peace proclaimed — The English Revolution, A.D. 1688 — Alarm 
from the Downs — Deal Castle shaken by an earthquake — Final remarks 
as to Deal and Sandown Castles - Captains. , . . . . . 121 


WALMER CASTLE (continued) 

The official residence of the Lord Warden — ^The Ramparts — Office of Lord 
Warden — Lord Wardens who have resided there — Buonaparte ex- 
pected — Pitt's preparations — The Cinque Ports' Volunteers — Fleet of 
luggers fitted out — Nelson in the Downs— Sir Arthur Wellesley at 
Deal — An infernal machine - Additions to the Castles — Anecdote of 
Lord Carrington — Improvements by Lady Hester Stanhope and others 
— Anecdote of the Duke of Wellington — Historical trees. . . 134 

xii. ConUnis. 



Royalty at the Castles — Progress of Henry VHL— Landing of Anne of 
Cleves-«-Quecn Elizabeth -Charles I. —The Queen Mother — Henrietta 
Maria — Charles II. — Katherine of Braganza — James H.— The Duke 
and Duchess of Clarence — Wellington and his royal guests— The 
Duchess of Kent and the Princess Victoria— The King and Queen of 
the Belgians— Her Majesty and Prince Albert — A royd birthday kept 
at Walmer Castle — Prince Albert's visit to the beacon-refuge— The 
royal yacht in the Downs — ^The Prince Consort's last visit — Welling- 
ton's last royal guests. .. ., .. .. ..150 


WALMER CASTLE (concluded). 

Death of Wellington— Lying in State at Walmer — Removal of the body 
— The Duke's Room -His life at Walmer— Death of Lord Granville 
— Lord Granville at Walmer — A fox killed in the Castle - Death of 
Mr. W. H. Smith— Relics of Pitt and Wellington— Nelson at 
Walmer Castle — Pitt's hospitality — Pitt's Room — Memorial of Lord 
Granville — The castle a saluting station — The Lord Warden's salute 
— Standard of the Cinque Ports — ^Anecdote of Mr. Gladstone . . 160 



History — The Old Barracks at Deal — A ludicrous incident — Troops with- 
drawn — Barracks proposed as a Poor-House — Quarters for the 
Blockade-men— A Coastguard Station — The Depot Battalion - The 
Royal Marines— The Military Burial-Ground — The Old Hospital at 
Walmer— The Royal Naval Hospital — Farming the sick and wounded 
— Siege of Dunkirk —Walcheren Expedition — Coast Blockade— 
Crimean War — The Naval Burial-Ground— The Chaplains. , . 174 



Growth of the Parish — Poor Law — ^The Boatmen — Hovellers— The 
Owling Trade — Tales of Smugglers— Protestant Refugee Families — 
The Lifeboat — Great Storms —Whirlwind -Her Majesty's Jubilee — 
St. Saviour's Church — ^The New Parish Church — Memorial to Earl 
Granville .. .. .. .. .. .. ..181 





Admiral Sir Thomas Baker, K.C.B. —The family of Boys — Admiral R. 
Gordon Douglas— Captain Peter Fisher, R.N. — The Harvey family — 
Admiral William WiUmott Henderson, C.B. — Admiral Sir John Hill 
—General Sh- Robert J. Hughes, K.C.B.— Colonel J. Philip Hunt, 
CB.— Admiral Sir Richard Lee, K.C.B. - Captain R. Budd 
Vincent, R.N., C.B. . , 




Flora— Sea- weeds —Zoophytes — Lepidoptcra — Shells. 

XMJjl£X .a »« ,, ,, ,, « 

.. 2l8 

.. 236 


Walmicr Castle 

Sr. Clark 

Roman and British 1'otterv, etc. 
The anciest parish church 
Walmbr Castle, a.d., 1735.. 
The gateway of Walmeu Castle 
"The Dl'ice's Room," 1852... 


to fact page, id 


Amoore, C, R., Esq., Maisoii Dieu Road, Dover. 
Anderson, Johii A., Esq., Hillside House, Faversham. 

Bain, James, Mr., Bookseller, I, Haymarkel, S.W. 
Belcher, W. D., Esq., 5, Adelaide Place, London Bridge. 
Benson, Miss, 3, Palmerslon Villas, Lower Waimer. 
Boswell, J. Irvine, Esq., M.D., Favctshani. 
Boys, Admiral Henry, Kidbmok, Blackheath, S.E. 
Broad, John, Esq., 5, Bank Street, Ashford. 
Bngler, John, Esq., Stoke House, Ashford. 
Buttanshaw, Rev. J., M.A., 22, St. James's Square, Bath. 

Canterbury, The Very Rev. the Dean of, The Deanery, Canterbury. 

Case, Williaro, Esq., 34, Wesibouine Road, London, N. 

Castle, Rev. J., M.A., Fnverslinra. 

Chatto, Edward, Esq., i6, Station Road, Nntthfleet. 

Clauson, Charles, Esq., 3q, ]_ombard Street, E.G. 

Cloke, Fred. S., Esq., Sandwich, Kent. 
' Cobham, Charles, Esq., F.S.I., The Shrubbery, Gravcscnd. 
J-CoHiam, Geo. R., Esq., F.S.I., I and 3, Edwin Street, Gravesend. 
I Cockle, Major George, Truro Lodge. Ramsgate. 

Colwdl, Colonel, C.B., R.M.L.I., Royal Buildings, Lower Waimer. 
, Colyet-Fergosson, Thomas, Esq., IghUiam Mote, Sevenoaks. 
.. Cottew, George, Esq., Mayor. 1, Southampton Terrace. Deal. 
[ Coxon, Colonel George, 25, Sussex Gardens, London, W. 

Cianbrook, The Earl of, Hemsled Park, Cranbrook. 
• Ctowhuret, James, Esq., F.R.C.V.S., St, George's Place. Canterbury. 
f Culverhouse, Miss, Faversham. 
■ Curtis, Rev. H. E., M.A., Chapel House, Faversham. 

)avey, Frank, Esq., ind Dragoon Guards. Rnwul Piniii, India. 
J, Lady, Mount Ephraim, Hcmhill, Faversham. 
KJlerby, The Countess of, Knnwsley, Prescol, Lanes. 

xvi. Subscribers. 

Dickeson, Sir Richard, Market Lane, Dover 

Dinwiddy, Thos., Esq., Grooms Hill, Greenwich Park, S.E. 

Douglas, Admiral Grordon, Seafield, Lower Walmer. 

Dover, the Bishop of. The Precincts, Canterbury, for the Cathedral Library. 

Dufferin and Ava, The Marquis of, British Embassy, Paris. 

Eden, Rev. Arthur, M.A., Ticehurst Vicarage, Hawkhurst. 

Edye, Major, R.M.L.I., 69, Ashley Gardens, Victoria Street, S.W. 

EUston, Rev. John, M.A. Selling Vicarage, Faversham. 

Elvin, Chas. N., Esq., M.A., East Dereham, Norfolk. 

Elvin, Mrs. C. N., East Dereham, Norfolk. ^ 

Elvin, Mrs. James, East Dereham, Norfolk. 

Ewing, Rev. A. G. C, M.A., Liverpool. 

Fagg, Jesse, Esq., Addiscombe Lodge, Croydon. 

Fells, Miss J. S., 12, Somerset Street, Portman Square, W. 

Fisher, Miss Sarah, 22, The Beach, Lower Walmer. 

Foreman, Owen, Esq., Hunton, Kent. 

For^vard, Mr., Lower Walmer. 

Freeman, Alf. Purvis, Esq., R.N., 11, Woodville Terrace, Gravesend. 

Green, Mrs. Alfred, The Lawn, Walmer. 

Green, Mrs. Charles, 15, The Beach, Lower Walmer. 

Guilford, The Countess of, Waldershare Park, Dover. 

Hannam, Mrs. Eastlands, Lower Walmer. 

Harston, Mrs. E. F. B., Brook Cottage, Lower Walmer. 

Haslewood, Rev. Francis, F.S. A., St. Matthew's Rectory, Ipswich. 

Haslewood, Rev. F. G., LL.D., Chislet Vicarage. Canterbury. 

Hawkesbury, The Lord, 2, Carlton House Terrace, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Hajrward, William W., Esq., Rochester. 

Henderson, Colonel Sir E. Y. W., K.C.B., 4, Gledhow Gardens, S. Kensing- 

Hooper, Capt. Charles, R.N., Harewell, Faversham. 

Home, Staff Commander Wm., R.N., Clarence Villas, Lower Walmer. 

Howard, Capt. John H., R.N., Rushett, Norton, Faversham. 

Howell, G. O., Esq., 210, Eglinton Road, Plumstead. 

Hovenden, R., Esq., F.S.A., Heathcote, Park Hill Road, Croydon. 

Hughes, General Sir Robt. J., K.C.B., 17, The Beach, Lower Walmer. 

Hughes, William I., Esq., J.P., Strand House, Sandwich. 

Hyde, Mrs. C. A., Wilderton, Branksome, Bournemouth. 

Icely, Rev. F., B.A., R.M. Depdt, Lower Walmer. 

Kent Archaelogical Society, per, G. Pa5me, Esq., 
Knocker, Colonel E. W., Castle Hill House, Dover. 

Subscribers. xvii. 

Laurence, Mrs. J. A., Barabro, King's Road, Clapham Park, S.W. 
Lennard, Sir John Famaby, Bart., Wickham Court, West Wickham, Kent. 
Levy, Jonas, Esq., J.P., 4, Verulam Buildings, Gray*s Inn, W.C. 
Libraries : — Bolton Subscription Library, per J. K. Waite, Esq. 

Cathedral Library, Canterbury, per Bishop of Dover. 

Guildhall Library, per Charles Welsh, Esq., F.S.A. 

Kent Archaeological Society, per G. Payne, Esq., F.S.A. 

The Library, R.M. Dep6t, Walmer, per Sergeant G. Turner. 
Lloyd, Arthur, Esq., The Downs, Walmer. 

Manvers, The Earl, Thoresby Park, Ollerton, Notts. 

Marsham-Townshend, The Hon. Robert, Frognal, Foot's Cray, Kent. 

McMeekan, Colonel, A. C. J., The Firs, River, Dover. 

McQueen, Mrs., Fareham, Hants. 

MeUor, Miss, 16, Sussex Square, Hyde Park, W. 

Mercer, Wm. John, Esq., 12, Marine Terrace, Margate. 

Mercer, Cecil John, Esq., Westlea, Walmer. 

Mourilyan, Staff Commander Edward, R.N., St. George's Lodge, Deal. 

Murray, A. E., Esq., St. Clare, Walmer. 

Murray, John D., Esq., Craiglea, Branksome Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Neame, Mrs. P. B., The Mount, Faversham. 

Norton, Mrs., Hill House, Rickinghall, Diss, Norfolk, 2 copies. 

Northboume, The Lord, Betteshanger Park, Dover. 

Nott, Mrs., The Glen, Walmer. 

Payne, George, Esq., F.S.A., The Precincts, Rochester. 

Peacock, Thomas F., Esq., F.S.A., Femlea, Sidcup, Kent. 

Pembroke, G.P.A., Esq., 11, Kings* Bench Walk, Inner Temple, E.C. 

PengeUey, Rev. W. H., M.A., 6, Greville Place, London, N.W. 

Plunket, The Hon. W., St. James Club, Piccadilly, W. 

Prentis, W., Esq., RaiiAam. 

Prince, Chas. Leeson, Esq., The Observatory, Crowborough, Sussex. 

Rigden, W, E., Esq., Faversham. 

Robertson, Rev. Canon W. A., Scott, M.A., Otterden Rectory, Faversham. 

Roget, John L., Esq., 13, The Beach, Lower Walmer. 

Royse, Mrs., Senior, Nantenan Cottage, Lower Walmer. 

Sackville, The Lord, Knole, Sevenoaks. 

Sibbald, J. Gordon Edw., Esq., Admiralty, Whitehall, S.W. 

Smith, Jabez, Esq., Mayor, Faversham. 

Smith, R. Watson, Esq., Faversham. 

Smith, The Hon. W. F. D., M.P., 3, Grosvenor Place, S.W. 

Smythe, Major F., 35, Mattock Lane, Ealing, W. 

Stewart, Mrs., 2, Delta Villas, Lower Walmer. 

Stringer, Henry, Esq., Solicitor to the Ports, New Romney. 

Sydney, The Countess, Frognal, Foot's Cray, Kent, (deceased 

Subscribers. xviii 

Tipping, William, Esq., Brasted Park, SevenoakK. 

Tollenham, Mrs., 2, Palmerston Villas, Lower Walmer. 

Turner Sergeant, R.M., The Libraiy, R.M. Depot, Lowet Walmer, 

Wall, Rev. R., Walmer. 

Willmotl, Edward W., Esq., Oxford and Cambridj;c Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

West, William C, Esq.. Montrose Villa, Cranfield Road, firoekley, S.K 

Wigan, Mrs. A., Henley Croft, Luddesdovm, Gravesend. 

Wilsoft, Sir S. Maiyon, Bart.. Charlton House, Old Charlton. 

Wood, Humphrey, Esq., F.S.A., Chatham, 

Wood, Miss, 2, Alexandra Terrace, Lower Walmer. 

Woodford, Mr., 146, Milton Road, Gravesend. 

WoodrufT, Rev. C. E., M.A„ Bredhursl Vicarage, Chatham. 

Worafold, C. R., Esq., Market Square. Dover. 



n ami Aiea — Lelaod's Description— Coait Changes— Perambulation. 

THE Pariah of Walmer, which adjoins Deal southward, is 
in the Lathe of St. Augustine, and the Hundred of 

It consists principally of a triangular area comprising' some 
B1D19 acres, with its apex on the beach to the north-east of Deal 

■ Castle ; its irregular base being formed by the boundary line 
Ibetween it and the contiguous parishes of Kingsdown, Ring- 
Kiwould, Ripple and Great Mongeham. There is, besides, a 
■detached portion of the parish, containing about 102 acres, 

■ situated in the marshes to the northward of Deal, and 

■ approached by the way known as the North Bank, 
le soil in the lower part of the parish, between Deal 

liCastle and Drum Hill, consists of a deep rich loam ; while 

■ southward of the village of Upper Walmer it consists 
■principally of open downs, destitute alike of trees and hedges, 
■■Jjut sufficiently productive. 

Leland, who wrote in the time of Henry VHI, gives the 

Ifollowing description of this place : — " Walmer is about a myle 

rom Dele shore, and looke as from the farther syde of the 

mouth of Dovre the shore is low to Walmer, so is the shore all 

KclifTy and hy from Walmere to the very point of Dover Castell, 

■and ther the shore falleth flat, and a little beyound theTowne of 

History of Walmer. 

Dovar the shore clyveth to Folkestane. From Walmer to S. 
Margaretes II (two) and 2 miles to Dovar." About Leland's 
distances something further will be said presently. 

The distance of this parish from London is seventy-two 

It appears to have been too much taken for granted that 
a gradual recession of the sea from this part, has been going on 
steadily and without interruption for many centuries ; an opinion 
founded apparently on the assertion of Leland, that Deal in his 
time (temp. Hen. VIII) was ** half a mile fro the shore of the 
se." But the length of the old Kentish miles is proverbial. 
** Essex stiles, Kentish miles, Norfolk wiles, many men 
beguiles," runs the old proverb, according to Dr. Pegge, who 
suggests in explanation that the miles in this county were once 
much longer than they are now ; adding in confirmation of his 
opinion : — ** Stow reckons it but 55 miles from London to 
Dover, and now it is not less than 75. Leland calls Wye but 
seven miles from Canterbury, and now they esteem it full ten. 
From Betshanger to Canterbury, about 100 years ago, 'twas 
eight, in the next generation it was ten, and now it is gotten to 
be eleven miles . . . Sed audiamus R. Talbot in Comment, 
ad Antonius Itin., impresso ad finem tom. iii. Lei. Itinerarii, 
p. 139 — 'nt ne inteiim addam illud quod milliaria in Cantio 
longissima sint, adeo ut in proverbium eorum longitudo abierit ; ' 
et p. 141 — 'milliaria Cantica sunt omnium longissima in hac 
insula.* " 

The marvel is that persons with local knowledge should 
have ever been misled by Leland's ** half-myle " ; when they 
have had the castles of Deal and San down before their eyes, to 
bear witness to the fact, that in Henry VIII's time (and Leland 
was his librarian), high-water line at Deal could scarcely have 
been further landward than it is at present. The king would 
certainly take care to place his castles at what appeared to be at 
the time a safe distance from the sea ; and we have therefore 
proof positive that not one yard of recession has taken place 
at the spots occupied by the two castles aforesaid, during the 
last three hundred and fifty years ; there have been fluctuations, 
it is true, the sea alternately advancing and retiring to some 
extent, as we shall presently learn more fully; but, on the 

History of Walmer. 

whole, notwithstanding some encroachment at Sandown, high- 
water line along the part of the shore in question is much the 
same now as it was when Leland wrote, (Upper) Deal " half a 
myle fro the shore."* 

With regard to ihe opinion, advanced by Hasted and 

others, that the low ground occupied by Lower Walmer and 

Lower Deal, and extending northward to Sandwich, was at the 

lime of Cassar's landing covered hy the sea, it may be remarked 

that there is nothing to prove it. No marine deposits are ever 

found in [he brickfields of this neighbourhood, such as have 

been discovered in the marshes round Richborough, namely, 

shells, skates' eggs, and ihe like ; nor are there any traces of 

shingle, or water-worn stones, further landward than S. 

Saviour's churchyard. The fact is, all the evidence favours a 

contrary opinion : such for instance as the discovery, mentioned 

by _Mr. Roach Smith, in his Antiquilks of Richborough, cti 

' Roman remains indicative of habilalions," in the sandhills 

siderably to the north of Sandown Castle " (see also Arch. 

tCant. xiv, p. 369) ; as well as the further discovery of two 

Koman vases, containing a large quanliiy of coins, in the same 

■locality (V. Pritchard's Dca/, p. 265). These coins appear from 

KKt. Roach Smith's description in the Archeeologia Caniiana, 

"vol. xiv, pp. 368-369, to have been "small brass Roman coins," 

whose dates, ranging from a.d. 251 to about a.d. 270, seemed to 

indicate their burial " at the close of the usurpation or reign of 

Tetricus (a.d. 207-272), when his army in Gaul was recruited 

I largely frooi Britain" ; and, it is needless to add, they could 

loniy have been concealed, with any prospect of recovery, upon 

On the other hand, if there are no evidences of any very 

Jconsiderable recession of the sea at this particular part of the 

■ coast, such as has been generally supposed (1 say nothing, of 

Bcourse, about the channel which once flowed some few miles 

TlFnrther north, between the Isle of Thanet and the mainland of 

Lent, and which gradually filled up from the time of the 

Noiman Conquest), there are very distinct evidences of its 

■♦it might be argued Ihat possibly these castles were built upon lonpies of 

* land extending seaward ; but Leland's description of the bank of shingle 

"retching along the shore at Deal, is a sufficient reply to any such 

History of Walmer. 

ravages. Goodwin Sands, which now form a shoal some ten 
miles in length, at about four miles* distance from the shore, 
probably existed as an island at the time of Caesar's invasion. 
The idea that these shoals are a mere accumulation of sand, 
caused by the meeting of the tidal streams from the Channel 
and the North Sea, is disproved by their structure, which has 
been ascertained by borings to consist of no more than *• fifteen 
feet of sand resting on blue clay.*'* Further evidence in favour 
of the insular theory has been well summed up by the Rev. 
Beale Post, in Archaologia, vol. 1, p. 130, in the following 
terms : — ** Early writers in describing our coast, mention two 
distinct islands near, or forming the mouth of the Portus 
Rutupinus^t one called Low Island, the other Tanatus. Low 
Island must have been the estate afterwards Earl Godwin's 
demesnes ; as Thanet is surrounded by cliffs of considerable 
altitude. Caesar himself describes his anchorage as thus 
embayed, and distinctly states that his galleys rowed into an 
estuary^ where they made good their landing. Now had the 
Goodwin Sands been under water, and the sea laving the shore, 
it must have been an open road." 

At what period this island became submerged it is not so 
easy to say, at least with any certainty ; though if we accept the 
tradition about Earl Godwin, adopted in the above quotation, 
the island must certainly have existed very nearly down to A.D. 
1053, the date of Godwin's death. Some have attributed the 
formation of Goodwin Sands, on the alleged authority of certain 
Belgic Chronicles^ to two great storms ; one of which, accom- 
panied by an earthquake, took place in a.d. 1014, and the other 
in A.D. 1099. Both these storms are described in the Saxon 
Chronicles^ and the latter may, in Sir C. Lyell's opinion, have 
perhaps carried away ** the last remains of an island consisting, 
like Sheppey, of clay." 

But it is clear that the ravages of the sea have not been 
confined to Godwin Island. Close along shore, and extending 
some considerable distance seaward, there are exposed at very 
low water during spring tides, a little to the north-east of 

* Lyell's Principles of Geology^ vol. ii, p. 39. 
t All the neighbouring waters were included by the Romans under the name 
Portus RtUupinus^ or Richborough Harbour ; as the whole of this coast 
was under the designation LUttis Rutupinusy or Rutupine shore. 

History of Walmer. 

Walmer Castle, what are locally known as ** rocks " ; which, in 
fact, are nothing more nor less than the footings of the chalky 
cliffs, that now terminate just southward of the castle, but 
probably once extended in a low point to the position indicated 
by these ** rocks." According to Sir John Banks, the Attorney 
General in 1640, there was once a cliff, eighteen yards in width, 
in front of Walmer Castle. He does not give dates, but it must 
certainly have been prior to 1616 : since in January of that year, 
mention is made of the injury done by the late storms to the 
sea-wall there ; and in the following May, when a survey was 
made by order of Lord Zouche (the Lord Warden), the " mote 
walle " of the castle was reported to ** be in great decaye and 
danger of the rage of the sea,*' and the construction was 
recommended of "a jetty or a head of tymber to staye the foote 
of the beach upp against the saide wall " {Domestic State Papers^ 
James I, Ixxxvii, 19). A similar recommendation, made at the 
same time, with regard to the sea-walls then existing for the 
protection of the other two castles, namely Deal and Sandown, 
shows that the sea was at that time encroaching all along the 
shore of Deal and Walmer. 

No evidence seems to be forthcoming as to when these 
inroads ceased ; but if we can accept the testimony of the old 
engravings by Buck, the sea washed the base of the cliffs 
between Walmer Castle and Kingsdown, well into the eight- 
eenth century; though the castles themselves were then (a.d. 
1735) at a safe distance above high- water. 

Soon after this, however, we find a very rapid deposit of 
shingle going on all along this part of the coast, from St. 
Margaret's Bay to a point considerably to the north of Sandown 
Castle ; interrupted after 1799, so far as Walmer is concerned, 
by a brief spell of rapid encroachment, lasting down to about 
the year 1831 ; after which the bank of shingle again increased 
with extreme rapidity; so that it soon became possible to 
construct a carriage road along the shore, not merely to Kings - 
down, which was done in the last century, but right along to St. 
Margaret's Bay. 

The ** many acres of boulders " which once existed 
between Sandown Castle and No. 1 Battery* were probably 

* Pritchard*s History of Dealy p. 326. 

History of Waltner. 

deposited chiefly when Walmer was losing ground ; and the 
rapid accumulation all along the shore at Kingsdown and 
Walmer, after 1831, was accompanied by los&es^ equally extensive, 
between the north end of Deal and No. 1 Battery.* At Walmer 
and Kingsdown, as far as the Rifle Range, the beach continues 
to increase ; but it is at the expense of the localities further 
north and south. No. 1 Battery has completely disappeared ; 
the ruins of Sandown Castle are rapidly following suit ; and the 
beach road to St. Margaret's Bay has also succumbed, in the 
greater part of its extent, to the invading ocean. 

It is interesting to observe, in connection with this subject, 
the variations in the area of this parish as recorded at different 
dates. The earliest record of this kind, that has come under my 
notice, is in Hasted's Hisiory of Kenty which was published in 
1799. The area of Walmer was then 800 acres. Thirty years 
later (a.d. 1831) it was returned, as 694 acres; which, shows 
a loss of 106 acres. In 1857, in the Returns under the 
County Constabulary Act, the area is put down as 937 acres, 
showing a gain, in 26 years, of no less than 243 acres. In 
Kelly's Directory for 1882, the acreage is given as 1019; 
showing a still further gain, though at a much slower rate than 
the last, viz., 82 acres in 25 years. What effect the wholesale 
removal of the "beach" from the foreshore, which has now 
been going on for some years under the sanction of the Local 
Board, will eventually have, the future will decide ; but as there 
can be no better protection against the sea than that afibrded 
by the shingle, the practice is certainly to be condemned. 

Taking the beach to the north-east of Deal Castle as the 
most convenient starting-point, let us now suppose ourselves at 
the extreme northern apex of the triangular area which, as 
already said, forms the parish of Walmer. Turning our backs 
to the south, we are facing the town of Deal ; having Castle 
road on our left ; and immediately in front of us, the Prince of 
Wales's Terrace and the Queen's Hotel, with the Victoria Parade 
between them and the sea : all which objects occupy the site of 
the Naval Yard that existed here at Deal from the time of 
Elizabeth down to the year 1864. Somewhere hereabouts, or 
perhaps a little further northward, was the scene of Perkin 

* Compare Pritchard's Dealy p. 327. 

History of Walnur. 

[Varbeck's landing in H95 when the trained bands of Sand- 
Vich proved at once their loyalty and prowess by putting him 

e rout : here also, at Deal, landed Cardinal Campeggio, the 

's legale, in 1518 : here, too, Ann of Cleves, and neart-r onr 
own times, another royal personage, Adelaide of Saxe Mein- 
ingen, William the Fourtli's Queen, first set foot on British soil. 
Hence it was that the Lord Digby escaped in 1641 : hence, in 
the same year, sailed the "Queen Mother": here Henrietta 
Maria, with the Princess Mary her daughter, took shipping for 
Holland in 1642 : and here embarked George II on his visit to 

Further slill to the northward, beyond the blocks of houses 
which hide the Royal Signal Tower, with its Time-Ball boon to 
sailors ; beyond, the sloping shingle, with its luggers, its galleys, 
its fishing craft, and its pleasure boats ; beyond the iron Pier, 
367 feet in length, that runs out to sea some four or five 
hundred yards in front of us, are the narrow waters of the 
Small Downs, and, stretching out eastwards, some six or seven 
miles away, the white cliffs of the Isle of Thanet, Now, facing 
about, and looking southward, we are gazing on a long stretch 
of coast, low and open to Walmer Castle, but then gradually 
rising to St. Margaret's, with the village of Kingsdown, peering 
and escaping from an intervening gap, about two and a half 
miles off. 

With these few preliminary remarks, let us start on our 
peregrination through the parish of Walmer. Passing along 
the newly-made esplanade in front of Deal Castle — of the latter, 
by the waj', a very small portion, consisting of part of the 
porter's lodge and the northern ramparts, is in the parish of 
_ Deal* — we turn to the right into the Dover Road, or Strand, 
» which we gain the Gladstone Road. Back in a 
arden on our left is BeachlanJs, formerly the property of 
ifcdmiral Henderson — the original house built in 1830 was 
as "the Cottage on the Beach," and was the residence 
if Capt. Andrew Atkins Vincent, R.N., Knight of Hanover, and 

o this read the following ; — ""Walmer parish extends towards Deal eis 
far as the toll-gatE by Deal CasOe ; indeed, the casUe itself though called 
Deal Castle, is nine teen- twentieths (by a, late legal decision) in Walmer 
Parish, Sic." Watering Places ef Great Britain, I. T. Htnton, London, 
1831, p. 192, note. 

8 History of Walmer. 

a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Adelaide — ^while 
facing the Strand, we see the Royal Marine Infirmary and 
Hospital Barracks. Continuing our way down the Gladstone 
Road, we pass a disused Rope-walk ; behind which, concealed 
by a lofty wall, is the former Burial Ground of the Royal Naval 
Hospital (now the R. M. Infirmary.) This road to the right 
is Blenheim Road ; and we are now on what is said to have 
been a Roman road connecting Richborough with Dover. 

We have arrived now at the Drill Ground, where we will 
stop awhile and watch the busy scene, this bright autumnal 
morning. You want to know about the grave enclosed within 
the iron railing over there ? It is merely the burial-place of a 
favourite horse of a former Commandant. But look at these 
twelve or fourteen squads of recruits, in various stages of 
efficiency, going through their morning's drill: these ^* with 
tntervals^^ are in the initial stages; some standing-at-ease, or 
•* going through the turnings " ; others learning the mysteries of 
the Physical Drill, such as ** Swinging the Arms^' ^^ Bending the 
Body*^ ** Stretching the Arms,'' " Lunging'* and so on ; and 
others, again, learning to march to the beat of the drum and the 
measure of the pace- stick ; stepping out or stepping short, 
marking time or changing step, or doing the high step at the 
double : those in single or double rank are more advanced and- 
are practising, it may be, the diagonal march, changing front, 
wheeling, or a number of other movements : while over there a 
squad of Blue Marines, alias Artillerymen, are preparing for 
cavalry. It is such a scene as can be witnessed in few places, 
but we must stay no longer ; in the afternoon, perhaps, we may 
return to a parade of the Bicycle Corps, whose wonderful 
gyrations attracted so much notice at the Naval Exhibition. 
This Corps, the first of its kind in England, was originated by 
Major Edye in 1889. 

Proceeding by the North Barrack Road, we pass another 
disused cemetery, the Military Burial Ground ; a very sombre- 
looking place, enclosed within brick walls, and darkened by the 
stunted trees with which it is thickly studded : just inside, is the 
grave of Algernon Stephens, ** late Lieutenant" of the 1st 
Royals, who carried the colours of that regiment at Waterloo, 
and died here in 1 865. Walking on, we pass on our right the 
North Barracks and the Foresters' Hall, and reapproach the 

History of Walmer. 

Strand ; where, perhaps, we encounter the Band of the Royal 
Marines, as they march with reliefs from the South Barracks to 
the Hospital. We have now the beach before us (there are 
only three luggers properly so-called belonging here now, their 
business is dying out, ruined by steam, chain cables — and free 
trade) ; and a walk about two hundred yards along the Strand, 
takes us past the Boatmen's Reading Rooms, founded in 1873 
by the late Mrs. Wollaston, to the Lifeboat House, erected 
about four-and-twenty years ago ; it occupies the spot where 
formerly the Little or White Bulwarke defended the shore, and 
is opposite St. Saviour's Chapel-of-Ease : between the two is a 
Drinking Fountain of grey granite — "The gift of Catherine 
Brooke, 1882." 

Passing the Walmer-Road Post Office, we notice on the 
beach a small brick building; close by it stand a little company 
of Coastguards, who appear to be in full force this morning : 
look ! they are swinging open those doors on which you see in 
large letters, ** Board of Trade Rocket Life-Saving Apparatus" ; 
they drag out the heavy-looking cart painted blue and red ; and 
are clearly preparing for one of their quarterly practices : but, 
ha ! what is going on now } the bluejacket on duty has sighted 
a man-of-war ; see him peering through his spy-glass, rested on 
a comrade's shoulder ! now they approach the flag-staff, where 
the white ensign floats at the peak, and soon, it may be, the 
signal halliards will be busy. 

Here from the top of the shingle, now the tide is low, is 
the best point from which to view the beach : how picturesque 
it is ! — and here is the traditional landing-place of the great 
Julius Caesar: how diff*erent now 1— Mark, low down upon the 
beach, those busy groups of men, around their fishing boats, 
fresh from their dark night's work upon the bleak November 
waves ; and see how the silvery sprats sparkle in the sun, as 
they toss them from the fatal meshes I look at that lugger now 
launching from the beach ; how she rushes down the steep 
incline, with the noise of a rocket, and away to sea I the crew 
haul up the sails in eager haste ; and soon they will be far away 
on their cruise of a month, or, it may be, six long anxious 
weeks in the heavy channel-seas. But look again landward ! 
there, hauled high and dry on the top of the shingle, close to 
those queer-looking capstans, are a number of boats, whose 

lO History of Walmer. 

dingy sails are spread to catch the drying breeze : and by and 
by, another feature will be added to the scene ; those bare poles 
that slant this way and that, and look so odd to a stranger^s 
eyes, will be bedecked with the sprat nets, already nearly emptied, 
which will float gracefully between them, or hang in loose folds 
about a single pole. But we must leave this interesting scene, 
for a considerable walk is still before us. 

Leaving the beach for the Dover Road, we get a peep, a 
little further on, through the newly-erected iron gates, closed 
at the stroke of ten o'clock at night, amid a flourish of bugles, 
or rather as their echo dies away, into the South Barracks 
Parade. There, perhaps, we see the first squad of recruits 
undergoing the Coloners inspection before their departure for 
headquarters ; or going through the Physical Drill, as we saw 
their younger comrades on the Drill Ground, and roaring out, 
in time with their movements, the words of some jovial song, 
such as ** Sailing" or " 77ie Old Brigade " : or a company at 
Skirmishing Drill, extending or closing, advancing or retiring, 
inclining or changing front, to the call of the bugle ; when 
suddenly the Alert is sounded, and the men halt, till the word 
is given ** form rallying squares 1 " and the bugle blurts 
** prepare for cavalry " : or perhaps we may witness a charge in 
line, delivered with terrific shouts, like the memorable charge 
that won Tel-el-Kebir. And having satisfied ourselves that the 
Royal Marines are capable of thrashing any foe who shall dare 
to arouse the British Lion, we pass through Cambridge Road, 
immediately opposite, to find ourselves once more upon the 
Beach Esplanade. 

We have now, extending north and south on either side of 
us, some of the finest houses in Walmer, though, alas ! at this 
time of the year many of them are empty. The second house 
northward, Seafield, is the residence of a distinguished naval 
ofiicer, Admiral Douglas ; and the second house past that 
belongs to an equally distinguished military ofiicer. General 
Hughes, C. B. 

Turning southward we come to Walmer Lodge, the 
residence of Mr. Tod, to whose enterprise is due the existence 
of many of the best houses in Lower Walmer. His large 
mansion occupies the site of a small Inn, where an old 
inhabitant remembers soldiers of the ** King's German Legion " 

History of Walmer. 

mo I 


to have been billeted. It has undergone many changes since 
that time, and was once the property of the Countess Stan- 
hope* who lived here at the time when the Duke of Wellington 
was Lord Warden : she wis a great friend of the Duke, and her 
son mentions, in his " Convtrsationi" a present made to her by 
■his Grace, in the autumn of 1836, of the tt-lescope he used at 
Waterloo. It was here that the Great or Blacke Bulwarke used 
once to be ; but there are no traces of it now. In the State 
Papers of the time of Charles I., a trench is mentioned as 
existing from this point to Walmer Castle : its exact where- 
abouts is very difficult to determine at the present time, but 
possibly the high bank of shingle between the low ground 
known as the Lees and the shore, may have caused the term 
trench to be applied to what is now the Wellington Road, which 
would certainly have afforded a sheltered communication, 750 
yards in length, between castle and bulwark, even with a hostile 
fleet right close inshore. The tail belt of trees fringing the 
Liverpool Road at the back of the Lodge (would that we had 
more of them!) were planted by Admiral Sir John Hill, who 
formerly owned this property, and resided here for many years. 

Turning now past Beach House to the back of Walmer 
liOdge, we gain the old coach-road ; not the road known as 
the Dover Road, which is comparatively new, but that which 
through Upper Walmer by way of Liverpool Road and 
Castle Street : and here, just beyond the pretty building ycleped 
Lees Cottage, we cross the conventional boundary between 
Upper and Lower Walmer. A walk of about 250 yards brings 
ns to the new road leading to the beach ; the road in question 
was made some eight or nine years ago, in lieu of a footpath, 
which till then ran diagonally from this point to the opposite 
fuigle of the meadow : and its continuation on our right, past 

old Cricket Ground to the Dover Road, was carried out 
jthortly afterwards. 

In the low ground just traversed cannon balls have 
^occasionally been found at no great depth {one weighing six 
hunds is at this moment in my possession) ; and a perusal of 
Clarke Russell's " Bdwixt the Forelands," chapter xi, shows that 
these may very probably have found their way there, during the 
great sea fight between Van Tromp and the Spaniards, in 

The motlier of tlie fiftfi Earl Stanhope, ami grandmother of the present Earl. 

12 History of Walmer. 

1639, : the latter, we are told, crept close inshore, under the 
protection, as they hoped, of the castles ; but during the engage- 
ment, in which the castles appear to have taken no part, twenty- 
three of their vessels were driven ashore by the Dutch, whose 
cannon-balls ** flew in hail-storms towards and over the land." 

Passing the belt of trees which extend from this point 
nearly to the beach, we have between us and the sea, the Castle 
meadows, purchased by the Earl of Liverpool when Lord 
Warden : they were much improved by the late Earl Granville, 
who planted those clumps of evergreen -oaks and shrubs on 
either side of the otherwise bare- looking drive. 

Just before we turn up Castle Street we pass on our left 
Liverpool House, the residence of Mrs. Leith, widow of the 
late Lord of the Manor, Frederick Leith, Esq., and we come 
now to as pretty a piece of scenery of its kind as any to be 
found within a good many miles. Here on our right, rising in 
verdant terraces, is the park-like meadow which faces Liverpool 
House : a little further on, winding upwards beneath the over- 
hanging trees, is Castle Street, whose houses, hidden by the 
foliage in summer, are now indistinctly seen through the bare 
branches ; before us are the grassy slopes of Constitution Hill, 
crowned by the New Parish Church, to the southward of which 
runs the new road (it has supplanted a footpath over the hill 
into Love Lane), that curves from where we stand to emerge in 
Gram's Lane, close to St. Clare ; the latter we can distinctly 
see, or at least its pedimented front, about a quarter of a mile 
away as the crow flies, standing out from the fine trees which 
almost enclose it. Another road, to the left of the last, but 
visible here only for a few yards of its course, winds past the 
base of Glen Hill to Kingsdown by way of Knight's Bottom : 
and yet another, though this (except that it aff'ords a right of 
way to Hawke's Hill beyond) is little more than a carriage drive 
to a few private residences, ascends Glen Hill itself; whence 
some most charming views may be obtained both seaward and 
landward. The Glen from which the hill derives its name is a 
perfect marvel of beauty, thanks in the first place to Lady 
Hester Stanhope, who, as narrated in the history of the Castle, 
found here nothing but a chalk pit, and " a frightful barren bit 
of ground." From a seat above the Glen (you should visit the 
spot some fine May evening and hear the nightingales), looking 

History of Walmer. 



over the tree-tops below and the house which belonged to the 
late Admiral Cannon, you get a most lovely view, extending 
across Lower Walmer and Deal right away to Ramsgate, the 
trees that rise from the hill on either side fringing the whole 
with a perfect framework of foliage. 

Continuing our way up Castle Street, as we ascend the hill 
we pass on our right the grounds attached to The Lawn, 
formerly the abode of Admiral Monlresor, and now of Mrs. 
Alfred Green, who for many years was voluntary organist at the 
parish church. The late Mr. Green was well known in the 
Levant and Egypt, especially in consular and diplomatic circles. 
He was brother to Sir John Green. Consul General and Queen's 
Agent in Roumania ; and also uncle to the late Sir William 
Kirby Green, H.M. Minister Plenipotentiary in Morocco, who 
died suddenly when on a mission to the Sultan, about two years 
ago. On the opposite side is the Chalet ; and, just beyond, 
St. Mildred's, whose happy owner is much to be envied for the 
magnificent view which the tower of his house commands. In 
those grounds a quantity of Roman remains have been 
unearthed ; the soil is full of them— pottery, cinerary urns, 
bones of animals, and the like : pointing to the conclusion that 
there must have been a considerable settlement not far off, 
during some period of the Roman occupation. Immediately 
beyond St. Mildred's, on the same side of the way, there is 
another new road leading to the church ; and, fifly yards further 
on — it is the second house on that side — is Wellesley House, 
or, as it is often called, " the Duke's House " ; which owes its 
title to the fact that the great Duke of Wellington, at that time 
Sir Arthur Wellesley and a General of Division, resided in it 
shortly before his departure for the Peninsula. The house 
immediately before it, which has recently undergone a complete 
metamorphosis, was once the residence of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Harvey. The " Duke's House " is also now undergoing exten- 
sive alterations. Leelands, the property of Capt. Bushe, R.N., 

which takes 
Richard Lee, 
up the street. 

I modern fashion, iherefoi 

its name from its former owner, Admiral Sir 
is on the opposite side, about thirty or forty yards 

now once more to the Dover Road, from which 
I Lower Walmer: it is straight, according to the 
: convenient, but decidedly open and 

14 History of Walnur. 

breezy (try it in a gale in March with snow and hail from the 
north-east !) and commands a fine panoramic view of Lower 
Walmer, Deal, the Downs, and the country between this and 
Thanet ; — the high chalk-ridge of the ** Island " stands out 
sharp and clear against the northern sky. 

The rising ground on which we stand is known as Drum 
Hill, but whether it derives its name from the Drum Inn close 
by, or vice versa^ it is hard to say. Holly Cottage, which you see 
a little way down the hill, was once the residence of Admiral 
William Boys, well-remembered by his sobriquet of** Buffalo" Boys, 
conferred upon him by his friends when he received his appoint- 
ment, in 1833, as Senior Mate of H.M. storeship ^^ Buffalo, ^^ 
The next house, " Cotmanton," was that of Admiral Sir Edward 
Harvey, and is now the residence of Admiral Harvey Royse; the 
vicarage is a hundred yards further ; just past the latter is 
Sunnyside, associated with very pleasant recollections of its late 
owner. Admiral Henry Harvey ; and the large red house 
immediately beyond that, is The Downs Ladies' School. 

Turning round we resume our peregrination, which now 
takes us up Walmer Street past Hill House (Dr. Davey*s) and 
several other good houses ; one of the principal of which is 
The Shrubbery — the red brick Elizabethan-looking mansion 
just past Glebe House on the left — which, though a new building, 
has many interesting associations. The old mansion, of which 
the present house has taken the place, belonged once to 
Princess Amelia, daughter of King George III, and Her Rojral 
Highness is said to have resided here for many years ; later on, 
about 1780, it passed into the hands of the Marquis of Lothian, 
at that time Captain of Sandown Castle ; and it was pulled down 
by a subsequent owner, General Smith, at whose death the 
property passed into the hands of Admiral Sir Thomas Baker. 
But besides royal, military, and naval associations, the place has 
a literary fame, Mr. G. P. R. James, the novelist, having also 
been its owner ; and some of his later works were written 
during his residence here. The late owner, Mr. Arthur Smith, 
was one of the original promoters of the New Parish Church ; 
and its eventual completion, which however he did not live to 
see, was largely due to his earlier efforts. We now come to the 
National Infant Schools, leaving behind us, on the opposite 
side to the Shrubbery, Gothic House, now a Ladies' School, but 

History of Walmer. 


lately the residence of Capt. Leicester Keppel. R.N. The next 
house on the same side, known as St. Clare Cottage, is said to 
have been the residence of a former Lord Chancellor; and for 
some considerable time it served as the Vicarage, as did also 
lentioned. Higher up the street are the 
uses, pretty little red brick dwellings, with 
right— the Post-Office is just 
litlle Decorated 

Glebe House above ; 
Harriet Cooke Almshi 
stone dressings, her 
beyond — and the Con 
Chapel erected in 188 
We proceed dowi 
Old Church, noticing, 

;nt buildings, with thei 

, across the road. 

Church Street to Walmer Court and the 

en route, Falkland House, with its queer 
little &7!t/-windows and slated gables, where former! v lived 
Admiral Walpole Browne. Opposite the churchyard gales, the 
road winds in semi-circular fashion to the Railway Station, 
named after this parish, but really, like the cottages beyond, in 
Great Mongeham. The narrow road at the back of Walmer 
Court forms the boundary, and is itself the continuation of the 
Roman road we noticed in Lower Walmer, in which direction it 
may still be traced as a cart-road beyond the cutting and 
embankment. The meadow just passed is traversed by two 
footpaths, and commands another grand view northward and 
eastward, more extensive than any that our walk has hitherto 

Proceeding for about a hu 
road just mentioned, we will no' 
the nearer cut back to Walmer 
: the ivy-clad ruins 
church : they form all that is 
castle, built here by a membe 

idred yards down the ancient 
'. with Mr. Page's leave, take 
Court through the farm-yard, 
just to the north-east of the 
eft of a Norman mansion or 
■ of the illustrious family of 

I Auherville, who held this manor by knight-service of the Lord 

of Folkestone. The principal ruin here in front of us seems to 

i have been the Keep ; there, built into the eastward wail, is 

I apparently the slab of an old altar-tomb ; it has traces of an 

I artistic cross upon its upper part, but no sign of an inscription : 

I and over there, a little further eastward, is a depression, which 

represents the moal, that once no doubt enclosed within its circuit 

both castle and church.* The history of church and manor are 

alike full of interest, but these topics will engage us later on. 


n hi5 D. 

1 6 History of Walmer. 

Our route now lies, for sixty yards, down Church Street, till 
we turn into the footpath to the southward of the churchyard, 
and cross Pond Pasture (so called from Wigmore Pond, now 
dry), to Station Road. There are signs of entrenchments in 
this meadow, as you see ; but what warriors made them, or 
when, who shall say ? Christopher Packe, the author of the 
Ancographia, who, with other authors, believed that the seat at 
the time of the Roman Invasion, covered all the low ground 
between Upper Walmer and Thanet, imagines Caesar*8 first 
battle on the shore to have been fought near this spot : indeed, 
he appears to have associated the moat already mentioned, and 
which Hasted describes as *' a deep single fosse," with that 
event too ; though the moat is undoubtedly of Norman origin, 
and the earthworks in this meadow probably of much more 
recent date. It is worth mentioning that Hasted considered 
Caesar's Landing to have been effected somewhere between the 
spots now occupied by Upper Deal Mill and Walmer Castle. 

You will hardly find a better spot than this, unless it be 
from Station Road, from which to view the Old Church, which, 
standing over there, some eighty yards to the northwest, under 
the shadow of its venerable yews, served as the parish church 
for close upon eight centuries. There it rose almost before 
Walmer was a parish : and now it is closed,* with its monuments 
and memories, and seems almost ashamed to shew itself, as it 
nestles beneath the trees of Walmer Court. But its associations 
will never die, linked as they are with the great men of the 
past ; — the Aubervilles and Criols of the Norman and Plantage- 
net periods ; — the Fogges of the declining Middle Ages ; — the 
Lisles and Boys's of Stewart times ; and more recently still, 
with Pitt and ' Wellington and Palmerston, and many another 
noble name. 

Turning away, we pass along by Station Road to gain once 
more the main street, where, if you wish for one of the most 

failed to see when a few years since he examined this spot (Arch, Cant, 
xiii, p. 13). The reason this fosse escaped Mr. Petrie's observationjis 
because a good part of it was filled in when the churchyard was enlarged ; 
but if he had secured the services of a competent local guide, he could 
not have missed, as he seems to have done, the remains of the same moat 
in the grounds of Walmer Court just over the churchyard wall. 
♦ A Sunday evening service has recently been started in this church for the 
benefit of the Great Mongeham colony near the railway station. 

History of Walmer. 17 

extensive views in Kent, we will turn to the right, and go to the 
top of the hill, beyond Messrs. Thompson and Son's Brewery ; 
but we must not forget to notice, on Messrs. W. and T. Denne's 
premises, here to the right of us, the old barn, where, many 
years ago, soldiers of the King's German Legion* were 
quartered. Exactly five hundred yards from Station Road we 
cross the boundary, and proceed about three hundred yards 
beyond. We are in Ripple parish now, and have a grand 
prospect.f Down the road before us, beyond Ripple Mill, a 
landmark well known to sailors, lies the village of Ringwould ; 
— we see the Rectory and Ringwould House peeping through 
the trees, which, now the leaves are off, only partially conceal 
the church : a little to the left, beyond the valley that stretches 
away westward over there to Oxney Woods, rises the lofty ridge 
of Freedown, terminating eastward in the copse called Kings- 
down Wood, and remarkable for its Celtic tumuli, its orchids, 
and its heather : to the southward, some four or five miles off, 
where you see the summits of four lighthouses, standing out 
against the clear blue sky like sentinels, is the South Foreland, 
close upon 400 feet above the sea : (you should have been here 
on a pitch-dark night, a few years since, when experiments were 
being tried at those lighthouses with various kinds of burners, 
— electric, oil, and gas — each versus each ; and watched the 
brilliant flashes of the first, which lighted up the sky and 
country-side in its revolutions, so that, even at this distance, you 
could tell the time by your watch) ; a little nearer, and just to 
the right of the lighthouses, is the massive Norman church of 
St. Margaret's, anciently an appendage to the priory of St. 
Martin : to the left, looking over Clayton Hill and the hill 
beyond (Knight's Hill), we see, nestling in the valley to the 
southward of Clim Down, and to the left of the spot called the 
Butts, where Kentish archers kept their hand in with the 
longbow, the little fishing village of Kingsdown, an offshoot 

♦ The 3rd Royal Hussars. 

t On a very clear day, no fewer than twenty-one churches can be seen from 
this spot, namely, Broadstairs, St. George's at Ramsgate, St. Laurence, 
Minster, St. Clement's and St. Peter's at Sandwich, Worth, Monkton, 
St. Nicholas, Woodnesborough, Ash, Great Mongeham, Northboume, 
Ripple, the three churches in Deal, Sutton, Ringwould, St. Margaret's, 
and Kingsdown; and very nearly the same nimiber of windmills may 
also be counted. 


1 8 History of Walmet'. 

from Ringwould, with its memories of the old judge, Sir John 
Mellor, of Tichborne-trial renown ; — he lived at Kingsdown 
House, and lies buried in the little churchyard on the cliff 
there : beyond, stretch the silvery waters of the Downs and 
the Dover Strait (you can see the South Sand Head Light- 
ship, and the breakers on the Goodwin Sands), bounded, 
some three or four and twenty miles away, by the white cliffs 
of the French coast : and about north-east of us are the 
plantations of Walmer Castle. Now turning our faces rather 
more to the northward, we see Walmer and Deal stretched at 
our feet ; and, a few miles further off, due north of us, the 
Sandhills, famous for their Golf-ground, one of the finest 
in England ; Pegwell Bay, of crustacean celebrity ; and the 
Isle of Thanet, terminating eastward in the bluff point of the 
North Foreland : (you can distinctly see the houses of Rams- 
gate; and the position of the harbour is clearly shown by 
the stone pier, which lies on the water like a faint white line) ; 
a little more landward, rising, some six miles off, from the 
marshes, where by the way is the detached portion of the 
parish of Walmer already mentioned, and just beyond the 
little village of Worth, is the ancient Cinque-Port town of 
Sandwich ; — you can see the square tower of St. Clement's, 
and St. Peter's with its bulb-like cupola, while Richborough 
and Ebbsfleet appear beyond : nor-nor-west of us, the high 
ground of Ash and Woodnesborough, with its Pagan associa- 
tions,* bounds our view ; further west still, we see the Ivy- 
mantled tower of Great Mongeham church ; and, beyond that, 
the plantations and church at Northbourne: here, about a 
mile away, the little spire of Ripple church appears above 
the trees, nearly in a line with the woods beyond at Bettes- 
hanger and Tilmanstone : and right away over there to the 
westward, beyond Sutton, and Waldershare Park, with its far- 
famed tower, are Coldred and Shepherd's Well : the latter 
marked by the windmill which appears on the horizon. There 
is but one thing more to notice before we resume our walk, 
namely, the Dane Pits, or rather their remains ; which can 
only be distinguished by the lighter colour of the soil, in the 

* Woodnesborough — probably so named by our Saxon forefathers, after 
Woden, the god of Battle; the adjoining xdllage of Eastiy takes its 
name from Eostre, a Saxon goddess, whose chief festival was in April. 

History of Walmer. 19 

£eld down the turning to the right; — the road bisects them 
obliquely, a little more than two hundred yards from its 
junction with the main road : Hasted describes the spot as 
•* an oblong square entrenchment, comprehending about half 
an acre, with various little eminences in it " ; but it has been 
ploughed up these fifty years, and, whatever purpose it served 
originally, it contributes now to the annual yield of farm 
produce, and will soon have disappeared altogether. 

Now, if you please, we will retrace our steps through 
Walmer Street, and take the first turn to the right (Gram's 
Lane), where we see again the Roman Catholic Chapel 
already noticed ; and, passing on, have the Convent grounds* 
on our left, and on the opposite side those of St. Clare: both 
are enclosed by high walls. St. Clare is a fine mansion as 
you see : it has extensive grounds, well wooded ; and com- 
mands pretty views. It was originally built, about eighty 
years ago, by Mr. Andrew Gram, a native of Drontheim in 
Norway, and a very successful merchant ; lately, it was the 
residence of Lord Conyers, the twelfth baron of that name, 
who died here in 1888 : and it is now a school for boys. 

Descending the hill, the part of the valley where we now 
stand receives the name of Ray's Bottom, but half a mile to 
the south-west it is known by the more suggestive title of 
Knight's Bottom — recalling past scenes of jousts or tourna- 
ments, which, in the days of the Aubervilles and Criols, were 
perhaps not unfrequent here. The hill before us (Hawkes 
Hill), which we now proceed to climb, bears evident traces 
-of earthworks,! but again we have no clue to their date ; and 
from its summit we obtain a very pretty view of the winding 
valley just left behind. 

Passing on, by the footpath which skirts the Castle 
plantations from the Glen to the beach (there is another 
footpath southward over Hawkes Down to Kingsdown), we 

* Within these grounds is the house known formerly as " Roselands,** the 
quondam abode of Admiral Sir Henry Harvey ; indeed he built the place, 
and his son, Sir Thomas Harvey, lived there after him. 

t Mr. Flinders Petrie remarks concerning these works as follows : " The 
faint banks at Hawkshill, close joining the south side of the Castle 
grounds at Walmer, seem decidedly not for defensive works, but rather 
like the ancient field-boundaries, so common on the Wiltshire Downs, 
and only known in Kent at Hayes.*' (Arch, Cant, xiii, p. 13.) 

20 History of Walnur. 

have once more the sea in view as we leave Hawkes Hill. 
As to the origin of this name. I have no hesitation in 
connecting it with a certain Mr. Hawkes who was captain 
of the Castle in 1576. There is a document among the State 
Papers of that year, dated April 29th, in which mention is 
made of a •* controversy " between him and Mr. Henry Isham, 
the Lord of the manor; and the chief causes of contention 
arose out of the ** use of the Grounde and Certen Landes ad- 
joining to the said Castell." How the matter terminated does 
not appear, but it was very likely this dispute which gave the 
hill its present name. The trees on our left, as we descend to- 
the beach, are those planted by the soldiers whom Lady Hester 
Stanhope brought over from Dover, in 1805, during Pitt's 
absence in town. 

We stand now once again upon the ** low open shore " 
which gladdened Cesar's legions in the year 55 b.c. ; — ^yes, low 
and open still, in spite of that pretty passage in Black's Guide to^ 
jr^«/, which tells us of the "glittering perpendicular wall of 
cliff" between this spot and Deal. But others have erred 
besides Black's Guide; for Leigh's Road Book, published in 1831 
speaks of Martello Towers at Deal, though certainly there were 
never any on this side of Dover. 

There was once a •* jetty or head of tymber," a sort of 
groyn in fact, extending into the sea here, in front of the moat 
wall of the Castle, " in length 8 rodde," which was intended ta 
"staye the foote of the beach upp against the saide walle." 
That was more than two centuries ago, though a passage in 
Professor Burrows's '* Cinque Ports'' (p. 19), reads as though 
** barriers running out into the sea," both at Walmer and Deal^ 
were still necessary (they are at the north end of the latter, 
where the sea-wall was recently made), " in order to prevent 
absolute denudation " : the wide extent of shingle, heaped up 
all along the shore at Walmer, and stretching beyond the rifle- 
butts at Kingsdown, points to a very different conclusion, at 
least as far as this parish is concerned. 

About midway between us and the Bungalows, which have 
sprung up in the direction of Kingsdown, you see a pole with 
footholds, rising frum the shingle ; — it is used by the Coast- 
guards for their practices with the Rocket Apparatus, and an 
interesting sight it is to watch them. The apparatus is planted 

History of Waltner. 21 

near the foot of the cliff; presently you see the rocket whizzing 
seawards with a roar, and carrying a line with it to an imaginary 
wreck, of which that pole is supposed to be the mast : the line 
is made fast at some height from the ground ; and two or three 
sturdy coa$tguardsmen rehearse the process of being saved. 
This is effected by means of the sling life-buoy, which is rapidly 
hauled out to the mast, and back again to the foot of the cliff; 
■each return journey being made with a man in it. 

Now let us turn our attention to the Castle, whose history 
will, by and by, occupy some chapters of its own ; — how pict- 
uresque it looks, with its ivy-covered walls nestling there among 
the trees, and the guns upon the ramparts pointing seaward. 
There is a tale about those guns — there are eight old-fashioned 
smooth-bore 32 pounders on the Upper, and six of a similar 
description, 6 pounders, on the Lower Ramparts — that they are 
some of those taken by Earl Howe from the French, in his 
great victory of the "glorious first of June" (1794); but, un- 
fortunately for the truth of this story, all the guns on Upper and 
Lower Ramparts alike, are marked with the royal initials G. R. 
-3. (Georgius iii. Rex.) When the lower ramparts were added is 
not quite clear ; but probably Pitt constructed them when he put 
the castle into a state of defence, at the commencement of the 
French Revolutionary War. 

This green in front of the Castle (a sloop or brig -of- war 
used, according to Ireland's AV«/, to be stationed off here in 
wartime) is, like the Castle itself, the property of the Lord 
Warden, for the time being, of the Cinque Ports ; though there 
still appears to be some doubt as to the actual boundary on 
either side : the stones not far away from us, were put down a 
few years ago by the War Office, during the tenure of Earl 
Granville, but without his knowledge or concurrence: if correctly 
placed, they limit the Lord Warden's ownership over the beach 
to the portion, a little more than ninety yards wide, immediately 
in front of the Castle itself; though the part claimed is much 
wider. The clumps of trees and shrubs on the beach north and 
-south were planted by Earl Granville. 

The Castle was Pitt's residence during the French Revolu- 
tionary War ; and he worked himself nearly to death, organizing 
and drilling his famous Cinque-Ports Volunteers, when an 
invasion from Bonaparte's forces, then concentrated at Boulogne 

22 History of Walmer. 

seemed imminent : here too, in a narrow little room which now 
forms a sort of alcove to the Drawing Room, Nelson is said 
many a time to have conferred with Pitt, while his flagship lay 
in the Downs : and here also the Iron Duke passed in happy 
retirement the last days of an eventful life; — and here he 
breathed his last on September I4th, 1852. Some of thearticles^ 
of furniture used by the Great Duke are still shewn at the Castle, 
in the room that was his bedroom. Lord Granville endeavoured 
to preserve ever)'thing of historical value about the place ; and 
some plates, with an inscription, on the chairs in the Drawing 
Room, that once were Pitt's, are due to his conservatism. There 
is a handsome old bell here which is worthy of inspection , — it 
used to be in the tower, but now you get at it from the upper 
ramparts to the northward : it has the initials C. R. (for Carolus 
Rex) upon it, and Stahlschmidt says (Bells of Kent, p. 432), 
though I think erroneously, the date 1662. It is twenty-two 
inches in diameter, and has around its upper part an ornamental 
double band of foliage. Originally an Alarm Bell, it serves at 
present the more peaceable purpose of a dinner-bell. 

We have now only to proceed to Walmer Lodge, and we 
shall have completed our circuit of the parish. We have a 
choice of ways, however ; either the Wellington Road, or the 
path on the shingle : the latter, which we choose, was originally^ 
known as the Liverpool Walk, from its having been constructed 
at the expense of Lord Liverpool ; later on, it was called the 
Wellington Beach, but the Local Board have recently (1887)' 
made it an asphalted path, and renamed it the Marina — surely 
in ignorance of its older names ! Here, in the morning, you 
will probably find Marines at drill — distance judging, and the 
like : at the present moment some boatmen are spreading out 
their newly-oiled nets to dry. That line of verdure on the 
shingle, a dozen yards or so on our seaward side, has a history 
of its own, for it marks the line of a path made by the Coast 
Blockademen, sixty or more years ago, when the Government 
made a vigorous effort to repress the smuggling, or, as it was^ 
once called in these parts, by an appropriate euphemism, the 
Owling Trade : every inch of coast along here was closely 
patrolled both night and day, to the great loss, Pritchard says, 
** of the inhabitants generally of the town (Deal)," and no- 
doubt of the poorer classes of Walmer too. The truth is, the 

History of Walmer. 23 

Smugglers had long had by far too much their own way, and 
every one was afraid of them. An old lady, well known in 
Walmer, and still living here, remembers being at an evening 
party at Beach House — the next house past Walmer Lodge — 
about the time in question, when a gang of these gentry 
suddenly appeared on the scene, and having taken possession of 
the house, ordered all lights to be immediately extinguished ; — 
an order which the host did not dare to disobey. 

Among the sights of Walmer, not the least interesting, 
particularly during long-continued south-westerly winds, is that 
wonderful anchorage the Downs, eight miles in extent from 
north to south, and nearly six miles wide : in the good old days, 
before the introduction of steam, it was by no means uncommon 
to see four or five hundred vessels of all sorts, outward bound, 
detained here windbound, at a time ; and even now, when such 
a large proportion of all the vessels that pass through are 
propelled by steam, two hundred may often been seen at anchor 
in the winter months. Then is the time to see the Downs at 
night, the countless lights at sea giving the appearance of a 
vast town out there, a mile or two away. But. even when 
destitute of ships, the Downs at night are by no means devoid 
of interest, mapped out as they are by flashes of light from all 
the most important headlands, and from the light-ships that 
guard the shoals and channels of this dangerously narrow sea. 
On the land are the lights of the North and South Forelands : 
thirty miles away to the southward across the Straits, and 
looking sometimes not a tenth of the distance, the white and 
red flashes from Cape Grisnez — Grinny the sailors call it — 
sparkle on clear nights with marvellous brilliancy : Calais, 
though low down, is nearer, and its four-fold flash lights up the 
sky in the offing. Then there are the light-ships ; three 
guarding the Goodwin Sands, namely, the North Sand Head, 
the South Sand Head, and the East Goodwin — the green light 
of the last is just about nine miles away — and another, the Gull, 
marking the fairway through the Gull Stream. An eighth light 
is said to be occasionally visible, namely that on the French 
coast at Dunkirk ; but, as it cannot be less than five and forty 
miles away, you can believe it or not as you please. Whilst 
booming across the sea, from the North-East Goodwin, come 
the weird groans of the mis-named " whistling " buoy. 

November, 1893. 


Etymology — Romano- British remains — The Borsholder of Walmer — Watch 
OD aea-coasC. Umf. Edw. Ill and Hen. IV— ConneclioQ with the Cmqoe 
Ports — Petition to Lord Warden — Walmer in i6a6 — Men pressed at 
Walmer in l6i8— Blake and Van Tromp— The Plague in these parts- 
New Charter granted lo Sandwich. 

IN old records the name of this parish is variously spelt: — 
Walmer, Walemer, Waleme, Wamouth, Warmore, Wau- 
moye, Waymor, Weymer and Whalmer. The parish is not 
named in Domesday Book, being of later growth ; but all the 
most ancient documents in which the name occurs agree in 
spelling it pretty much as it is now written. In an Inquisition, 
taken 55lh Hen. Ill (a.d. 1271), we read of a knight's fee in 
Walmtre, where Walmere is clearly the ablative of the Latinized 
Walmer. Again, in the T<^!la de Nevill (lernp. Hen. HI and 
Edw. 1) we have •' unu feod " in Walemer, where the final letter 
of the ablative has somehow crept into the middle of the word. 
And. in the Book of Aid, 20 Hen. III. which is five and twenty 
years older than the Inquisition above-mentioned, we have the 
abbreviated form in Watme, i.e. in Walmere. The earliest 
instance of any marked deviation from the form Walmer is in 
1590, when Weymer occurs in the Domeslic Slate Papers. Whal- 
mer does not occur till 1620, and then only once ; this is also in 
the Dom. Si. Papers : and so likewise is Wamouth, which we find 
in 1634-5. Warmore, Waymor. and Waumoye, the first two 
from the Civil War Tracts of 1648, and the last from an old map, 
apparently of the early part of the 18th century, may no doubt 
be referred lo " quaint orthography." 

Enough has been said to establish Walmer as the most 
ancient and therefore the most correct form of the name, and 
the derivation now becomes easy. There can be no doubt 

History of Wabner. 25 

whatever that the true etymology is that suggested by Edmund's 
Names of Flaces, p. 306 ; where it is laid down as a general rule, 
that words commencing with Wal, Wall, or Walls, from gwal^ a 
wall, usually indicate a site on or near a Roman fortification. 
Thus, to quote some of Mr. Edmund's examples, we have 
" Walls-end, the end of the wall of Severus," in Northumber- 
land ; ** Walworth (Surrey), the well-watered spot, fortified by 
the Romans, who built a causeway through the marsh at this 
spot" ; and so the name of this place Wal-mer, "the Roman 
fortification by the sea." The accuracy of this derivation is 
confirmed by the recent discovery of Roman remains, which we 
will now proceed to describe. 

In the autumn of 1886, the operations of the labourers 
engaged in excavating for the foundations of the New Parish 
Church, revealed the existence of an ancient trench, which 
extended obliquely across the hill from east to west. Not the 
slightest indication of this trench could be detected on the 
surface of the ground ; and ils presence would still have 
remained undiscovered, but for the circumstance that, in two 
places diagonally opposite each other and some fifty feet apart, 
the workmen failed to reach the chalk as soon as was expected. 
At no point, except these two places, was the chalk more than 
a foot below the surface ; but at these spots it was found to be 
fully six feet down. The soil in this trench contained mamma- 
lian bones in considerable quantities, which had the appearance 
of having been buried for many centuries. Near the bottom, 
two human skeletons were decapitated by the workman's spade ; 
and of these the skulls, which alone were disturbed, also 
looked extremely ancient. It is worthy of notice that the 
skeletons had the feet towards the east ; and a single specimen 
of Upchurch pottery, which was exhumed with very little 
damage, was marked with a cross (x) on the under side of the 
foot ; in this respect resembling some specimens of Samian 
ware in the Canterbury Museum, described by Mr. John Brent, 
F.S.A.* According to this authority, marks of this description 
are unusual on Roman pottery in England, and may be 
indicative of the grave of a Christian proselyte. It should 
be remarked that the human skeletons, as well as the Roman 
vessel, were found in the southward line of foundations ; and 

* V. Antiquities in the Museum at Canterburyy p. 24. 

26 History of Walmer. 

that the ancient filled-in trench was again penetrated, with the 
result of a further extensive discovery of mammalian bones, in 
digging the foundation of one of the columns in the northern 

Through the kindness of the Rev. F. Shaw, Vicar of 
Eastry, who put me in communication with Mr. Dowker, of 
Stourmouth, I was enabled to secure the testimony of that 
accomplished antiquary to the genuineness of this '* find ;" 
and from Mr. Dowker*s subsequent communication to the Kent 
Archaeological Society on the subject, I select the following : — 
" It appears that, crossing the Church foundations in a 
diagonal direction, nearly north and south, a trench, some fifty 
feet or more long, was met with, which had been filled in level 
with the surface ; and in the bottom of the trench were found 
two human skulls, and some mammalian bones of very ancient 
appearance, together with the Roman vessel of Upchurch ware, 
which was entire. The trench appears to have been cut, at 
some remote period, for the purpose of forming a camp on the 
high ground, north of the mound on which Walmer Castle 
stands. It was noticed that no mediaeval remains were met with 
in this trench.*'* 

With Mr. Dowker*s remarks I agree in every particular, 
except the directions, concerning which he has evidently been 
deceived by the inaccurate orientation of the Church, to which, 
I suppose, I failed to direct his attention. The hill on which 
the Church stands is west^ not norths of Walmer Castle ; and the 
line of the ancient trench, which runs obliquely from midway 
between the third and fourth columns (counting from the tower 
end) of the so-called south arcade, across the Church to the 
second column in the so-called north arcade, is as nearly as 
possible from east to west. 

Not long after the discoveries at the Church, some further 
Roman remains were brought to light in the neighbouring 
grounds belonging to Mr. Stock (St. Mildred's), in levelling the 
side of the hill for the formation of a lawn and tennis ground. 
The area disturbed at S. Mildred's being of considerable extent, 
the relics exhumed were in consequence far more numerous 
than those found at the Church ; while they were of such a 
character as to indicate the site of a Romano-British burial- 

* Arch. Cant.y vol. xvii, p. 4. 

History of Walmer. 27 

ground. Unfortunately this discovery did not come to my 
knowledge until after the lapse of some considerable time, and 
I had, therefore, no opportunity of examining any of the 
cremated deposits in situ ; but, from Mr. Stock's description, as 
well as from the appearance of the vessels, which he afterwards 
was kind enough to hand over to me, there can be no doubt as 
to the true nature of the ** find." None of the remains were at 
any great depth ; most of them were about eighteen inches 
below the surface ; and the proximity of a vessel is said to have 
been invariably indicated by the blackened appearance of the 
soil. The discovery made in one place, of what Mr. Stock 
described as a furnace, the position of which, he said, was 
distinguished by the presence of a quantity of ashes and 
charcoal, seems to indicate the site of a special place of 
cremation. All the vessels exhumed had a most unpleasant 
odour, even when I first saw them, which was some months 
after their discovery. One of them contained a quantity of 
split teeth, either of dogs or some other animal, but only one or 
two of these came under my personal observation. A few coins 
are also said to have been found, but I did not see them, having 
failed in my efforts to trace them. 

Mr. Stock further described to me a kind of pavement, fifty 
feet square, consisting of flints laid upon a foundation of con- 
crete, the latter containing an admixture of sand, broken shells, 
etc. This, like the vessels, was also about eighteen inches below 
the ground. I was also shewn some fragments of glass which 
had become highly iridescent, in consequence of the chemical 
changes produced in their substance by long contact with the 
soil : thin flakes broke from these fragments when handled. 

The following is a description of the vessels, etc., repre- 
sented in the illustration. 

Nos. 1, 6, 7. Fragments of black pottery from St. Mildred's, 
all more or less coarse, 6 inches, 4J inches, and 6 inches, 
respectively, in height. The external surfaces of these vessels 
bore traces of contact with charcoal. 

No. 2. The core of a small horn from site of new church. 

No. 3. Specimen of Upchurch pottery from site of new 
church, height 6J inches, diameter of mouth 3J inches, diameter 
of foot barely 2 inches, of elegant proportions and outline, the 
body marked with five longitudinal indentations. Probably a 

28 Histofy of Walmer. 

drinking vessel, the indentations affording a firm hold. The 
foot is marked beneath with a cross (x). 

No. 4. Fragment of a cinerary urn of coarse material, 
from St. Mildred's, diameter 16 inches, height probably about 
18 inches or more. Its rude construction indicates British 
workmanship : it is in fact a rough imitation, by inexperienced 
hands, of the Roman Dolium, 

No. 5. Leaden vessel and saucer from St. Mildred's : the 
diameter of the vessel is 4 inches; its rim is flattened from 
pressure of earth, etc., which reduces its height to 2J inches ; it 
would otherwise have been about 3 inches ; the saucer is 5} 
inches in diameter. 

In addition to the specimens figured, Mr. Stock shewed me 
a small pile of mammalian bones, and quantities of broken 
pieces of pottery ; from amongst which I selected the following, 
as giving a fair idea of the character of the originals : — 

i. Handle of Roman amphora. 

ii. Fragments of coarse black pottery, the bodies and 
necks grooved and ridged. 

iii. Fragment of a cinerary urn (British), also grooved and 

iv. Fragments of Upchurch ware. 

V. Fragments of Samian ware. 

vi. Core of a large horn ; length of core with small portion 
of bone adherent, 10 inches. 

The association of Roman with British vessels points to the 
conclusion that the ground where they were found was first 
used by the Romans as a burying-ground, and subsequently by 
the British ; an occurrence by no means uncommon. 

As early as the reign of Edward I., mention is made of the 
Borweshaldre, t.e, Borsholder, of Walmer. This was an officer 
who owed his origin to the wise regulations of King Alfred the 
Great ; who, for the better maintenance of law and order, 
divided the kingdom into counties, and these again into 
trythings or lathes, hundreds, and tythings, each governed by 
their respective heads. The smallest sub-divisions, called 
tythings, consisted each of ten families, the heads of which 
were freemen ; who were bound together into a society, or 


History of Walmer. 29 

borough, and were responsible to the king for every breach of 
the peace that might occur among them. Every freeman was 
compelled to be settled in some tything ; the members of which 
had the power of assembling in their Court Leet, for the trial 
of all minor otfences. under their president, or chief, who was 
known in this part of the country as the " Borsholder," or 
Borough's !ldir. Graver offences were tried in the hundred 
courts, the court of the lath, or by the sheriff in the county 
court. The tything was bound to the king for (he appearance 
of each of its members to answer for breaches of the law, and 
in the event of an offender escaping, the tything paid the 
penalty in a fine. Everyone was thus made responsible for the 
misdeeds of his neighbour, and each had an interest in the 
apprehension of offenders ; so that, in consequence of the 
wholesome dread of punishment thus engendered, crime 
became rare. 

The Court Leet has already been mentioned. It was the 
f court of the tything, and is commonly referred to in old 
r documents under the designation of the " view of frankpledge." 
I The latter title owed its origin to the custom every year of 
■ binding the members of the tything in pmctpUdge. by which 
leach became responsible for the preservation of the peace, a 
frpledge, in fact, of law and order amongst his fellows. All were 
t-compelled to take this pledge on attaining a certain age. In 
I course of lime the right of summoning the Court Leet, which 
[ originally belonged exclusively to the Borsholder, was granted 
[ by royal charter to the lords of hundreds or manors. It was 
I indeed a claim of this right, on the part of the lord of the 
ar, that led to the mention of the Borsholder of Walmer in 
eign of Edward I. Nicholas [de Criol], in the 21st year 
I of that reign, claimed the right of free-warren and view of 
\ fraokpledge in Walmer; his claim was disputed; a writ de qw> 
I warranto was issued ; and the case was tried in regular form at 
) Canterbury before the Justices in Eyre. Nicholas asserted that 
J he and all his ancestors, time out of mind, possessed the said 
I liberties, and enjoyed them without any interference : and, after 
) bearing the evidence, the jurors decided that he was perfectly 
right with regard to the " free-warren," but not with respect to 
I the view of frankpledge, " because the Borweshaldre of VValmer 
I presents in the hundred of Cornilo whatever is presented in this 

30 Histofy of Walmer. 

view " ; and further that ** the said Nicholas and his ancestors 
severally have, time out of mind, possessed the assize of bread 
and beer ** : the judgment therefore was, that Nicholas was 
entitled to the aforesaid ** warren,** sine die; and to the aforesaid 
** view,** in miSjericordiyL, which means an arbitrary fine. 

The only other mention that has come under my notice of 
the Borsholder of Walmer is in the time of Charles I. " Mr. 
dibes,** described as ** a sadler by his trad and a some (sworn) 
bos houldar in our parish,*' in mentioned by the **Debytie" in 
his return, dated July 23rd, 1628, as to men pressed for "our 
kinges majesties servis.** At that time the Court Leet had not 
yet become obsolete. 

The following extract from Philipot*s Villare Cantianum^ 
gives a suflBciently full account of the watch kept at this time, by 
day and night, on this part of the coast. The reader will see 
with what care the precautions were carried out ; for not only 
was the coast divided into Warda^ but responsible persons, all of 
whom are named in the record, were appointed to see that the 
watch was carefully kept. Each of these responsible persons 
was required to find one or more homines ad arma, or men-at- 
arms, with their proper proportion of hobilers* As regards the 
VigilicB minutoe, or night watch, it will be suflBcient to say that 
each hundred was required to provide its quota of men, called 
homines ad vigilandum, according to the extent of sea-coast con- 
tained within its boundaries. 

** I shall (now) represent what care our former Kings have 
embarqu*d themselves in, to secure the Sea, by fixing Sea- 
watches and other Military Guards upon all the Avenues and 
Inlets of the Coast, to represse and check the attempts of any 
bold Intruder, as if their own safety and idemnity were folded 
up in the security of this County. 

* " Hobiler is derived from the French word Hobbill, which imports as much 
as a light-quilted cassock; and indeed all the Latin records say, they 
should be wampasa armati, which denotes a jack ; and in some parts, both 
of Germany and the low countries at this day, wampasa is used to express 
a doublet, or a short cassock " : it was also ordered that " every Hobiler 
should be nudiocri equo instructus et adomnem motum agiU^ i.e. furnished 
with horse of no great proportions but light and fitted for all manner of 
active service." Sir Henry Spelman^s Glossary. 

History of Walmer. 



1 tei 

"Touching these Sea-watches upon the Coast, there are 
Three Presidents (r/'c), and a Mandate from the King to the 
Sheriff in a time of a more modern Inscription for performing 
the like service. The first containing the Watch by night in 
Record is styled Vigi'liit Minul(E, which are due of right and 
cuslorae to be made by Men of certain Hundreds, as by the 
Title thereof, and the Writ for Execution of the same may 

The second concluding the Day-watch, hence called 
EH is arbitrary, and at the pleasure of those which in time 
of war and common danger had authority to appoint them, of 
these there are three examples, one of the 9 *of Edward Iht 3 
(which I intend principally to trace, as being the original to the 
other) which year he made preparation to invade France, and to 
vindicate his Title to the Crown, and the other the 20 of 
Edward the 3. in which year he sailed into France, and 
triumphed in the Signal Battail of Crescey. 

■' The third describeth to whose charge several parts of the 
shore were assign'd for defence, in the 29 of Edward IheS. At 
what time he past into France and was victorious in the 
Encounter of Poicttefs. It discovers also what parts of the 
Shire were to resort to the Coast for protection of the same. 
This order is arbitrary also, as they that in the Record are styl'd 
'.tctoret Comilalus (that is, Lieutenants of the Shire) shall think 
[meet to appoint. 

Warda assessa per Dom. Willielmnon de Clinton Comita- 
tem de Huntingdon. Johannem de Cobham, and Thomam de 
Aldon in Cora. Cantii super Costeram Maris Anno Regoi Regis 
Edwardi Tertii undecimo. 

" Warda apud Sandwich et Sanctam Margaretam apud Dale. 
Prior Ecclesife Christi Cant. Hobilers. 

10 Homines ad Arma. Henry Thornton, 

Joannes Malmains Miles 2. Richard de Reting. 

Nicholas de Sandwico 2. John Soles. 

Johannes de Walmere 1. 
Johannes de Goshall 1. 
Nicholas Filius ThomEe 


This should be 1 1 , the si 

Thomas de Allen, 
Tho. de Goodneston. 
Henry Daniell. 
John Petit, 
it tiiit follows has uHdecimo. 

32 History of Walmer. 

Thomas Chich 1. John Foolmede. 

John Sandhurst 1. Henry Brudelond. 

Tho. Filius Johannis John Shelwing. 

Retling de Retling 1. £dw. Staplegate. 

William Berton. 

Richard Godwin. 

Ric Fitzbernard. 

John Bettcshanger. 

John Erdeiyard. 

Tho Groting. 

Nigellus Whetare. 

Thomas Chelmin. 
•* Adhuc de Eadem Warda apud Walmer. 

Abbas de Langdem 1 Hominem ad Arma. Hobilers. 
Prior Sancti Gregorii 2. John Penny. 

Prior de Dover 3. John de Poire. 

Abbas Sanctae Radigunde 3. Will. Whitfield. 

Domus Dei de Dover 2. John Fitz. 

Abbas de Feversham 2. John at Check. 

Thomas Perot. 

Rob. Grensted. 

Jacob Kingswood. 

Eudo Shillingheld. 
" Et quod unusquisque praedictorum Hominum ad Arma 
habeat secum sagittarium bonum (that is a good Archer or 
Bowman) super costaram Maris. 

" Et quod fiat signum ubique supra costaram Maris, et ubi 
necesse fuerit lebe elevetur cum Pitchpot, et non cum minuto 
ligno, quia hujus modi signa magis apparebunt et longius 

Early in the reign of Henry IV., it was ordained by statute 
**that the Watch to be made on the Sea Coast through the 
Realm shall be made by the Numbers of the People, in the 
Places, and in Manner and Form, as they were wont to be made 
in Times past." 

When this parish was first included within the jurisdiction 
of the Cinque Ports, does not appear ; but it must have been 
very early. Hasted says it was so esteemed as a member of the 
port of Sandwich in the year 1229, anno 14 Hen. Ill, and was 

History of Walmer. 



expressed to have been so in the genera! Charter of the Cmqae 
Ports time out of mind. The same author informs us that, in 
consequence of some disputes arising in the reign of King 
Henry VI., concerning the assessing it to the subsidy of the 
county at large, to put an end to these disputes and as a mark of 
his favour, that King again annexed and confirmed it to the juris- 
diction of the Cinque Ports, by his letters patent in his 16th 
year, in the liberties of which, and as a member of the port of 
Sandwich, it has ever since continued. The advanlages arising 
from such a connection were not altogether on the side of the 
annexed member, — they were mutual ; and the head ports were 
ever ready to fa!! in with the expressed wish of the smaller 
places to be annexed : not the least weighty reason for their 
compliance being, no doubt, that they were thus enabled to 
extend their jurisdiction over the coast, and with it to extend 
also their chartered privileges as to wrecks. On the part of 
the member the gain consisted chiefly in immunity from the 
national jurisdiction, and consequent escape from the assess- 
ment of the national taxation ; to say nothing of exemption 
from sculages, and tallages, to which the ports had never at any 
time been liable, and wardship and marriage, from which they 
were freed by the charter granted them, in 1278, by King 
Edward I. The inhabitants of non-corporate members were 
not entitled to the designation of baran, nor were they repre- 
sented at the Courts of Brotherhood and Guestling. 

As a consequence of its membership with Sandwich, the 
Recorder of that ancient port still retains his jurisdiction over 
Walmer, and the Mayor of Sandwich still appoints a Deputy for 
this place, though the functions of the latter official are now 
mnch less than formerly. 

A further result of the connection of this place with Sand- 
wich was that it had of course to contribute its share towards 
the general expenses of the Ports, The money for this purpose 
was raised by the Court of Brotherhood ; so many purses (a 
purse representing the unit of payment and being worth £4. 
7s.), or half-purses being ordered, according to circumstances, 
and each of the head-ports and their members being required to 
contribute according to a fixed rate. The following table shews 
the proportionate payments of Sandwich and its members 

34 History of Walmer. 

towards the purse in 1 495 ; Sandwich as a head port con« 
tributing half-a-mark: — 




• • • • 




• • • • 




• • • • 



Sarre . . 

• • • • 



Deal and W 

aimer . • 




It was in this year that Perkin Warbeck, the *' White Rose 
of England/* as he was named by Margaret of Burgundy, 
arrived off Deal, and, having come to an anchor in the Small 
Downs, attempted a landing. But, meeting with a warmer 
welcome than he anticipated, he was compelled to return to 
Flanders with the loss of 150 prisoners, left in custody of the 
trained bands of Sandwich. 

In 1470, Walmer is mentioned as contributing, together 
with Deal and Fordwich, " for the transport of Queen Margaret 
and her son from France." It will be remembered that that 
Queen landed at Plymouth on Easter Sunday, 1471, the very day 
her cause was lost in the battle of Barnet. And as the Ports 
generally, and certainly Sandwich, had previously sympathized 
with the Yorkists, it would seem that some of them at least took 
the part of their Lord Warden, Richard, Earl of Warwick, when 
he quarrelled with Edward IV., and went over to the exiled 
Margaret, in 1464. 

In 1512, when the Ports were required to fit out their due 
complement of ships and men, no doubt in consequence of 
Henry the eighth having joined the league formed by the Pope 
against Louis XII, a committee, appointed to consider the 
charge of the shipping, ordered Walmer, in conjunction with 
Deal, to furnish one ship, with men, harness, jackets, and 
other accoutrements. The cess on houses and lands, levied on 
this occasion, amounted, in the case of residents within the 
town, or liberty, of Sandwich (it is not quite clear which is 
meant), to Is., while non-residents were required to pay double. 

In 1556, at the Lord Warden's earnest request, the corpora- 
tion of Sandwich consented to furnish soldiers to attend his 


History of Walmer. 35 

lordship in the wars; not of right, as the service of the ports 
consisted in shipping only, but in consideration of the Lord 
Warden's great charges, and the great necessity of the time. 
Quota of Umbs. Deal £18, Walmer, £8. This was in connection 
with the war which terminated two years later in the loss of 

In 1571, the thirteenth year of Queen Elizabeth, Lambarde 
records the levying of the " Tenth and Fiftene " on the towns 
of Kent, to which Deal and Walmer contributed as follows : — 
Borowe of Dial, xiii/, xixi. 
Borowe of Walmtr, iiii/, vi, viii</. 

In 1595, a vessel was ordered to be provided by the port of 
.ndwich, for the Queen's service, and to be of the burden of 

tons. For what particular service this vessel was required, 
does not appear; but very probably it was employed in one of 
the numerous descents on the Spanish coast. On this occasion 
the members contributed in the following proportion : Fordwich 
20 tons ; Deal and Walmer together 20 tons ; Ramsgate 6 tons ; 
and Sarre 4 tons. 

The Domislic SlaU Papers of James I,, year uncertain, but 
itobably I6I5, contain a petition from some inhabitants of 
'aimer, in which they pray to he released from a line imposed 
m them by the Lord Warden (Lord Zouche) for non-appearance 
before him at Sandwich, on some business not specified; but 
most likely in connection with the Court of Admiralty, which, 
contrary to the usual custom, was held at Sandwich in that 3'ear. 

A return, preserved in the SlaU Papers of Charles L, affords 
some interesting particulars respecting the seafaring inhabitants 
of Walmer in 1626. We gather from this source that there 
were here, at that lime, but two boats of the burden of one ton 
id upwards, only one mariner, no pilots, and thirteen fishermen. 
'or what object the return was required does not appear ; but 
it was most likely in connection with the wars with Spain. The 
Cinque Ports in this year supplied the King with two ships, at a 
cost of £912 each. 

From the same source we gain particulars of men pressed 
at Walmer in 1628 ; very likely for one or other of the 
expeditions fitted out in this country for the relief of the ■ 
Huguenots at La Rochelle, which stronghold fell to Cardinal 
Richlieu in that same year. 

36 History of Walmer. 

On the deposition of Charles I., the joint offices of 
Constable of Dover Castle, and Lord Warden of the Cinque 
Ports, were exercised by the Council of State ; but, subsequently, 
they were put into commission, and were then executed by 
Colonel John Desborough, Colonel Robert Blake, and Colonel 
John Lambard. Blake, as is well known, was appointed in 
February, 1649, together with two other colonels, Deane and 
Popham, to command the fleet; and he soon distinguished 
himself by his brilliant achievements at sea. 

His first success in these parts was the defeat of Van 
Tromp, off the South Foreland, on May 19th 1652, in an action 
brought on by the haughtiness of the Dutch Admiral, in refusing 
to salute the British flag; a defeat which Van Tromp con- 
sidered himself to have amply avenged on November 29th of 
that year, when, after having with his powerful fleet of eighty 
men-of-war surprised and defeated Blake at anchor in the 
Downs with only thirty-seven sail, he, with his broom roast- 
headed, metaphorically swept the British seas. 

The braggart Dutchman had sufficient reason to regret this 
piece of impudent folly, before many months were over, in his 
encounter with Blake, on February 18th of the following year 
(A.D. 1653), as well as in his subsequent actions with Deane 
and Monk, on June 4th and July 29th. In the last of these 
engagements Van Tromp was killed. 

Exciting times those must have been for the dwellers on 
this coast ; some of whom, no doubt, took a more active part in 
them than that of mere spectators. For in the spring of 1655, 
Blake was despatched to the Mediterranean, against the Duke 
of Tuscany and the piratical States of Algiers, Tunis, and 
Tripoli ; which perhaps explains the order, issued by Lambart 
and himself, on January 19th of that year, to the Mayor of Sand- 
wich, to raise within his jurisdiction, by impressment, 400 able 
seaman between the ages of fifteen and sixty: Sandwich to 
furnish 180 men, Ramsgate 80, and Deal and Walmer together 
140, and each man to be allowed 12d. as press money, and 
three halfpence as good-conduct money. 

Towards the latter part of the year 1665, the plague found 
many victims in this neighbourhood. The correspondence of a 
certain Richard Watts (who held an official position at Deal and 

History of Walmer. 


Walmer), which is preserved in the State Papers of that time, 
contains many interesting details respecting its ravages; and 
thus we are able to trace the progress of that fell disease in this 

On October 15lh, 1665, the plagTie is mentioned as being 
at Dover and Sandwich, but Deal is reported " free from it ;" 
although nearly three months previously (August 28th) we hear 
lef two houses at Deal being " shut up on suspicion." On June 
Klst, 1666, Richard Walts, writing from Deal, reports that "the 
^irickness has increased so much, tliat several have removed their 
families to Walmer;" and, as he goes on to request that his 
weekly letters may be in future addressed to him at the latter 
place, we may safely infer that he was himself amongst the 
I fugitives. Eight days later (June 29th) he says, '"at Deal three 
■to eleven die daily of the plague." tho north part of the town 
'so much infected that they go one amongst another," 
Jwhiie in the south part "where the richer and more moderate 
' he proceeds to say, there are "not above three houses/' 
infected. At this time the disease had extended to Upper Deal 
fand Great Mongeham. Three more days, and Mr. Watts 
reports, " the plague has extended to fresh houses in Deal," and 
the following day (July 2nd), '■ the distemper is very violent at 
Deal, sweeping away whole families. No intercourse is per- 
mitted with Deal : letters must be sent to Sandwich." On July 
both, John Lindsey writes that " the sickness increases at Deal," 
^lile on the 20th, there is further news from Mr. Watts, as 
Mlows: — "The distemper at Deal much increases; it scarce 
3 above one in a family. Mr. Muddiman correspondent 
, is dead." And a few days later (July 26th) Mr. Watts 
rrites again, to the effect that "at least four hundred have died 
a Deal in five weeks." 

Not till August lOih do we find the report, " the distemper 
much decreases at Deal," and even at the end of that month 
crease is spoken of somewhat doubtfully; go perhaps 
^there was a fresh outbreak. 

In Ihe middle of this August (August 17th) the plague was 
taging at Sandwich " nearly as bad as in Deal," and the report 
s, " sixty houses have broken out in one parish." 
Further news from Walmer, August 31st, stales that "20 
'die a week in Deal ; it decreases at Sandwich :" and not till the 

38 History of W aimer. 

middle of September (15th) does Richard Watts write, ''the 
distemper is ceasing in Deal.'* Three days after this, we seem 
to be getting near the end of it at Deal, when Mr. Watts 
reports, "the distemper is so hot in Sandwich that letters 
should now be sent by Deal which is almost clear." That was 
on the 18th, but there seems to have been a further outbreak 
almost immediately afterwards ; for on the 22nd he again writes, 
'* the distemper increases at Deal.'* 

All this time, (since June 21st), Mr. Watts resided appar- 
ently at Walmer Castle, whence his letters were dated, and 
there is no mention of a single case in this parish, which, it 
should be remembered, consisted at that time of a mere village, 
of some two hundred souls or thereabouts, situated almost 
entirely on the rising ground at Upper Walmer, and therefore 
well isolated from the infected area. 

At Deal, very nearly if not quite one third of the entire 
population, which at that time could hardly have exceeded some 
two thousand* inhabitants, must have been carried oflf during 
the fourteen weeks the plague was raging there; since there 
were four hundred deaths during the first ^^^t weeks, and the 
total for the remaining nine weeks, judging from what we have 
heard, could scarcely have been less than another two hunA-ed. 

The above facts probably explain the circumstance, 
recorded by Pritchard in his History of Deal (pp. 271-2), of 
some ** countrymen taking sand and digging rather deep " 
having discovered, in the year 1836, not far from the town, ** a 
large trench or pit filled with human bones.*' The quantity is 
described as very great, and it seems far more probable that 
these remains represented the victims of the plague, than, as 
Pritchardf supposes, ** the slain from some sea fight, perhaps of 
the celebrated battle between Van Tromp seconded by De 
Ruyter, and Admiral Blake." An examination by an anatomist 
would probably have revealed the fact that both sexes, and all 
ages, were represented among these bones. 

During the mayoralty of Phineas Atwood, a.d. 1683-4, the 
Limbs of Sandwich were required to contribute towards the 

♦ Hasted in 1799 gives the population of Deal as 3000, and it had consider- 
ably increased since the time of Charles II. 

t Oddly enough Pritchard's History of Deal makes no mention of the plague. 

History of Walmer. 


expense of the New Charter ; Deal being required to provide 
£35, and Walmer £10. This claim appears to have been 
strenuously opposed by all the limbs, but it was nevertheless 
successfully enforced. 



le Buperior lords — D'AubtrvBle — De Criol — Fogge t 
llugetscn — Hngesscn to Lcith. 

NO mention is made in Domesday Book of ihe manor of 
Walmer, which, in fact, did not exist as such at ihc time 
of that survey ; but, as Walmer then formed part of the manor 
of Folkestone, no doubt it is included in the account of the 
latter. The tenant in capile of the manor of Folkestone, was 
then Odo, Bishop of Bayeux and Earl of Kent ; but he, having 
conspired on the death of the Conqueror, his half-brother, 
against the heir to the Crown, forfeited his estates, which 
thereupon were entrusted by the King to more faithful h^nds. 
And thas it came to pass that, in the reign of William Rufus, 
the lord of Folkestone was Nigell de MuneviUe ; whose 
daughter, Matilda, becoming sole heiress on the death of her 
brother William without issue, was bestowed in marriage by 
King Henry I., with the whole of her patrimony, on Ruallanus 
de Albrincis. or d'Averenches. And in this family— a member of 
which. Sir Simon de Albrincis, as we shall by-and-bye see, 
confirmed the grant of Walmer Church to Langdon Abbey — the 
barony continued, until the line of Averenches ending in 
another Matilda (daughter and heiress of William d* Albrincis), 
it passed by marriage to the representative of another great 
Norman family, namely, Hamo de Crevequer. 

We pass now from the superior lords to the tenants of 
Walmer, which was held of the barony, or honor, as it was 
called, of Folkestone, as one knight's fee ; its earliest tenants 
having been of the illustrious race of AuberviUe. The first of 
this family to hold the manor, so far as my information goes, 
appears to have been the Hugh de Albertivilla of Kent 



History of Walmer, 



mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1130; whose father, Roger 
d'Auberville, named in the Dives Roll amongst the Companions 
of the Conqueror, held a barony in Esses and Suffolk. Hugh, 
who, in all probability, built the old manorial church at Walmer, 
and the castellated mansion, whose ruins remain to this day in 
the grounds of Walmer Court,* died in 1139, leaving a widow 
named Wynane and an only son William, a minor ; and Planchfi 
tell us that " Targisius d'Avranches gave the King 300 silver 
marks, one gold marc, and one war-horse," for his lands and 
widow, and "22 marks annually" for the wardship of his son.f 

This William de Auberville, afterwards known as Sir 
William de Auberville, senior, married Maud, eldest daughter of 
Ralph de Glanville ; the latter having been Justiciary of the 
Kingdom from 1180 to the accession of Richard I., whom he 
j^ccompanied to the Holy Land. His (Sir William's) principal 
'Beat was at Westenhanger ; and he was the pious founder of 
Langdon Abbey, which, in the fourth year of Richard I. (a.d. 
1192), he endowed with the manor of Langdon, and the 
churches of Walmer, Osncy, Langdon, and Ledenne (Lydden). 
He was, besides, a great benefactor to Christ Church, Canter- 
bury, and was a Justice of the County. 

Of ibe immediate offspring of Sir William de Auberville, 
senior, who died about the year 1208, there is little to say. The 
■charter by which he endowed the Abbey of Langdon mentions 
:a son William and a daugher Emma, both of whom seem to 
n then dead. There was, however, another son, named 
■ ■Hugh, who succeeded his father, but enjoyed his inheritance for 
.ft short time only, as he died in 1313. This second son left an 
.heir named William, then under age, and whose wardship 
Lppears to have been thought of considerable value ; for William 

Eastid has the following account of these rains : — " The mansion of the 
Crieh is situated not fat from the west side of the churchyard. The ruins 
shew it to have been a large venerable mansion, with lowers aU bnilt of 
bolder flint and ashlar stone, and as supposed by Nicholas de Criol in 
King Edt^td I. or U.'s reign." He mentions also the discovery of 
" slone coffins a few years ago {ij. prior to 1799), supposed to have 
belonged to some of the family of Criol." That the mansion eusted 
before the Criols came to be connected with Walmer, may be infened from 
the date of the church which was attached to it, and which was granted 
to Langdon Abbey, in 1 192, by Sir William de Antierville, senior, 
t j4 Corner of Kent or Asli-nexl-Sand'wuh, p. 290. 

42 History of Walmer. 

de Ainesford who was its first purchaser at '* one thousand two 
hundred marks/' was able, in the following year, to sell it at a 
profit of another thousand marks to William Brewer. Sir 
William de Auberville, junior, as he is usually styled, was the 
last heir-male, and with his death, which took place in 1245, 
expired the line of Auberville. 

The manor now passed with other estates to the family of 
Criol, or De Criol, at that time one of the most powerful 
families in Kent : for Joan the only daughter and heiress of Sir 
William de Auberville, junior, married, first (a.d. 1247), Sir 
Henry de Sandwich, of Dent-de-Iion, Thanet, by whom she had 
no issue ; and, secondly. Sir Nicholas de Criol, afterwards Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports and Sheriff of Kent. The date of 
the second marriage of Joan is uncertain, but it is known to 
have been prior to 1254. 

This Sir Nicholas de Criol was a son of Bertram de Criol, 
the " Great Lord of Kent," who, in the 15ih year of King 
Henry III., incurred the King's displeasure, and only escaped 
exile through the intercession of friends. Notwithstanding a 
prohibition to appear at Court, Bertram, however, quickly 
regained the royal favour, and was appointed Sheri£f of Kent in 
the 16th year of Henry HI., which ofiice he retained for seven 
years : he also became Sheriff of the counties of and 
Herts., and had the custody of the castles of Dover and 
Rochester. Nicholas de Criol, who was the third son of the 
above Bertram, paid ** Aid " for the manor of Walmer in the 
38th year of Henry III. (a.d. 1253-4) ; and in 1256 received the 
King's summons to serve against the Welsh. .By his marriage 
with Joan above mentioned, he became Lord of Westen hanger ; 
and in the 47th year of Henry III. he was appointed Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports. 

In the Archceologia Cantiana^ vol. iii, p. 257-264, there is an 
interesting account of the manor of Folkestone, taken from the 
Inquisiiio post mortem^ held before Robert de Ludeham, June 3rd, 
1263, from which I extract the following : — ** Sir Nicholas de 
Crrioll holds of the Barony of Averenches five knight's fees, 
and he does service for it, as of the fee of Morteyne, and his 
heirs shall give from each fee 100s. for reliefs when they occur ; 
and when there is a scutage at 40s. he shall give for scrutage 

History of Walmer. 


from each fee 8s., when more more, when less less, according to 

the aforesaid portion, and he ought to enclose Sixty-two perches 

of the park,* and he owes from each fee three watches to ward 

of Dover Castle, 25s. The same holds of the King in capile, by 

barony, elsewhere." From another inquisition p.m., held a few 

years later (55 Hen. III., A.d. 1271). we learn that these five 

Knight's fees, which Sir Nicholas held of the Barony of Aver- 

enches, were situated " in Landon, Oxneye, Ledenne, Swynefeld. 

and Walmere."t In the 54th year of King Henry HI., Sir 

Nicholas was appointed Sheriff of Kent. He was also Constable 

of Rochester Castle and is named (in the fourth year of Edward 

I., beiog then dead) amongst those who look part with Simon 

de Montford, Earl of Leicester, in his revolt against Henry III. 

b He died before the second year of Edward I. (probably before 

|;^e death of Henry HI.), and left an only son and heir of the 

laame name, whom we shall call, for the sake of distinction, 

■Nicholas the Second. J 

(*The teuauts of eighteen Knight's Tees, held oi this manor (Folkestone), 
were bound to keep iu repair the hedge or fence which enclosed the 
extensive park at Folkestone, whose circuit wiis " about a league and a 
half," and which extended nearly to Saudgate. 

K.f Philipot asserts thnt Matilda de Criot, widow of Simon de Criol, died 
possessed of this manor, 52 Hen. in., A.D. 137S [Fi//. Canl., p. 35l]: 
while FuilEy, in his Weald of Kent, mentions that a Simon de Crioll of 
Walmer was amongst tile fifty "leading raenof Kent " who accompanied 
King Edward I. in the Conquest of Scotland, and that he was knighted, 
A.D. 1300, for his services at the Siege of Caerlaveroch. The truth is that 
both these Simons belonged to another branch of the great family of 
Criol, who held, not the manor of Walmer, but Cotmanton in Hholden, 
which then ranked as a manor, and is said to have extended into this 
parish. Simon de Crio% husband of Matilda, above mentioned, held 
Cotmanton of the Abbot of St. Augustine's, by knight-service, Ump. 
Hen. Ill, 

B]J II is recorded in the Hundred Rolh of 3 Edward I., that is, shortly after the 
decease of the first Nicholas de Criol, that Gregory de Rokesley held one 
knight's-fee in Walmer of the King i« capiie., and had done so for the 
past three years; bat the jury returned " nesciunt gua lUarraH/c." From 
the same source we learn that Sir Alexander de Balliol then held one 
, hrga (burgh or borough), namely, Ridlingwalde (Ringwould), and 
Gregory de Rokesley the iarga of Walmer, and that they forestalled 
(pcipientj ihence the fines of bread and beer and had done for the previous 
five years or more ; and as to this also the jury retunied " msduiii quo 

44 History of Walmer. 

Of this second Nicholas de Criol it is recorded, in the 
Placita de Quo Warranto^ that, in the sixth year of King Edward 
the first, he maintained in the court of the Justices in Eyre, at 
Rochester, on the eighth day after the Nativity of St. John the 
Baptist, a claim to the view of frank-pledge, pillory, tumbrel, 
warren, wreck, toll, and custom, in his Manor at Walmer. 
Nicholas, who was represented by his attorney, asserted his 
right to take toll and custom as follows, namely, of every man 
who bought fish at Walmer, and removed them thence with a 
horse to any other place, for the purpose of selling them by 
retail {singlis vicibus\ one halfpenny; and of every man who 
bought fish there and conveyed them away on foot with a 
similar object, one farthing ; and of every foreigner who landed 
from a ship there, or departed thence, the sum of two pence : 
and, in support of his claim, maintained that he and all his 
ancestors, time out of mind, had always held these rights, and 
continually used them. But a jury composed of men from the 
hundreds of Eythorn, Cornilo, and Strete, found — 1st, that 
neither Nicholas nor any of his ancestors ever held the view of 
frank-pledge, but that the Borsholder (le Borghealdre) of 
Walmer presents everything that belongs to that view ; 2nd, that 
Nicholas and all his ancestors had always, time out of mind, held 
the assize of bread and beer ; and 3rd, that they had always held 
pillory, tumbrel, warren, wreck, toll, and custom in the said 
manor : all which rights they had continually used except pillory 
and tumbrel. The judgment therefore was that Nicholas was 
entitled to the assize of bread and beer, warren, wreck, toll, and 
custom, sine die; and to the other liberties in mi[sericordi'\a, 

Nicholas de Criol II. twice performed military service 
against the Welsh, having attended the musters at Rhuddlan, 
2 August, 10 Edw. I. (1282), and Montgomery, 2 May, 
11 Edw. I. (1283). He was summoned to Parliament at Shrews- 
bury, 30 Sept., 11 Edw. I. (1283); and to attend the King 
"upon urgent aflfairs,**' 8 June, 22 Edw. I. (1294). He was 
excepted from the general summons for the King's expedition 
into Gascony, 14 June, 20 Edw. I. (1292) ; and was summoned 
to Pariiament at Salisbury, 24 Feb., 25 Edw. I. (1297). Five 
months later he proceeded for service beyond the seas ; bat 
returned with the King the same year, a.d. 1297, to take part in 
the war against the Scots. With this object he attended the 

History of Walmer. 



muster at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, on the 6th of December the 
same year ; the similar muster at York, on May 25th of the 
following year ; and the muster at Berwick-upon-Tweed, 
24 June, 29 Edw. I., a.d. 1301. 

This second Nicholas was the " Nicholas de Cryoll, miles," 
who confirmed by charter, dated St. Laurence's Day (August 
lOth), 30th Edward I. (A.n. 1302) the grant to Langdon Abbey 
made by his " abavus," that is his great grandfather's father, of 
the manor of Langdon, and the churches of Walmer, Oicney, 
Langdon and Ledenne. He married Margaret (named in his 
charter) daughter of Sir Gilbert Peche ; by whom he had an 
only son Nicholas, the third of that name, who succeeded his 
father in the 31st year of King Edward I. (a.d. 1303). 

The third Nicholas de Criol was by no means inferior to 
his ancestors in valour and dignity. His first summons for 
military service, so far as I have been able to ascertain from the 
Parliaminlary Wrils, was for the muster at Newcastle, which 
should originally have been •* within eight days of the Holy 
Trinity, June 10th," 12 Edw. It. (a.d. 1319, but was prorogued 
" to one month of St. John the Baptist, 22nd July," 13 Edw. IL 
(A.D. 1319). Three years later, 16Edw. II. (a.d. 1322), he held 
the highly important position of Constable of Dover Castle and 
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports ; a fact proved, though his 
name does not occur in the lists of Lord Wardens given by Mr- 
Knocker and others, by the Municipal Archives of Faversham 
for that period ; which contain the " Compotus of Tallage," or, 
in other words, the accounts connected with the tax, levied at 
Faversham, in July, 1322, for " the service of Shipping" due 
from that place as a member of the Cinque Ports, and "for 
gifts to the Lord Warden on his visiting the town."* and other 
purposes. And in 1324 we find this Nicholas de Criol mentioned 
in a return by the Sheriff of Kent, as summoned, in pursuance 
of a writ " tested " at Westminster 9 May, 17 Edw. II. ; and he 
sppeara now to have been in command of a detachment of 

Ahha tTiiam die V 

1 domino Nicholao de Ctyel Conslabulario In 
proxima ante festum beats Margarile in pane 

nisso domino Nicholao de Criol in Abbatliiam die sabbath 
Li aalvatoris in pane siid., in vino xxd." 

46 History of Walmer. 

Kentish archers, concerning whom instructions were addressed 
to him, under the name of Nicholaus Kiriel, on the 14th of June 

In the troubles that ended in the murder of Edward 11. at 
Berkeley Castle, he bore a conspicuous part as a loyal adherent 
of the King. Edward, it will be remembered, had quarrelled 
with his Queen, and the latter, having fled to France, was joined 
there by her son. Prince Edward, and the Lord Mortimer, 
Nicholas Kiriel was now appointed ** Admiral of the Fleet from 
the mouth of the Thames westward" (19 Edw. II., a.d. 1326), 
and received orders to appear, with two " Probi Homines " of 
the several Ports within his station, before the Council at 
London, to receive instructions concerning the defence of the 
Country. His orders were '* to prevent the landing of Queen 
Isabel and her son Prince Edward, and to infest the French 
Merchants upon the Western Coasts ;" orders which he carried 
out with so much success that, while the Queen was preparing 
to land with a hostile army, he sailed ** to the westward," and 
took no less than 170 sail from the French, and brought them 
safe into harbour. How the Queen eventually managed to elude 
his vigilance, and to make her way up channel to the Suffolk 
coast, we are not told. 

Nicholas the third died in the third year of King Edward 
III. (a.d. 1330). leaving by his wife Roesia, or Rose, a son and 
heir known as Sir John de Criol or Kriell. Before passing on, 
however, it should be mentioned, that, a few years after succeed- 
ing to his inheritance (7 Edw. II.), this Nicholas de Criol, 
together with Roesia his wife, figured as plaintiff in a fictitious 
lawsuit concerning the Manor of Walmer, the defendant being 
one Gilbert de Criol, who must have belonged to another branch 
of this family. For some reason or other, which is not very 
patent, it seems to have been thought desirable to secure the 
title of Nicholas by the most certain process known to the law. 
A case was therefore made up between Nicholas and Roesia aa 
plaintiffs, and Gilbert as defendant, concerning possession of 
the manor : the two former admitted the right of the latter, and 
he, good-natured man who had no earthly right or title to the 
manor, thereupon, in return for the admission, immediately 
granted (what was never his) to Nicholas and Roesia and to the 

History of Walmer. 


Such \ 

i the 

ases were vary c 
is little to record. Under 
e he is named in the 11th 
with the Watch on the Sea 
-arms and a hobiler; and 




heirs of Nicholas,* 

good old days, when these Gctitious c. 

Concerning John de Criol there 
the designation Johannes de Walmer 
year of Edward III., in connection i 
Coast, as responsible for one man-at 
again in the 20th year of the same reign as Johannes de Criol, 
responsible with others, " una cum Hominibus Patriae." He 
was a contributor to the " Aid," levied 20 Edward III., at the 
rate of 40s. per knight's fee, for knighting the Black Princcf 
and is known to have creniilated Westenhanger. He died in 
1377, and by his wife, named Lettice, family unknown, left two 
sons and a daughter ; of whom Nicholas, the eldest, succeeded 
to this manor. 

Of Nicholas the fourth, and the next heir after him, there 
i nothing special to relate, and I therefore pass on to his 
■ grandson. Sir Thomas Keriell, the last of this illustrious line, 
k'Whose father. Sir William de Keriel, died a.d. 1412 (1 Hen. V.) 
Sir Thomas Crioll, or Keriel, was greatly distinguished for 
I his services in France. His first victory there of which any 
account has come down to us. was won with a small force of 
four hundred men, in January 1429, near Beauvais, where the 
French were commanded by the Count de Clermont. In the 
Lnext year, in an engagement near Guerbigny, where he fought 
I under the great Duke of Burgundy, he was taken prisoner ; but, 
r having obtained his release, he became in the 9th year of Hen. 
VI. (a. n. 1431), Governor of Gourney in Normandy: "not far 
from which place," according to Philipot, "he defeated the 
Earle of Britanie and in that discomfiture slew six hundred and 
took two hundred prisoners." Five years after this, occurred 
the death of the Duke of Bedford, who had long been the 
Regent of France ; and a rebellion thereupon broke out in the 
, district of Caux, but was crushed by Sir Thomas Criol. The 

" At Rochester, Morrow of St. Andrew the Apostle A"? — Betw. Nicholas 
de Ctyel and Roesia his wife pits., and Gilbert de Cryel, deft., of the 
Manor of Walemere, with appurts. Right of Gill)ert, who, for the 
admission, grants to Nicholas and Roesia and to the heirs of Nicholas. 
[Kent Fines, 7 Edward ii., ArcA. Cant, idi, p. 305.] 
t I^W Joli[ami]e de Oryell p[ro] vuo feodo q[uo]d Nich[ola]tia de Oryell tenuit 
in WalTn[ere] de honoi^e] de ffolkaston-id.E. Beak of Aid, P.R.O. 

48 History of Walmer. 

Duke of Burgundy now made an alliance with France, and Sir 
Thomas, who, as already said, had once fought under him, now 
became his opponent. It was about this time (14 Hen. VI.) 
that the Duke of Burgundy beseiged Crotoy, which siege 
having been raised by the Lord Talbot, Sir Thomas Kerieil 
distinguished himself in the manner described by Philipot :-» 
" Sir Thomas Kerieil assaults his rear with that courage that he 
forced the Duke to a disorderly retreat, leaving his canon and 
carriages behind him, as the reward of his valour and fortune." 
Sir Thomas now appears to have returned to England, but in 
1450 (27 Hen. VI.) he was again despatched to France, with the 
hope of reviving the sinking fortune of the English. He 
landed at Cherbourg in April, with a force of three thousand 
men, and, after various achievements, advanced in the direction 
of Bayeux and Caen ; but, on April 18th, he was defeated and 
taken prisoner at Formigney, with the Earl of Clermont and the 
Constable of France, ''after he had with unparalleled testimonies 
of personal courage, endeavoured to preserve the fortune of the 
day." As to his fate during the next seven years the records are 
silent. A feat of his, however, in 1457, is recorded in the 
English Chronicle in the following terms : — " This same year the 
xxviii day of August, on the Sunday in the morow, the 
Frensshemen robbed and spoyled the toune of Sandewyche in 
Kent, abyding thereynne an hoole day, and at the last a knyghte 
of the contre called ser Thomas Kyriel drove them to the see, 
and kylde many of theym." On the breaking out of the Wars 
of the Roses, Sir Thomas espoused the cause of the Yorkists, 
and on Feb. 8th, 1461, was, together with the Earl of Warwick 
and the Lord Bouvile, made a Knight of the Garter. He met 
with his death through treachery. For he was taken prisoner by 
the Lancastrians after the second battle of St. Albans (Shrove 
Tuesday, 1461), having been left on the field by the Yorkists to 
deliver up their prisoner Henry VI. ; and, notwithstanding a 
promise of safety from that monarch, was beheaded by order of 
Queen Margaret on the very next day (Feb. 18th). Hasted, who 
says he was slain in the battle, records also the incongruousy2i^/ 
that he was declared in Parliament, anno 1 Edward IV. (a.d. 
1461), ''to have been against law beheaded and murdered." 

Sir Thomas Keriel was twice married, and by his first wife, 
whose name is unknown, he left two daughters, co-heiresses; 

History of Walmer. 


■ the younger married John Fogge, of Repton, 
I Esq., afterwards knighted; and she, on the division of her 
\ father's estates, brought the manor of Walmer to her husband. 
)i3s man himself, came of a most 
; having been descended from Sir Francis 
n the Planiagenet period (lemp. Edw. 
s-legged eifigy" in Cheriton Church 
:lipot. Sir Thomas Fogge, grandfather of 
n the reigns of Riciiard II. and Henry IV., 


Sir John Fogge, a 
I distinguished family ; 
Fogge, a prominent n 
II. and III.), whose " 
is mentioned by Phil 
Sir John, flourished ii 

and was one of those who attended John of Gaunt lo Spain, in 
1386: there is a monument to his memory in the nave of 
Canterbury Cathedral, where he lies buried (ob. a.d. 1407). Sir 
John Fogge bad evm royal blood in his veins; for his grand- 
mother Joane, wife of Sir Thomas Fogge aforesaid, was 
daughter and heiress of Sir Stephen de Valence, a descendant 
from Wm. de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, half-brother, by the 
mother, to King Henry III. His father was Sir William Fogge. 

Living in the troublous times of the Wars of the Roses, 
Sir John took a prominent part in most of the principal events 
from the latter part of llie reign of Henry VI, to the accession 
of Henry VII. In the second battle of St. Albans he is 
supposed to have fought on the side of the Lancastrians, but, 
whether that was so or not, it is certain that he whs attached to 
Henry VI., during the last year of his reign, as Keeper of the 
Wardrobe. On the accession of Edward IV., he changed his 
colour from red to white, possibly having been brought over, as 
suggested by Mr. H. Smith in his interesting account of Sir 
John Fogge {Anh. Canl. ii, p. 104). in consequence of the 
marriage of Edward with the Lady Elizabeth Woodville, the 
first cousin of Alice Haut, Sir John's first wife, then living. 

Soon after this time we find Sir John in high favour with 
the King, whose confidence he retained to the end of the reign : 
he now became Treasurer of the Royal Household, a P.ivy 
Councillor and Chamberlain (jointly witb Sir John Scott) to 
Edward, Prince of Wales. In the next two reigns, however, he 
was not so fortunate. The dethronement of Edward V. in 14^3, 
was followed, 1 Rich. II., by the attainder of Sir John and the 
consequent loss of his estates. What became of him at this 
time there is no evidence to shew ; but it bas been suggested* 

• Arch. Canl., vol. v, p. 105. 

50 History of Walnur. 

that, having either lain concealed or escaped abroad till more 
propitious times, he was one of the " two thousand followers 
of Richmond when he landed in England, or was one of those 
who immediately repaired to his standard and played a part on 
the field of Bosworth." At all events Sir John was restored ta 
his honours and estates in the first year of the reign of Heniy 
VII. (A.D. 1485). 

Sir John survived his restoration less than six years, having 
departed this life in the fifth year of Henry VII. (a.d. 1490). 
His handsome altar-tomb, between the chancel and Fogge 
Chapel, at Ashford Church, still remains, and is figured and fully 
described in the second volume of the Archceologta Caniiana^ 
pp. 103, 106-7. He was a great benefactor to the town of 
Ashford ; for he founded there a ** college and choir, restored or 
rebuilt the church, and obtained the grant of a Fair " to be 
holden at Ashford four daies yearly."* 

Sir John Fogge was twice married and left issue by both, 
wives, but it is only with the second marriage, namely, with 
Alice Keriell who brought him the Manor of Walmer^ that we 
have now to do. From this match sprang Sir Thomas Fogge, knt., 
to whom this manor was devised by will at the death of 
his father. Sir Thomas was Sergeant Porter of Calais under 
Sir John Scott of Scotts-hall, the Marshal thereof, and con- 
tinued in this post during the reign of Henry VII. and Henry 
VIII. ; but beyond this fact there is little to record of him. He 
died 16th Aug., 1512, and was buried in Ashford Church, where 
'• a set of brasses *' formerly existed to his memor}'. [V. Arch. 
Cant,, ii, p. 108]. By his wife Eleanor, daughter of Sir Robert 
Brown, he left two daughters, co-heiresses, of whom Ann, the 
elder, married, firstly, William Scott, son of Sir John Scott of 
Scotts-hall, the Marshal of Calais above mentioned, and brother 
of Sir Reginald Scott ; and, secondly, Henry Isham. Alice, the 
second daughter, was also married twice; her first husband- 
having been Edward Scott of Mote in Iden, co. Sussex ; and 
the second. Sir Robert Oxenbridge of Brede (c. 1480). 

The family of Isham, to whom the manor descended 
in consequence of the second marriage of Ann Fogge,. 
had their seat at Lamport in Northamptonshire, Edward 

* Arch, Cant,i v, p. 128. 

History of Walmer. 51 

Isham, son of the above Henry Isham, having been Captain 
of Walmer Castle, and Mr. Henry Isham himself having 
figured in a dispute in 1576 with the previous captain, William 
Hawkes. On the death of Henry Isham, the manor of Walmer 
descended to his son, the above named Edward ; and he about 
the end of the year 1600,* left an only daughter and heiress, 
by name Mary, who carried it in marriage to Sir George Perkins. 
The latter settled the reversion of it, after his wife's decease, 
upon his daughter Mary, married to Sir Richard Minshull of the 
county of Chester, knight, afterwards created by King Charles I, 
in the eighteenth year of his reign, Baron Minshull of Minshull, 
CO. Chester. This Sir Richard Minshull, Philipot relates, " was 
descended from that eminent souldier Michael de Minshull, 
who, for his glorious service performed in the Quarrel of 
Richard I at the seige of Aeon in Palestine, had the assignment 
for ever of the crescent and star for the coat armour of the 
family." And he and the Lady Mary Perkins, widow of Sir 
George Perkins, concurred in a joint sale by which it passed 
in the second year of Charles I, to James Hugisen or Hugessen 
of Linsted. 

This Sir James Hugessen, for so he is described in the 
Calendar of State Papers, 1639-40, p. 613, subsequently con- 
veyed the manor to his son William Hugessen upon his 
marriage : and both father and son, together with Richard 
Sladden (no doubt the tenant of Walmer Court), were, in 1640, 
the defendants in proceedings instituted in the Court of 
Exchequer on behalf of the Crown, "touching the title to 
certain lands lying between the sea and Walmer Castle." These 
facts which I give on the indisputable authority of the sworn 
information in the above proceedings, shew that Hasted is 
wrong in his statement, that James Hugessen of Dover, who 
died in 1637, was the purchaser: the James Hugessen who 
purchased of Lady Mary Perkins and Sir Richard Minshaw, or 
Minshull, having been the son of the above. 

James the younger who resided at the manor of Sewards 
in Linsted, was sheriff of Kent in the seventeenth year of King 

* Edward Isham having died intestate, a grant of Administration was obtained 
from the Prerogative Court of Canterbmy, by Margery his "relict," 
Dec. 3rd, 1600. 

52 History of Walmer. 

Charles I., and died (possessed of Provenders) on Oct. 2Qd, 
1646, being buried in the chapel on the north side of Linsted 
church. And William his son, joint defendant with him in the 
proceedings above mentioned, was sheriff of the County in 1671 
(24 Chas. L), in which year he received the honour of knight- 
hood. As a delinquent he paid ;^600 composition for his estates, 
4th July, 1651. He died in 1675, having been three times 

The manor of Walmer continued in this family down to 
William Western Hugessen, Esq., who died possessed of it, in 
1 764, at the early age of 29 years ; leaving a widow, by name 
Thomasine, at whose death, in 1774, this property became the 
joint possession of their two surviving daughters, namely, 
Dorothy, who married, 23rd March, 1779, Joseph Banks of 
Revesby Abbey, co. Lincoln, Esq. (created a baronet, 24th 
March, 1781, and K.B.); and Mary, who, 27th July, 1780, 
married Edward Knatchbull, Esq., son and heir of Sir Edward 
Knatchbull, of Mersham, bart. ; and they, about the year 1789, 
joined in the sale of it to George Leith, of Deal, Esq., whose 
descendants retain it to this day. 

The value of the estate, at the end of the last century, was, 
according to Hasted, about £230 per annum ; and Mr. Leith 
purchased it for the sum of about £8,000. A Court Baron used 
formerly to be held for this manor. 




^^^B Dissolalion— Fate of Walmer Clmrch— Ancient Church Plate— Com- 

^^^^1 mtuicants teiHp. Elizabeth — The Great Rebellion — Solemn League and 

^^^^1 Covenanl^Tiie Walmer copy — Petition re Bromstone — The K.estoration 

^^^^B — Architectural features — MonumenlB — The Benefice — Incumbenla — 

^^^P Registers— St. Saviour's— The New Parish Church. 

^H de; 
^^ Bl< 

WALMER is within the ecclesiasticai jurisdiction of the 
diocese and archdeaconry of Canterbury, and rural 
I deanery of Sandwich. 

The ancient parish church, which is dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary,* is prettily situated on rising ground near 
the north-westward boundary of Upper Walmer. The trees of 
Walmer Court shelter it on the north and west, while in the 
churchyard, which slopes away to the southward, stand two 
venerable vew trees, which, if local tradition is worthy of credit, 
supplied Richard Coeur de Lion with a bow for the Third 

; is no record w 
I' dale when this old c 
J that it is not nienlion 
I that no church existed her 

which points conclusively to the actual 
h was founded, though from the fact 
1 Domesday Book, we may safely infer 
e at the time of that Survey. But in 

e of documentary evidence, with the single CKception 
I of the charter of Sir William deAuberville, senior, who flourished 
: reign of Richard I., and of which more will be said 
L presently, we have a tolerably clear indication of its age in its 
I architectural features. 

The walls of rough flint, with ashlar work, point to a very 
l<early period ; but we have more precise proof still in the two 

ICAattm of Sir fVm. de Auber- 

54 History of Walmer. 

grand old Norman arches, from whose mouldings we may fix 
the approximate date of foundation at circa a.d. 1120. 

It seems extremely probable that the church was built by 
one of the family of Auberville, to serve as the private chapel to 
their mansion, the ruins of which still remain close by in the 
grounds of VValmer Court. It is quite clear that the moat which 
surrounded the mansion, or Castle — for such in reality it must 
have been — enclosed also the church itself; and the very solid 
foundations of flint, which the sexton*s spade used to find so 
troublesome in the now disused portion of the old churchyard, 
go to prove that the church and mansion were very closely 

In A.D. 1192, Sir William de Auberville, senior, founded, in 
the neighbouring parish of Langdon, an abbey for Premon- 
stratensians or White Canons, and gave this church to it in pure 
and perpetual alms, as part of the endowment of it. This grant 
he confirmed by a charter, in which, after reciting the particulars 
of his gift ** to God, and the Blessed Mary, and the Blessed 
Thomas the martyr, and the Canons of the Order of Premon- 
stralensians," of the ** whole of his manor of Langdon," together 
with •* the church of the Blessed Mary of the said manor, and 
the church of the Blessed Mary of Walmer, and the church of 
St. Nicholas of Oxney, and the church of the Blessed Mary of 
Ledene " [Lyden] ; he goes on to say : — ** and all these I have 
granted unto them for the sake of the soul of my dear lord 
Henry the second. King of England, and for the soul of 
William my son, and of Emma my daughter, and for the soul of 
Hugo my father, and Wynana my mother, and of Ranulph de 
Glanville* and Bertha his wife, and for the safety of my own 
soul, and the souls of my wife and our heirs, and for the souls 
of our predecessors and successors.** 

Thus Walmer Church, ** with its glebe and other belong- 
ings,** became part of the possessions of Langdon Abbey ; Sir 
William de Auberville*s charter receiving in due course the 
confirmation of Sir Simon de Albrincis, the superior lord of the 
fee. This confirmation, however, does not appear to have 
been granted immediately after the charter of Sir William de 
Auberville ; for it is specially recited that it was ** on the petition 

* Sir Wm. de Auberville's father-in-law. 

History of Wahner. 55 

of Hugo," who was the son of Sir William, and his successor 
in the fee. 

The appropriation of Walmer Church continued with 
Langdon Abbey for the next three and a-half centuries ; and 
during the whole of that period, when the Papacy held its 
usurped power over the Church of England, the rites of the 
Roman Church were regularly performed within its walls. Few 
records of that period exist to throw light upon the history of 
the Church in Walmer, but we shall now proceed to the 
consideration of such materials as have come down to us. 

In the year 1288, Pope Nicholas IV., to whom at that time 
were paid the first-fruits and tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices 
in this country, granted the tenths, for a period of six years, to 
the King of England [Edward I.], ** towards defraying the 
Expense of an Expedition to the Holy Land " ; in consequence 
of which grant, a general Taxation of all benefices was 
immediately commenced by the King's Precept, and completed 
in the Province of Canterbury in a.d. 1291. And from the 
record of this transaction, we learn that the value of this 
benefice was at that time £10. 

In the following year, a.d. 1292, we have further mention 
of this church. For Sir Nicholas de Criol, who inherited the 
manor of Walmer through his mother Joan, daughter of Sir 
William de Auberville, junior, then confirmed to the Abbey of 
Langdon the charter of his ** abavus," that is, his great grand- 
father's father, Sir William de Auberville, senior. This later 
charter is dated from Westenhanger on St. Lawrence's day 
(August 10th), 30 Edward I. 

From this time we find no mention of Walmer Church for 
close upon a hundred years. There is, however, an interesting 
record belonging to the latter part of the next century, namely, 
a License granted by Archbishop Courtenay in a.d. 1387, and 
dated from Saltwood Castle, where he frequently resided, by 
which the monks of Langdon were authorized, in consideration 
of the ** poverty and indigence of their Monastery," and for 
" other sufficient grounds," to " supply in their own persons the 
cures of certain exile churches," Walmer being one of them. 

Thus matters continued until the reign of Henry VIII., 
when the King's quarrel with Rome took place. But then. 

56 History of Walmer. 

Henr}', having by the Act of Supremacy acquired the position of 
Supreme Head of the Church, appointed Cromwell his vice- 
gerent in all ecclesiastical matters ; and the latter, thus invested 
with the spiritual power, issued a commission, in the summer of 
1535, which led to the suppression of all the religious houses of 
less value than £200 per annum. 

Two of the principal commissioners appointed were 
Doctors Legh and Leyton, or Layton, who are described by 
Froude as ** ecclesiastical lawyers in holy orders," whose youth 
and impetuosity rendered them ** likely to execute their work 
rather thoroughly than delicately.'* It is with Leyton and his 
associates that we have now to do. 

From the natural position of this county, and the ease with 
which communication could be carried on with the continent, it 
came to pass that the monasteries in this neighbourhood early 
attracted the attention of the commissioners. Accordingly, we 
find them paying a visit to Langdon, as well as Dover and 
Folkestone, at the very outset of their labours. Langdon they 
reported to be ** sore in decaye," and ** the abbott thereof (as 
he is reported) a veray unthrifte yvell housbond, and of yll rule, 
and his convent veraye ignorant and poore." 

Founded for the sake of " a pure contemplative life," the 
poverty of the Abbey, which is proved beyond all doubt by the 
return known as the Valor Ecclesiasticus of Henry VIIL, might 
well have rendered it safe from the hand of the spoiler, if there 
had been no more solid ground than popular report for the 
other charges against the monastery. Unfortunatel}', however, 
there are records which prove that, long prior to this date, the 
inner life of the convent had not always been in accordance 
with their holy profession. It is true that Bishop Redman, 
the Visitor General of the Order of Premonstratensians, says of 
the canons of this Abbey, in 1482, ** pretty laudible in exterior 
matters, and that as Martha they administer all things," but we 
find him also saying, in 1488, that Brother John Ramsey was 
** protervum et inter fratres non ydoneum ad concordiam." In 
1491, from the Visitation Book of the same Bishop Redman, we 
learn that a canon, Edward Simon, was sentenced to " forty 
days in gravi culpa^ and banishment to Wendling Abbey" (in 
Norfolk), for the sin of adultery. And that sloth was not 
unknown amongst the brethren, appears from the sentence of 

History of Walmer. 57 

John Boston, one of the canons who, October 9th, 1497, was 
ordered to be ** put on bread and water every Friday till 
Christmas," as the penalty for not rising to Matins. 

Incredible therefore as seems the charge brought against 
the abbot by Dr. Leyton, it cannot be attributed altogether to 
the known animosity of that zealous commissioner ; since it is 
not the first instance of a crime of the kind being proved 
against an inmate of the abbey. That the guilty person was in 
this instance the abbot himself, no doubt hastened the dissolu- 
tion of Langdon. But Dr. Leyton shall tell his story in his own 
words, written to Thomas Cromwell,* as follows : — 

** Pleasit your goodness to understonde, that one Friday 
xxii Octobris, I rode bake with spede to take an inventarie of 
Fowlstone, and from thens I went to Langden. Wheras 
immediately discendyng from my horse, I sent Bartlett, your 
servant, with alle my servantes, to circumcept the abbay, and 
surely to kepe all bake dorres and startyng hoilles, etc. I my 
Self went alone to the abbottes logeyng jonyng upon the feldes 
and wode, evyn lyke a cony clapper fulle of startyng hoilles, a 
goode space knokyng at thabbottes dore nee vox nee sensus 
apparuit^ saveyng thabbottes litle doge that, within his dore faste 
lokked, bayede and barkede. I founde a short polax standyng 
behynde the dore, and with yt I dasshede thabbottes dore in 
peisses, ictu oculi, and set one of my men to kepe that dore, and 
aboute howse I go with that polax in my hande, ne forte, for 
thabbot is a daingerouse desperate knave and a hardy. But for 

a conclusion his gentle woman bestryrred hir stumpis 

towardes hir startying hoilles, and then Bartlett wachyng the 
pursuet towke the tendre damoisel, and after I had examynede 
hir, to Dover ther to the maire to sett hir in sum cage or prison 
for viii dais, and I browgt holy father abbot to Canterbury, and 
here in Christes-Churche I will leve hym in prison. In this 
soden doyng extempore to circumcept the howse and to serche, 
your servant John Antonie his men mervelede what felow I was, 
and so dyde the rest of thabbey, for I was unknowyn ther of al 
men. At last, I fownde hir apparel in thabbottes cofer. To 
tell yowe all this commodie, but for thabbot a tragedie, hit were 
to long. Now hit shalle appere to gentilmen of this contrey, 
and other the comons that ye shall not deprive or visite but 

* MS. Cotton, Cleop, E, w., fol. 2ig. 

58 History of Walmer. 

upon substanciall growndcs. Surely I suppos Gode hym self 
put hit in my mynde thus sodenly to make a serche at the 
begynning, bycause no chanon apperede in my syghte ; I 
supposede rather to have fownde .... amongst them then in 
thabbottes ehambre. The reste off alle this knaverie I shall 
differ till my cumyng unto yow, wiche shalbe with as muche 
spede as I can possible, doyng my assurede deligence in the 
reste. This momyng I ryde towardes the archbisshop to visite 
him ; now whan I have visite hys see, this night I will be at 
Feversham, " etc., etc. 

(Signed) ** Richard Layton, Preste." 

The Abbot of Langdon, William Sayer, and his ten brethren* 
of which they made over to the Commissioners everything that 
were now compelled to sign a Deed of Surrender, by the terms 
they possessed. This took place on November 13th, 1535, (27 
Henry VIII.), so that this monastery was the very first to be 
suppressed, though the priories of Folkestone and Dover only 
survived it by a very little ; the former having been entered on 
November 15th, and the latter on November 17th of the same 

Thus Walmer Church passed, together with the other 
property of the Abbey, into the impropnaiion^ which means 
improper possession of the King, who retained it for about 
two years ; at the expiration of which period he made a grant 
of the confiscated property to the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The date of this transaction was the 29th year of Henry VIII., 
since which time the patronage and appropriation of this 
benefice have remained with the Archbishop: for although 
Cranmer, ver}' shortly after the grant, exchanged the site of the 
abbey and other possessions of it with the Crown, as Hasted 
informs us, yet he retained the advowson and parsonage of 
this church, among others, by a particular exception in the deed. 

The value of the impropriation at this time, we learn from 
Dugdale, was £9 per annum ; but there seems to have been an 
additional payment to the rectory in the form of tribute, appar- 
ently from the manor of Walmer, of £2 7s. 

According to the terms of the deed of surrender, not even 
so much as the plate belonging to the abbey escaped con- 
fiscation ; Walmer may therefore be deemed especially fortunate 

History oj Walmer. 59 

in possessing a genuine mediaeval relic, in its ancient paten of 
silver gilt, supposed from the design upon it, the Tudor rose, 
to have been made about the year 1485. It may be mentioned 
here that a recent inquiry into the subject of Church Plate by 
Canon Scott Robertson, has shewn that in the whole diocese 
not a single Pre-Reformation chalice remains ; this remarkable 
disappearance being due chiefly, no doubt, to the superstitious 
substitution of ** decent communion cups " in place of the 
ancient massing chalices, as they were called, in the reign of 
Elizabeth. Only one other Pre-Reformation paten remains in 
this diocese, and that not so ancient as this one at Walmer. 
This parish also possesses an Elizabethan cup of the type then 
commonly adopted. 

The number of communicants here in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth was eighty-one, which probably included the whole 
adult population, as there seems to be no record of " recusants " 
or ** popish recusants " at Walmer. 

From this time there is nothing to record, in connection 
with Walmer Church History, till the time of the Great Rebellion; 
when the Puritans having obtained the ascendancy, a vigorous, 
and, for the time being, a successful attempt was made to root 
out episcopacy altogether. 

The Long Parliament, which assembled on November 3rd, 
1640, opened with ominous signs of the coming trouble. Violent 
speeches were made both against the church and the crown ; 
whilst the former was made to feel the effects of several hostile 

In the autumn of 1642 the Civil War commenced, and in 
the following year, the Parliament forces having suffered some 
reverses, an attempt was made to secure the help of the Scotch. 
The result was a promise of assistance to the parliament on 
condition that the latter would accept the Covenant, and 
accordingly commissioners from Scotland were met at St. 
Margaret's, Westminster, by both houses and the assembly of 
divines, on September 25th, 1643, when the Solemn League 
and Covenant was formally subscribed. 

Parliament having thus adopted the Covenant, great pressure 
was employed to enforce its general acceptance. A copy was 
ordered to be hung up in every church, and, by an ordinance of 

6o History of Walmer. 

both houses passed in the following February, it was to be 
solemnly taken by all persons above the age of eighteen years. 

The committee for removing ** scandalous," that is, loyal 
clergy, had already been busy for some time, and the pulpits 
were rapidly being filled with men well affected towards the 
parliament ; though these efforts had so far been directed chiefly 
against men of eminence and learning. Committees were now, 
however, appointed for the country ; and they were to summon 
all the clerg)', who were both to subscribe the covenant and 
cause their congregations to do the same, on pain of deprivation. 
By the various ordinances made at this time, as many as seven 
thousand clergymen were deprived of their livings ; while no less 
than ten thousand are said to have been " silenced." But let us 
see what happened at Walmer. 

On the 10th March in this year [a.d. 1644],* after having 
no doubt made ** some solemn exhortation" to his parishioners, 
as required by the unconstitutional enactment of the parliament, 
Mr. Anthony Bromstone, the ** minister " of the parish, pro- 
ceeded to read the covenant from the pulpit, ** distinctly and 
audibly." The congregation then stood ** with their heads 
uncovered and their right hands lifted up bare," this being the 
manner of signifying their approval ; and then followed the 
ceremony of subscription. 

The first to append his name to the iniquitous document, 
was Anthony Bromstone himself; who was thus made practically 
to abjure his holy orders. No doubt the position was a hard 
one for him, the only alternative being deprivation and conse- 
quent loss of the means of subsistence : for those clergymen who 
refused the covenant, were even forbidden to earn a livelihood 
by tuition. 

The " minister " having subscribed, the congregation, to 
the number of sixty persons, proceeded to do the like, as many 
of them at least as were able to write (and these numbered 
twenty-two, or rather more than one-third of the number 
present) ; the rest making their marks, all different, according to 
what I believe was the general custom at that time among those 
who were unable to write. 

* The Walmer copy of the S. L. and Covenant is dated March lOth 1643, 
that is, of course, old style ; the year having been reckoned to begin, 
legally and ecclesiastically, until 1752, on March 25th. 

History of Walmer. 

"A Soli 

And defence of Relligion the honoi 
And the peace and safetie of the th' 

"We Nobh 
Burgesses, Minis 
in the Kingdor 



The following is a verbatim copy of the document in ques- 
tion, which, with the signalures then appended, is still preserved 
in the old parchment register belonging to the parish : — 

for Reformation 
happinesse of the King 
Cingdomes of England, 
Scotland & Ireland. 
1, Barons, Knights, Gentlemen, Citizens, 
of ihe Gbospell, and Commons of all sortes 
of England, Scotland & Ireland, by the 
prouidence of God, lining under our King. And being of one 
Reformed relligion, hauing before our eyes the glory of God, 
and the aduancBment of the Kingdome of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the honour and happinesse of the King's Maiestie and his 
posteritie, And the true publicke libertie, safetie & peace of the 
kingdoms wherein eueryone's priuate condition is included. 
And calling to minde the treacherous and bloody plotts, con- 
spiracies, attempts and Practises of the Enimies of God against 
the true Relligion, and professors thereof in all places especiallie 
in these three Kingdomes euer sine the Reformation of Relligii 
And how mutch theire rage, power, & presumption, are of late 
and at ibis time increased & exercised, wherof the deplorable 
estate of the Church & Kingdome of Ireland, the distressed 
estate of the Church & Kingdome of England, And the 
dangerouse estate of the Church and Kingdome of Scotland are 
present &. publicke testimonies. We haue now at last (after other 
means of Supplication, Remonstrance, Protestations, & 
Sufferings) for the preseruation of our selues, & our Relligion 
from vlter ruine & destruction. According to the commendable 
practise of these Kingdomes in (ormer times, And the Example 
of God's people in other Nations, after mature deliberation, 
resolued & determined to enter into a mutuall & solemne leauge 
& couenant, wherein we all subscribe. And each one of vs for 
Mmselfe, wi" our handes lifted up to the most high God doe 
I • A copy of the Solemn I.eague and Covenant which I have seen amoEgst the 
Ckki War Trmts, published in June, 1648, has a very different preamble 
to the above, which could hardly have been intended for general adoption ; 
though it was, very likely, the form drawn up for the Lards, Commons, 
and Divines assembled at Westminster, a5lh Sept,, 1843. 

62 History of Walmer. 


** That we shall sincerely Reallie & constantly through the 
grace of God. indeauour in our seuerall places & callings the 
preseruation of the Reformed Relligion in the Church of Scot- 
land, in Doctrine, Worship, Discipline & Gouerment against our 
common enimies, the Reformation of Relligion in the Kingdome 
of England, and Ireland in Doctrine, Worship, Discipline & 
Gouerment, according to the Word of God, & the example of 
the best reformed churches. And shall indeauour to bring the 
Churche of God in the three Kingdomes to the nearest coniunc- 
tion and uniformitie in Relligion, confession of faith, fforme of 
Church Gouerment, Directorie for Worship & Catechizing, That 
we and our posterity after vs may as Bretheren Hue in faith and 
loue, and the Lord may delight to dwell in the midst of vs. 


•* That we shall in like manner without respect of psons 
indeauour the extirpation of Poperie, Prelaise (that is Church 
gouerment by Archbishopps, Bishopps theire Chancellours and 
Commissaries, Deanes, Deanes & Chapters, Archdeacons, and 
all other Ecclesiasticall officers depending vppon that Hier- 
archie) Superstition, Heresie, Schisme, Profanesse and What- 
soeuer shall be founde to be contrarie to sounde Doctrine and 
the power of godlinesse, least we ptake in other mens sinnes, 
and thereby be in danger to receiue of theire plauges. And that 
the Lord may be one & and his name one in the three King- 


" We shall w**^ the same Synceritie, Reallitie, & Constancie 
in o' seuerall vocations indeauour w*^ o' estates & Hues, 
mutuallie to preserue the Rights and Priuiledges of the ParHa- 
ment, and the Liberties of y® Kingdomes, And to preserue & 
defend the Kings Maiestie, person and Authoritie in the Pre- 
seruation and defence of the true Religion & Liberties of the 
Kingdomes, that the worlde may beare witnes with our con- 
sciences of o"* Loyaltie, And that we have no thought or intention 
to diminish his Maiesties iust power & greatnesse. 


" We shall also w*^ all faith fullness indeauour the discouerie 
of all such as haue beene, or shall be Incendiaries, malignants or 
euin instruments by hindring the reformation of Relligion, 

.- *\, 

History of WalTtter. 



diuiding the King from his people or one of the Kingdomes fro 
another or making any ffaction or parties amongst the people 
contrary to this leauge & Couenant, that they may be brought 
to publicke triall, & receiue condigne punishment As the degree 
of theire offences shall require or deserue or the Supreme 
Judicatories of both Kingdomes respecliuely, or others hauing 
power from them for that effect shall iudge c 

I "And whereas the happinesse of a blessed Peace between 

these Kingdomes (denied in former times to our progenitors) is 
by the good prouidence of God granted vnlo vs, & hath beene 
lately concluded, and setled by both Parliaments, we shall each 
one of vs according to our place and interest indeauour that 
they may remaine conioyned in a firm peace & vnion to all 
posteritie. And that iustice may be done upon the willfuU 
Jopposers thereof in manner expressed in the precedent Articles. 


We shall also according to our places & callings in this 

common cause of Relligion, Liberlie & Peace of the Kingdome 

d defend all those y' enter into this league & couenant, 

in the maintaining and pursuing thereof. And shall not suffer 

lues directly or indirectly by whatsoeuer Combination 
psuasion or terrour to be diuided & withdrawne from the blessed 
, Vnion & Coniunction whether to make defection to the conlrarie 
rpart, or to giue our selues to a detestable indifference or 
Neutralitie in this cause w"" so mutch concerneth the glorie of 
God the good of the Kingdome & the honour of the King, but 
continue therein against all opposition and promote ihe same 
according to our power Against all letts and impediments w" 
soeuer, and what we are not able our selues to suppresse, or 
overcome, we shall reueaie and make knowne that it may be 
timely presented or remoucd, all which we shall doe as in the 
sight of God. 

"And because these kingdomes are guiltie of many sinnes 
and prouocations against God, and his sonne Jesus Christ as is 
too manifest by the present distresses and dangers the fruit 
thereof We professe and declare before God and the worlde our 
Vnfeigned desire to he humbled for our own sinnes, And for the 
sinnes of these Kingdomes, Specially if we have not vallewed as 
we ought the inestimable benefit of the Ghospell, that we haue 

64 History of Walmer. 

not laboured for the puritie & power thereof, And y* we haue 
not indeauoured to receiue Christ into o' hartes nor to walke 
worthie of him in o>^ Hues, which are the causes of other sinnes, 
and transgressions so mutch abounding amongst V8» And our 
true and unfeigned purpose, desire & endeauour for our selues, 
and all others vnder our power and charge, both in publicke 
& in priuate, for all duties we owe to God and man, to amend 
our Hues, And each one to goe before another in the example of 
a reaH reformation that the Lord may turne away his wrath, and 
heauy indignation, And Establish these churches and King- 
domes in truth and peace : And this couenant we make in the 
presence of Allmightie God the Searcher of all hartes, w^ a true 
intention to performe the same, as we shaU answeare at the 
great day when the secrets of all hartes shall be disclosed, Most 
humblie beseeching the Lord to strengthen us by his holy spirit 
(sic) for this end and to blesse our desires and proceedings with 
such successe as may be deliuerance & safetie to his people, and 
incouragement to other christian churches groaning vnder, or in 
danger of the yoke of Antichristian Tyranny To joyne in the 
same or like association and Covenant to the glorie of God, the 
inlargement of the Kingdome of Jesus Christ and the peace and 
tranquillitie of Christian Kingdomes and common wealths." 

The immediate result of these proceedings would, of course* 
be the abandonment of the Prayer Book, and the adoption of 
the Directory for Public Worship ; which provided amongst 
other things, that, *' at the receiving of the Lord's Supper, the 
table .... is to be so placed that the communicants may sU ahmU 
it r and that burials should be performed without any prayers 
or religious ceremony. 

That all the ordinances of this period received implicit 
obedience at Walmer, the pliant disposition of the pastor 
forbids us to doubt. That the surplice was disused goes without 
saying ; that the chancel floor was levelled, its present condition 
will testify ; that the holy offices of the church were neglected, 
the pages of the parish registers, which present a blank for all 
that period, abundantly prove. 

But Anthony Bromstone continued to enjoy his benefice ; 
and what kind of enjoyment that was likely to afford him, may 
be gathered from the following petition, signed by five and 

History of Walmer. 



" That, whereas 1 
neither a persecutor r 
but a diligent preachi 
having lived many yeei 
ance for the maim 

twenty parishioners, the date of which is shewn from Sir Edward 
Dering's endorsement to have been 25 January, 16il : — 

'■ Petition to the House of Commons (that the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, as impropriator, may be made to increase the 
income of the Vicar) from the parishioners of Walmer. 

"The humble Informacion and Peticion of the Inhabitants 
of Walmer in the county of Kent, and diocese of Canterburie 
sheweth and certyfieth. 

r minister, Mr. Anthony Bromston, is 
■ innovator, nor a scandalous person ; 
and of honest life and convercion, 
amongst us : and whereas the allow- 
\ of the minister there is not above svi ■> 
per annum, wherewith it had not been possible for him to 
susteinehimselfe, his wife and many children, had it not been 
for the free contribucions of some few wel! disposed people well 
knowing his merit and integrity, and pitying his small allowance. 
And, whereas the Rectorie or Parsonage there is worth 100'' by 
the yere, whereof he receiveth no part. And where also a 
pension of viiii" per annum ought to issue out of the said 
parsonage, and of right to belong unto him as Vicar (as may 
appeare by Record in the Court of Augmentacion) whereof he 
yet never received part, notwithstanding peticion made for the 
same to the Archbishop of Canterbury, to whome the said 
parsonage doth belonge. 

" May it therefore please 3'ou (in tender care for the good 
-of our soules) to take some course that a competent allowance 
may be provided for the maintenance of a preaching minister 
amongst us ; and if it shall seeme fitt unto your wisedomes that 
the arreares also of the said pension may be restored unto him, 
for the present relief of him (being a sickly weake man) and for 
the good of his wife and children. 

" And we the parishioners (together with him and his) shall 
be bound to pray for your pious endeavours, and for the whole 
assembly of the High Court of Parliament." 

We pass now to the period of the Restoration, when 
Anthony Bromstone, if still living, would have found himself 
in rather an awkward fix. By the Act of Uniformity which was 
now passed (A.D. 1662), the Church of England was reinstated 


66 History of Walmer. 

in its full privileges and every clergyman wa» required to declare 
his unfeigned assent and consent to the book of Common 
Prayer. The penalty for non-compliance before the ensuing 
feast of St. Bartholomew, was deprivation. From 1800 to 2000 
non-conforming ministers suffered by this enactment ; but 
poor Anthony Bromstone, happily for him, had passed beyond 
the reach of this world's troubles, for he died in 1647. fiut 
what about his successor, William Stanley, who came to Walmer 
at the time when the very name, dignity and function of all 
archbishops and bishops had just been abolished, and their 
possessions sold "for the payment of the just and necessary debts 
of the kingdom.'** He no doubt held from the committee of 
triers the instrument in writing granted to approved preachers, 
and without which no one could be possessed of any benefice. 
Alas, poor human nature ! he seems to have been of the same 
accommodating disposition as his predecessor ; for he managed 
to tide over the difficulties, and retained the benefice till hia 
death in 1680. 

It may be here mentioned, as illustrating the sufferings of 
the Royalists in these parts during the Civil War troubles, that 
Vincent Denn, in July 1660, petitioned for the Surveyorship of 
Deal, stating that he served the late King by conveying letters 
to and from the fleet — probably during the revolt of 1648 — and 
was compelled to leave the country ; while his father who was 
" servant to the two last Kings," suffered imprisonment and lost 
his all. This Vincent Denn was an ancestor of the families of 
Denne, now living in Deal and Walmer. 

After this time there is nothing in the church history of this 
place of sufficient interest to record here. We therefore proceed 
to a description of such architectural features as are worthy of 

At the present time, the church consists of a small nave 
and chancel, the former of which has on its north side a large 
ugly excrescence, added in 1816 and 1826. There is a porch 
on the south ; and surmounting the west gable, a small belfry^ 
formerly containing two bells, one of them made by Joseph 
Hatch in 1635, and the clock presented in memory of General 

♦ By an ordinance dated 9 Oct., 1646. 

History of Walmer, 


Monins by his wife in 1869. In the angle formed by the porch 
with the nave is a small vestry. 

The original structure was a small Norman church of very 
good type: and consisted of a nave, S9Jft, by 18ft., and a 
chance!, 19rt. by 16^ft., the former having north and south 
doorways. Judging from the masonry- which still surmounts 
the west gable, and against which the modem belfry has been 
erected, it may also have had a small bell-turret. 

The original walls of rough flint, which are partly stuccoed 
and have no buttresses, are still standing, e.tcept on the north 
side ; where the ugly brick excrescence with a heavy gallery on 
its three sides, has been added ; in size about twice as large as 
the original nave, from which it has an ascent of four stone 

The south doorway, situated within the porch — the latter 
is modern— is a good specimen of Norman work. It has a 
semicircular arch with various kinds of chevron, double billet, 
and sunk lozenge mouldings. The key-stone looks rough above 
as if an ornament of some kind had been broken off. Each 
jamb has a shaft with cushion capital, and plain abacus con- 
tinued horizontally : that on the eastward side has also some 
masonic marks. The arch itself is somewhat lofty, though this 
feature is obscured by the accumulation of soil without, which 
necessitates a step from the path to the porch, and another into 
the nave. 

In the nave, the original limit of which on the north side 
f is clearly indicated by projecting masonry, 2ft, Sin. thick, are 
I some Early English features. It has no original windows. But 
in the south wall is a large square- headed window, with extern- 
ally a label and head corbels. Below the latter window, partly 
concealed by a modem pew, is a trefoil-headed niche, which 
may have been a piscina. The font stands near the doorway 
and has what seems to be an ancient bowl, but of the roughest 
description, octagonal, with wide chamfers above and below: 
the modem pedestal is also octagonal: and there is an ugly 
cover of oak, in shape an octagonal pyramid, with the date 1664, 
In the ceiling in front of the large square window and over a 
point about midway between it and the "Duke's Pew" (ihe 
latter has been subdivided into three pews since 1852), is the 

k from which once hung that abomination the sounding- 
I board. 

68 History of Walmer. 

The chancel arch is a fine specimen of Norman work. It 
is semicircular, inclining rather to the horse-shoe, plain on the 
east side, but richly embellished towards the west with sank 
lozenge, flat billet, and various kinds of chevron mouldings. 
Each of its jambs has a shaft with cushion capital, the latter 
being so constructed as to suggest the probability of their having 
been designed to support a rood-beam. The abaci, which are 
continued horizontally, are enriched with a rude ornamentation 
somewhat resembling the sunk star. The soffit is quite plain. 

The chancel, which as far as the sacrarium (where there is 
a single step) is on the same level with the nave, has also Early 
English features. The east window, whose jambs were renewed 
in 1866, is a single lancet, and there is a similar window in the 
south wall. One on the north is semicircular-headed. Within 
the sacrarium, there is, in the south wall, a niche with a flattened 
trefoil head ; and immediately below the first niche is another 
much smaller; but there is some doubt as to the respective 
purposes of these two niches. Probably the larger one was an 
aumbry, or cupboard for the sacred vessels ; and the lesser may 
have served as a credence, though its size appears too small. 
The south wall has, also, a low side window, or lychnoscope,* 
which from repeated '* improvements " has been entirely spoiled. 
On the north wall, immediately opposite the lychnoscope, is a 
bracket for a statuette. c 

This church has now been superceded as the parish church 
by the new one consecrated in 1888. 

The monuments of the old parish church are many of them 
of more than ordinary interest, while among the hatchments is 
that of the Duke of Wellington, who has no other memorial at 
Walmer than his imperishable name. Tablets record the names, 
and in some instances the deeds, of many military and naval 
men ; and, pointing back to the more distant past, are the 
memorials of the families of Boys and Fogge, and of the 
brothers L'Isle, William and Edmund ; the latter the personal 
friend of Queen Elizabeth, and twenty-two years captain of 
Walmer Castle. The following are some of the more important 

♦ The " low side window " is very generally believed to have been intended 
for lepers to assist at mass, but several other theories are current. 

History of Wabner. 


In memorie of Willm r L'Isle one of the Esq" : for the 
bodie of Kinge James, & of ovr Royall Soveraigne Kinge 
Charles whose science in the artes lovnges & antiquities the 
Vniversilie of Cambridge, & his bookes extant do manifest, as 
also of Edmond L'Isle his brother, Sewer of the Chamber to 
Qveene Eliz: Kinge lames and ovr said soveraigne Kinge 
Charles, having been xxi years Cap : of Walmer Castle linially 
descended from the Lordes De L'Isle & Rovgemont : and from 
Sir Jo : Lisle one of the first Fovnders of the Ho" Order of the 
Garter & Robert his sonne who gave vnto Kinge Ed. the third 
Ixxsvi Knights Feese as is recorded, and from VVarin Fitz-Gerold 
Chamberlain to Kinge John & Isabell de Fortibus Covntess of 
Devon. The sayed William Departed this life in September* 
1637 & the sayed Edmond the First of October Following, and 
are both heere interred leavinge Nichs Lisle their brother 
possesser of their antient inheritance of Wilbvrgham L'Isles in 
the County of Cambridge who married Mary one of y" Coheirs 
of Nichs. Broke by Jane coheire of Thomas Colt of Essex 
Esq™, W* Nichs. for the dve respect bee bare vnto his said 
brothers caused this monvment to bee erected anno 1637. 

To the memory of Captain Richard Budd Vincent of the 
Royal Navy and C.B. whose remains are deposiled in a vault 
near this tablet. He was made a Companion of the Honorable 
Military Order of the Bath with appropriate augmenlation to 
his arms for his gallant conduct in defending a valuable convoy 
in the Mediterranean when in command of H.M. Sloop 
Arrow of 28 short guns and 132 men (having under his orders 
H.M. Bomb Acheron Captain Farquhar, of 8 guns and 67 men). 
He encountered on the 4 of February 1805, two powerful French 
frigates L'Horlense of 48 guns and L' Incorrupiibk of 42 guns, 
and 650 men including troops, and foughE the latter in close 
action, for one hour and 20 minutes. Great part of his brave 
crew being killed or wounded, and his convoy (which had lost 
only 3 out of a fleet of 32 vessels) being in safety, and his own 
ship utterly disabled, he was compelled to strike his colours, 
having barely time to save the remainder of his people, when 

* This is clearly an error as the register records his burial in the previous 
month (Aug. 28|. 

70 History of Walmer. 

the Arrow sunk. L*Horiense, the other frigate of 48 guns, 
chased and captured the Acheron after a brave defence, and then 
burnt her. 

He married July 1805, Philippa youngest daughter of the 
late Captain Richard Norbury R.N. of Droitwich, in the county 
of Worcester, and died at Deal, 18th August 1831, aged 64. 

S.M. of Sir Henry Harvey, Knight of the Bath, Admiral 
of the White Squadron of His Majesty's Fleet. An ofl&cer who 
passed through all the stages of the Naval Service, with 
exemplary conduct, etc.. and solely by merit rose to high 
command. He eminently distinguished himself in the ever- 
memorable Victory of the 1st of June, 1794 ; and was afterwards 
(without solicitation) appointed Commander-in-Chief on the 
Leeward Island Station, where he acquired a Fortune, by sub- 
duing the Enemies of his King and Country ; and for his 
services there, during the years 1796-1799, His Majesty was 
graciously pleased to confer upon him the Most Honourable 
Order of the Bath. He died 28 Dec, 1810, in his 74th year. 

Also of Dame Elizabeth, relict of the above ; ob. 7 Mar., 
1823, in her 85th year. 

S.M. of Lieut. Col. Robert Gordon, who, for the long 
pmod of 32 yrs., served the Hon. E. L Co., on the Bombay 
Establishment ; and from 1798 until 1814 was Adjutant-General 
of the Bombay Army. His professional merit, as an honourable 
and useful officer, was appreciated and acknowledged by the 
Governors and Commanders-in-Chief under whom he served, 
etc. Obt. 1 Aug., 1835, in his 72nd year, leaving Hannah his 
relict, and an only son Robert Edward. Buried in a vault in the 
church of St. George the Martyr, Canterbury. 

S.M. of William Willmot Henderson, Esq., C.B., K.H., 
Rear Admiral of the White, ob. at sea, July 12th, 1854, on his 
return from the command of Her Majesty's naval forces on the 
South East coast of South America, in the 66th year of bis age. 
He was present at many actions, Trafalgar, Lissa, in arduous and 
successful boat service at Regosniza, Guadaloupe, and com- 
manded H.M.S. Edinburgh, 72, in the operations on the coast 

History of Walmer. 




or Syria in 1840. He was a magistrate for the Ciaque Ports, 
and had been captain of Sandown Castle. 

Also M. of Margaretta, his beloved wife, dau. of the late 
John Henderson, Esq., of Middle Deal ; who ob. at Walmer, 
17 Nov. 1853, aged 62. 

S.M. of Sir John Hill. Kt., Rear Admiral of the White 
Squadron, Captain of Sandown Castle, ob. 20 Jan., 1855. aged 
81 years. He was first lieut. of the Minalaur in the battle of 
the Nile in 1798. Served with the army in Egypt under Gen. 
Sir R, Abercrombie in 1801. Employed more than 60 yrs. in the 
military and civil departments of the Royal Navy until promoted 
to the rank of Flag Officer ; during which he attracted the 
notice and gained the esteem of F.M. Duke of Wellington. 
Conspicuous for indefatigable zeal, and activity, his valuable 
services were on several occasions acknowledged and honoured 
by his sovereigns' approbation. 

S.M. of Captain Peter Fisher, R.N., late superintendent of 
H.M. dockyard, Sheerness : who expired suddenly whilst 
actively engaged in the zealous performance of his public duties 
in that establishment, on 28 August, 1844, in his 64th year ; he 
having previously impaired his health by his unceasing exertioAs 
in the due fulfilment of those duties. After a long and faithful 
servitude to his country of 51 yrs., during which period he was 
wounded upon several occasions, he finally closed a life con- 
spicuous for Christian virtues and high professional merit, 
universally esteemed and respected. 

Also of Mary Anne, widow of the above, dep. 7 Sept., 
1861, aged 79. 


D[eo] 0[plimo] M[aximo] 
3[alvatori] MemoriEe Annse 
[ Christoph[eri] Boys castelli 
Walmeriensis Pro-Prtefecti Ux- 
oris, Thom<e Fog Armigeri 
Filife Quae 10 Liberos coujugi 


To God our Saviour, Most 
Excellent, Most Mighty. To 
the memory of Anne, Wife of 
Christopher Boys, Captain of 
Walmer Castle, and daughter 
of Thomas Fog, Esq., who 

72 History of Walmer. 

peperit. lis et omnibas virtu- bore lOchildren to her husband, 
turn omnium exemplum edid- To them and to all she pre- 
[it] s[ua] vita 49 An[norum'| seated an example of every 
necnon et morte die ix Octob- virtue during her life of 49 
[ris] An[no] D[omini] 1680 years, as well as in her deaths 
ConQux] M[aeren8] P[osuit]. on the ninth day of October 

Anno Domini 1680. Her sor- 
rowing husband dedicated [this 

The living of Walmer is a vicarage of the yearly value at 
the present time of £390 (including St. Saviour's), and a house. 
There are seven acres of glebe. Walmer is not valued in the 
Kings* Books. 

In consequence of the peculiar circumstances of this 
benefice, appropriated as it was to Langdon Abbey, whose 
monks successfully evaded all the canons and decrees of councils 
no less than the statutes bearing on the ordination of vicarages, 
it is a matter of no small difficulty to ascertain any particulars of 
the incumbents of Walmer before the Reformation. The 
Lambeth Registers are of no assistance, because the monks of 
Langdon were independent of the Archbishop, and simply 
deputed one of their own number to perform the duty. To 
search the records connected with the abbey, scattered as they 
are, is simply an impossibility, although in many ways the 
search, if feasible, might be of interest. However, through the 
kindness of Mr. F. Madan, sub-librarian of Bodley*s Library, 
Oxford, one pre -Reformation incumbent has been hunted down. 
This is **fraier Willielmus Waynflete," who is alluded to as 
"vicarius de Walmere," about a.d. 1491, in the Visitation Book 
of Bishop Redman, the previously-mentioned Visitor-General of 
the Premonstratensian Order. The same William Waynfleet 
was, according to Dugdale, Abbot of Langdon in 1482. The 
following is as complete a list as I have been able to procure : — 

William Waynflete, 1491. 
Christopher Burton, 1560. 
William Osborne, M.A., 1609. 
Christopher Dowling, M.A., 1616. 
Anthony Bromstone, 1617. 
William Stanley, 1647L8]. 

History of Walnur. 


Thomas Paramor, M.A.. 1680. 

John Ramsay, M.A., 1701. 

Edward Lloyd. B.A., 1724. 

Richard Goodall, 1741. 

Sayer Rudd. M.D., 1743. 

John Maximilian De L'Angle, M.A., 1757. 

Robert Phillips, M.A.. 1772. 

Thomas Tims. M.A., 1788. 

Thomas George Clare, M.A., 1811. 

Edward Owen, M.A., 1819. 

Ralph Drake Backhouse, M.A., 1833. 

Henry William Wilberforce, M.A.. 1841. 

William Bucktoii Holland. M.A., 1843. 

John Branfil! Harrison. M.A., 1854. 
All the above, except William Waynflete, were licensed to 
the incumbency as "curates," or perpetual curates only; but 
during the incumbency of the Rev. John Branfill Flarrison, 
A.D. 1866 (Nov. 8th), the living was constituted a vicarage. 
The following is a list of the vicars from the above date : — 

John Branfill Harrison. M,A., 1866. 
I Alexander Ewing, 1869. 

I Alfred Radford Symonds. M.A., 1877. 

Fowler Babinglon Blogg. M.A,, 1883. 

Henry Venn, M,A.. 1893. 
At the dissolution of Langdon Abbey, the stipend of the 
curate, or vicar of Walmer, was £8 per annum ; and in 1641, 
when the parishioners petitioned the House of Commons to 
compel the Archbishop (Land) " to increase the income of the 
vicar," it was stated that his "allowance" was about £16 per 
annum; but besides this there was the pension of £8 payable 
out of the parsonage or rectory, and it was the non-payment of 
this said sum of £8 a year that led to the petition. 

The value of the living being so small, it is not surprising 
that most of the earlier incumbents, in the list we have given, 
held some other preferment. Four of them held the rectory of 
Ripple ; two that of East Langdon ; Mr. John Ramsay, one of 
those who held East Langdon, was also vicar of Heme, and 
chaplain to the Ordinary at Portsmouth . while Mr. Owen 
contrived, besides holding the vicarage of Chislet. where he 
seems to have resided, to combine with his other duties those 

74 History of Walmer. 

of Archdeacon of St. David*s — thoagh, unless he had wings, it 
is difficult to sec how he could have transported himself to his 
distant sphere of usefulness, with that rapidity that may some- 
times have been desirable. 

The parish registers begin here in the year 1560-1. They 
contain, besides the usual entries, many additional particulars of 
matters affecting the parish, such as the Solemn League and 
Covenant, and so on. 

The register of burials contains, in addition to the inter- 
ments in the churchyard, a record of many persons buried in the 
grounds attached to the Royal Naval Hospital and the North 
Barracks in Lower Walmer. A good many of these were 
prisoners of war, especially Russians ; while many more were 
our own countrymen, returned from foreign wars to die of their 
wounds, or from disease, contracted in the service of their 
country. On August 17th, 1801, as many as seventeen burials 
are recorded from H.M.S. Medusa^ and two more on the 
following day. In February, March, and April, 1809, at the 
time of the ill-fated Walcheren expedition, no fewer than sixty 
entries occur of men belonging to the 52nd Regiment. 
Altogether, 1277 naval and military burials are recorded during 
the eight years from 1805 to 1812 inclusive ; and it is very likely 
that many others took place which were never entered at all in 
the parochial registers. 

In consequence of the large increase in the population, 
especially in Lower Walmer, St. Saviour's Church was erected 
on the Strand, in 1848, at a cost of £1530. 

The new parish church at Upper Walmer was built in 1887. 
It is in every respect worthy of its sacred purpose ; and has 
already been adorned with many appropriate gifts ; including a 
handsome reredos, pulpit, lectern, and several coloured windows. 
A tower has recently been added in memory of the late Earl 
Granville ; but, at present, it lacks the spire for which it was 
designed by Sir Arthur Blomfield. 




The Bulwarks at Walmer and Deal— FoundatioQ of the Castles— EatabliiJi- 
menl and Pay — Descripticm — Reinforcements — The Spaniili Armada — 
Encroachment of the Sea — Garrison presentments — Decay of the Castles — 
Hollanders made to salute — Similar incident with the French — Repairs 
to the Castles — The King v. The Lord of the Manor — Engagement 
between Spanish and Dutch fleets. 

BEFORE the erection of the three castles on the Downs by 
King Henry VIII., it appears that this part of the coast 
was protected by a succession of earthworks, at no great distance 
from each other; of which the two most important, known as 
the Great and Little Bulwark, were situated within the parish 
of Walmer, From a rough drawing of the shore adjacent lo 
Walmer Castle, which occurs in the Domestic Slate Papers of 
Charles I., it seems that the former of these works, known also 
as the filacke Bulwarke, must have been situated at the spot 
now occupied by Walmer Lodge ; while the Little or White 
Bulwatke was about midway between this and Deal Castle, that 
is, somewhere near the site of the present lifeboat-house. To 
the northward of Deal Castle, between it and Sandown, were 
two more earthworks ; and the sites of the three castles were 
also occupied by similar defences. Hasted speaks of some of 
eminences of earth," as he calls ihem, as still remaining 
Ui his time, and says that they had embrasures for guns : and 
(the previously mentioned sketch, in the State Papers, makes it 
appear extremely probable that they were connected one with 
another by means of trenches ; so that thus a complete chain of 
fortifications was established along this shore, nearly three 
miles in length. 

Henry VIII., however, deemed the Bulwarks insufficient 
^protection for his Kingdom, and accordingly commenced the 
I building of these and other castles in Kent and Susses; his 
I xeason for this step being recorded by Lambarde in the following 

76 History of Walmer. 

terms: — "Onely of this I hold me well assared, that King 
Henrie the Eighte, having shaken off the intolerable yoke of 
the Popish tyrannic, and espying that the Emperour was 
offended for the divorce of Qaeen Katharine his wife, and that 
the French King had coupled the Dolphine his sonne to the 
Pope's neice, and maried his daughter to the King of Scots, 
so that he might more iustly suspect them all, than safely trust 
any one, determined (by the aide of God) to stand upon his 
owne gardes and defence : and therefore with all speede, and 
without sparing any cost, he builded Castles, platfourmes, and 
blockhouses, in all needful places of the Realme. And amongst 
other, fearing least the ease and advauntage of descending on 
lande at this part, should give occasion and hardinesse to the 
enemies to invade him, he erected (near together) three fortifi- 
cations, which may at all times keepe and beate the landing 
place, that is to say, Sandowne, Deale and Walmere."* 

Very early in his reign Henry had been considering the 
subject of coast defence, as is shewn by the statute 4 Henry 
VIII., cap. I., entitled, "An Act for making of Bulwarkes by 
the Sea Side " ; which after reciting the danger of invasion, 
authorized the erection of Bulwarks on any man's land, where- 
ever they might be deemed necessary, and ** no payment to be 
demanded for any of the Premises." But the above quotation 
from Lambarde shews the construction of these particular 
castles to have been undertaken at a date immediately sub- 
sequent to the quarrel with Rome (a.d. 1534) ; and, as a matter 
of fact, the heavy expenditure incurred in putting the kingdom 
into a state of defence was defrayed from the spoils of the 
suppressed monasteries. Thus armed with the sinews of war, 
the King caused his preparations against invasion to be pushed 
on apace, and himself made a tour of inspection to hasten on 
the work. 

Three years later, 28 Henry VIII., according to some 
authorities, the three castles were ready to receive their 
garrisons ; but this date must not be received as certain. It is 
much more probable that they were not completed till 1540,f in 

♦ Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent, 1596. 
t The following inscription occurs on a stone which has been built into the 
parapet on the north side of the bridge at Walmer Castle ; — 
This Castle was bvilt in the year 1540. 
This Wall was rebvilt in the year 1661. 

History of Waltner. 


which year they were placed under the control of the Lord 
Warden, by the statute 32 Henry VIII., cap. 48, sect. 6. 

The garrisons of the three castles and their pay at their 
first establishment were as follows : — 

Deal Castle. 

A Captain 

A Deputy or Lieutenant 

A Porter 

A Second Porter 

Sixteen Gunners and eight soldiers.. 

Total . . 

Walmer Castle. 

£ s. 

A Captain 3^ 9 

A Deputy or Lieutenant . . , . 9 13 

A First Porter 9 13 

A Second Porter 8 6 

Ten Gunners and four Soldiers . , 116 11 

£ s. d. 

36 10 o per annum. 

9 13 4 

9 13 4 

8 6 6 

208 2 6 

;f272 5 8 per annum 


2 per annum. 



;fi74 13 4 per annum. 

Sandamn Castle. 

A Captain 

A Deputy or Lieutenant , , 

A Second Lieutenant 

A First Porter 

A Second Porter 

Ten Gunners and three Soldiers 

• • 

• • 

£ s. 
30 9 

9 13 

8 6 

9 13 
8 6 

108 d 


2 per annum. 




£iH 13 4 per annum. 

The general principle on which the three castles are con- 
structed is as follows : — In the centre is the keep, which 
consists of a circular tower with an arched cavern beneath, 
bomb-proof ; surrounded by lunettes, or bastions, of very thick 
arched work, with fifty-two port-holes below for scouring the 
moat, by which the whole is encompassed. These port-holes 
were secured by a massive stanchion of iron ; while their 
defenders were relieved of the smoke caused by their fire-arms, 
by means of funnels or chimneys through to the parapet of the 

78 History of W aimer. 

upper works ; which funnels, in case of the enemy having 
effected an entrance, were calculated to serve the defenders as 
machicolations down which grenades might be thrown. There 
were also larger embrasures for cannon, which in the case of 
Walmer Castle, still remain, and at Deal are represented by the 
arc-shaped window in the outer works, which now serve as the 
porter's lodge : these were near the upper part of the lunettes. 
The entrance to the castles is on the landward side, by means 
of a strong machicolated gateway, from which a drawbridge 
could be lowered or raised at will. To meet the exigencies of a 
siege, each was provided with a well. 

Altogether the castles, though of no great height, were, in 
proportion to the means of attack in those days, of very con- 
siderable strength ; the walls of the bastions being as much as 
twenty feet in thickness at the base, and eleven at the summit. 

It appears highly probable that the engineer employed on 
these works was Steven Von Hashenperg, a German, who at the 
same time constructed Sandgate Castle. " Horse hires from 
Folkestone to the Downs for the Alman " (Von Hashenperg), 
are an item in the " Ledger " kept during the building of Sand- 
gate Castle and still preserved in the British Museum.* 

Passing now to the further history of the castles, we find 
them figuring in many important events of subsequent times ; 
such, for instance, as the wars with France and Spain, the Great 
Civil War of the time of Charles I., and the Revolution of A.D., 
1688. Each of these events, so far as they concerned the 
castles, together with some other matters of interest, shall now 
be dealt with in their chronological order. 

The first record of importance is a notice in the State 
Papers of Queen Mary of some reinforcements sent down in the 
spring of 1558, no doubt in view of the troubles with France, 
which culminated in the loss of Calais in the autumn of that 
year. The garrisons at Walmer and Sandown, if not at Deal, 
were increased considerably beyond what is usually given as 
their normal strength. 

In the year 1573, the castles were honoured with the 
presence of Queen Elizabeth, who inspected them en route from 
Dover to Sandwich, whither she was proceeding with the special 

* •• Sandgate Castle " by W. L. Rutton, F.S.A., Arch. Cami.^ xx, 247. 

History of Walmer. 


object of inspecting the arrangements made there for the 
•iccommodation of the Flemish and Walloon refugees. An 
acacia tree still standing in the grounds of Walmer Castle, is 
said (notwithstanding its apparent youth) to have been planted 
by Her Majesty during this progress, and the night of the 30th 
of August was, according to what I think to be an erroneous 
tradition, spent at Sandown Caslle.* 

We come now to the attempt by the Spaniards to invade 
this country by means of the proudly-named Invincible Armada. 

In IfiSe, occur the first symptoms of alarm, in a precept by 
the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports "that no ship, bark, or 
other vessel should pass to the seas, whose voyage or absence 
may be above six weeks out of England," while early in the 
following year returns were made to him of all the available 
vessels within his jurisdiction ; from which it appears that Sand- 
wich then had as many as forty-three vessels, with a total 
tonnage of 1,216 ; Deal, sis vessels, with a total tonnage of 16 ; 
and Walmer, five, with a total tonnage of 11. 

But for the patriotic spirit of a merchant of London, whose 
action is worthy of lasting remembrance, the threatened descent 
would apparently have now taken place [a.d, 1587] while Eng- 
land's preparations were a long way in arrears. At a loss to 
himself of some £10,000, this good gentleman brought about 
the postponement of the expedition by a clever ruse which ia 
narrated as follows: — "Being well acquainted with the Revenues 
and Expence of Spain and knowing their Funds were so ex- 
hausted that it was impossible for them to victual and fit out 
their fleet, but by their Credit in the Bank of Genoa, he wrote 
to all the Places of Trade and got such Remittances made on 
that Bank, that he might have so much of the Money in his own 
Hands that there should be none current there equal to the 
great occasion of victualing the Spanish Fleet. "t By this means 
lime was gained for pushing fonvard the preparations, so that 
when at length the Armada came, England was able to greet it 
with a warm reception. 

As to the land forces it need scarcely be said that all along 
this coast every available man was mustered and armed. Of the 

• See chap. ix. 
t Hislory ef the Sfanisk Armada, I 

8o History of Walmer. 

10,866 "able men" of this county, 7,124 were thus got together; 
and of these a large force under Captain Peke and Sir Thomas 
Scott, together with a small body of cavalry under Sir James 
Hales, had their encampment some three or four miles inland 
at Northboume ; where they were held ready to descend, at a 
moment's notice, to any point where their presence might be 
required. Near Sandwich two thousand more were assembled, 
and scouts were kept continually patrolling the coast in order 
to procure the earliest tidings of the enemy. 

It is interesting to notice the character of the forces thus 
hastily raised to meet the most imposing armament that ever 
threatened these shores. Of the 7,124 armed men above 
mentioned, all but 2,958 were " untrained '* ; while of 300 men 
under Sir Thomas Scott, only 120 were provided with shot, an 
equal number had corslets, sixty were provided with bows, and 
nine had bills. 

To convey the news of the enemy's approach from place to 
place in the shortest time, beacons were prepared on all the 
highest points of land ; and, in our own immediate neighbour- 
hood, the South Foreland, the Sandhills in the parish of Worth 
and the high ground at Great Mongeham and Woodnesborough, 
were the points selected for this purpose.* By the order of the 
Lords of the Council addressed to the County Lieutenants, all 
troops were to *' be in readiness upon the fyeringe of the 
Beacons " ; and what a spectacle it must have been when this at 
length took place, we learn from an eye-witness, who has left 
the following graphic description: — "Myselfe can remember 
when upon the fyreing of the Beacons (whereby an alarum was 
given) the country people, forthwith, ranne downe to the sea- 
side, some with clubs, some with picked staves and pitchforkes, 
all unarmed, and they that were best appoynted were but with a 
bill, a bow, and a sheafe of arrows, no captaine, or commander 
appoynted to direct, lead, or order them."t 

But, whatever may have been the case ashore, the prepara- 
tions for the fight at sea were all that could be desired. The 
Cinque Ports alone, never behindhand in an emergency, 
furnished, in addition to their usual complement, and at a cost of 

* Bowen's Map of the Beacons^ 1759. 
t The Spanish Armada^ by T. C. Noble, p. xvii. 

History of Walmer. 8i 

JE43,000, six large vessels, each accompanied by a thirty-ton 
^'pinnace"; and when, on July 21st, the actual fighting began, 
the Cinque Port Sailors were prepared to shew themselves 
worthy of their noble traditions. Of the commander of one of 
the above six vessels it is related, how, from his intimate 
knowledge of the shoals in this part of the channel, he succeeded 
in alluring one of the larger Spanish vessels on the Goodwin 
Sands, where, after a severe fight, he effected her capture, and 
then burnt her. But the exploits in the Downs on that occasion 
are an oft-told story, and nothing further need be said of them, 
except that, on July 27th, the Great Armada, after approaching 
the South Foreland, thought it best to make towards Calais ; 
and then it was that the eight fire ships, under Captains Young 
and Prouse, were sent from the Downs on their wild career, to 
scatter terror and destruction amongst the Spaniards. 

Returning to what more immediately concerns the castles, 
for, though fully prepared, the resources of these strongholds 
were not put to the test in 1588, we find towards the end of 
1594 the subject of repairs to Her Majesty's castles and forts in 
Kent engaging the attention of the authorities ; and this was 
in view, no doubt, of some foreign complications ; for, shortly 
after, Sandwich, as a head-port, was required to provide a vessel 
for the Queen's service, of 160 tons, towards which Deal and 
Walmer together contributed at the rate of 20 tons. 

The State Papers of 1597 supply us with an account of the 
** great ordonaunce'* mounted at Walmer Castle, which were as 
follows : — ** one Cannon, one Culvering, five demi Culverings, 
one Sacre, one Mynion, and a Falcon,"* making ten in all. 

It is not at all unlikely that the fears of a further attempt at 
invasion, which were still felt in this country, may have had 
something to do with the anxiety that was shewn at this time to 
keep the resources of the castle up to their proper standard. 
Exasperated by the loss of Cadiz, and the destruction of his 
fleet in 1596, Philip of Spain was burning for revenge ; and, 
accordingly, another powerful fleet was being prepared, or, in 
fact, was now ready, for it sailed from Ferrol in the summer of 
this year (a.d. 1597) ; but encountering a hurricane off the 

* Dom, St. Papers^ Eliz., cclxiii, loi. 


82 History of Walmer. 

Scilly Isles, the Spaniards were compelled to return to their 
own coast, with the loss of sixteen of their best vessels. 

The encroachments of the sea about this period caused a 
considerable amount of anxiety, and rendered the maintenance 
of the castles a matter of no small difficulty and expense : 
probably owing to this cause there seems also to have been a 
tendency to neglect even the most necessary repairs, so that all 
three castles were in danger of falling very speedily into a state 
of absolute ruin. Thus there is amongst the Domestic State 
Papers of James I., under the date of October, 1615, a statement 
of the dangerous state of decay of Deal Castle, the sea-wall 
being eaten away and the lantern decayed ; while on January 
20th, 1616, the captain of Walmer Castle (Wm. Boughton} 
complains to the Lord Warden (Lord Zouche) of damage done 
by the late storms. The sea-wall he describes as ** greatly 
injured," and says it " needs speedy attention, as do also the 
roofs of the Castle which admit the rain." A careful survey of 
the '* most needful rcparrations " was thereupon undertaken by 
order of Lord Zouche. 

Lord Zouche is known to have been a most zealous Lord' 
Warden, and an uncompromising reformer of abuses ; and in the 
latter character we find presentments being made to him, in 
1618 and 1620, of such members of the garrisons as had trans- 
gressed in any particular. At Deal, in 1618, the garrison seem 
to have been in the habit of leaving the castle at night to the 
custody of a small guard only ; while at Sandown the captain 
and lieutenant were both guilty of non-residence. And, in 1620, 
the Deal garrison, presented two of their gunners ** as residing 
at a distance from the Castle " ; while from Walmer as many as 
eight of the garrison confessed themselves y2z«//>/ and implored 

What remedial measures were taken by Lord Zouche, we 
are not told, but that they were effectual, at least for a time, is 
shewn by a subsequent " note of residence of the captain* 
lieutenant and soldiers of the several castles of Sandown, Deal 
and Walmer, etc." 

About ten years from the date of Lord Zouche's survey we 
again find allusions to the encroachments of the sea at Deal and 

♦Dora. St. Papers, James I., cx\i. ii8, and cxxii., 156. 

History of Walmer. 



Walmer, and these inroads were of such a dangerous character, 
that ajoint representation to the Lords of the Council was made 
by Captains Byng and Lisle, calling attention to the decay of 
their respective castles from this cause.* The date of this 
representation was April 28th. 1626, but it appears to have met 
with no immediate result ; for just a year later [April 24th, 1627] 
we find a petition from the same two captains "To the High 
and Mighty Prince, George Duke of Buckingham," Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports, in which they refer to former 
petitions and press for immediate measures. It seems that the 
Dnke had procured an order for the demolition of Camber 
Castle and the repair of the castles of Deal and Walmer with 
the material, but that resolution having been changed, the 
petitioners prayed that some other course might be adopted ; 
and they further urged the necessity from the fact of the moat of 
Deal Castle having in it " five hundred load of beach more than 
at the beginning of winter. f 

Still, however, the authorities remained unmoved, though 
the matter was daily growing more and more serious ; and 
Captains Byng and Lisle, accordingly, in the following month, 
formulated another perition addressed " To their honoured 
friend Mr. Nicholas one of the clarkes of his Majesties privye 
councell," which shall be allowed to speak for itself, as 
follows : — 

" Mr. Nicolas wee have delivered divers petitions both to 
the counsell boarde (as you partly knowe) and to my Lord Duke 
his Grace, humbly suing that the last survey which was taken 
both for the fortification and reparations of the castles might 
bee put in execution, the mines dayly increase in so mutch that 
if sume course bee not taken before winter (by the judgment of 
all men) the sea will swallowe them up : this last winter every 
springe tide at the winde Noth West did the sea cume into Deale 
castle moate fifteen fadomes in length and three yardes higher 
than the wall, and filled it five foot deep with water at least, and 
with five hundred loade of beach, and it hath so eaten into the 
foundation of Wallmer castle moate that there ts not towe foot 
breadth of the foundation left but that it will lye open to the 
Sea, this danger of the sea swallowing us which apparently will 
■ Ibid., Charles I., xxv., Ba. 

84 History of Wdlmer. 

ensue, is the maine for which wee desier redresse beesides noe 
one roome of both howses is free from intolerable driftes of 
rayne, in so mutch that as the winde drives it, wee are fayne to 
remove both bed and boarde, the gate of Wallmer castle is so 
decaied, that it is not to bee opened and shut, but with very 
greate danger of our lives to knockt us on the heade with the 
loose stones hanging over, and the court of guarde the cheifest 
roome of use is only held up by propes the which also give 
waye : the bridges are so unfitt to be drawen up at nights (an 
eminent danger) that they will not beare without patching and 
peecing to cume safely in and out by day : the powdar howses 
so leaky that wee are fayne to stor the powder in the vaultes and 
lower roomes, a thing most dangerous : the lanthorne of Deale 
castle, a sea marke, utterly decayed of which sea men mutch 
complaine : the cottages which are built beetwixt Deale castle 
and the bulwarke, which the survey adjudg most fitt to bee 
demolisht doe daily increase, yea and they continue building in 
the very trenches, and although they be daily forbid, yet they 
persist. Wee delivered a petition last time wee were in towne 
according to my Lord Duke*s direction to the counsell boarde 
the 28th of Aprill last, Sir William Beecher promist us it should 
bee reade, but we heare nothing of it, our request unto you Sir 
is, that you being now calld to attend that honorable boarde (of 
the which your poore friendes joye and wish you mutch increase 
of happines) you would get that petition of ours reade, with 
remonstranse of thess defects and dangers the castles are in, 
and as farre as in you lies add your helping hande towards the 
procuring of reparations for us and wee shall acknowledg it 
amongst other favors an obligement Ever to rest your loving 
friendes [signed by] Edm. L'ysle [and] Will Byng."* 

On October 10th of the same year, the complaints contained 
in the foregoing petition were renewed, in much the same terms, 
in a memorial to Secretary Cope. 

The monotony of these repeated complaints was now 
relieved by a noteworthy incident. For a despatch from Captain 
Byng to Mr. Nicholas dated from Deal Castle, January 29th, 
1627 [-8], relates how the admiral of a fleet of ** Hollanders," 
having passed Walmer Castle without striking his flag, was fired 

* Domestic State Papers, Charles I., Ixv, 62. 

■ . ^ _i 

History of Walmer. 


into as he passed under Deal Castle, and made to haul down bis 
colours. At a subsequent interview with the Dutchman, Captaia 
Byng demanded, according to the custom, to be paid for the 
shot ; but on being oifered an equivalentin powder, the payment 
was remitted, and the Admiral gave a gratuity to Byng's men.* 
A similar incident took place in 1632. as we learn from a 
letter written by Captain Byng to Edmund Lisle, the captain of 
Walmer Castle. The writer says that last week a French man- 
of-war came in there with his flag in main-top. The master 
coming ashore with his boat, Bj'ng sent to him to strike it, which 
he did. At going away he hoisted it again, whereupon Byng 
gave him five shots without hitting him and away he went in 
that manner. Lisle's castle also gave him one shot. The 
Council approved the like action on Byng's part against the 
Dutch, who never since have oJTered to wear their flag in this 
road on the main-top. 

But, returning to the subject of the dilapidations, it was not 
apparently till the year 1634 that the authorities began to 
awaken to the gravity of the situation. About that time, 
however. His Majesty's engineer for fortifications, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Paperil! was commanded to survey the Castles of 
Sandown, Deal, and Walmer, and Archcliff bulwark at Dover : 
and his estimate for putting them into proper order amounted to 
the total sum of £5,322 17s. 4d., distributed with regard to the 
three castles as follows, namely :— Deal, £1,243 16s.; Walmer, 
£1,490 10s.; and Sandown, £1,243 Itis. A year or two later the 
Lords of the Council took a further step. On September 29th, 
1636, they actually went so far as to make a recommendation to 
Lord Treasurer J uxon, " on consideration of the great decaye of 
the Castles," that provision be made for setting in hand the 
reparations this next spring. Still, however, nothing was done ; 
for on March 1st, 1637 [-8], the captains of Sandown and Deal 
[Sir John Pennington and William Byng], and the deputy- 
captain of Walmer [Nicholas Lisle], sent in a general certificate 
of their extreme state of dilapidation to Sir John Manwood the 
lieutenant of Dover Castle ; which certificate has a significant 
postscript by Nicholas Lisle to the following effect : — "Since 
signature of preceding there has fallen down a principal piece of 

• Ibid., li, 61. 

86 History of Walmer. 

timber which supported the stonework of the outward gate. 
The soldiers, myself, my wife and family, besides the irksome- 
ness of the rain, are in continual fear of our lives."* 

When the castles were actually falling to pieces, it seems 
almost ridiculous to say anything of their utter uselessness at 
this time as fortifications ; but there is a certificate by Captain 
John Mennes, who succeeded to the command of Walmer 
Castle on November 10th, 1637, which ought not to be passed 
over ; since he therein states that on his succeeding Mr. Edmund 
Lisle, the late captain, he found " not one piece of ordnance 
mounted," only '* four serviceable muskets," and about " a barrel 
of powder since expended " ; and that he had received no 
subsequent supply.f 

On October 22nd, 1638, Sir John Pennington writes to 
Secretary Windebank from his ship, the St, Andrew, in the 
Downs, that the King has granted him the duty on merchandize 
to and from Dover for repairing Sandown Castle, after the repair 
of Archcliffe Fort, then almost finished, and requests a privy 
seal for it, in order that he may commence next spring and in 
the meantime collect materials : *' otherwise," he says, " it will 
fall down and endanger the lives of those that live in it." 

The folly of putting off such necessary repairs as those 
mentioned in the foregoing statements is shewn by a subsequent 
paper, dated June 21st, 1641 ; whence we learn that the expen- 
diture necessary in order to restore and protect the castles, 
which in 1616 was estimated at £1,331 4s. Od. including £720 
for wooden groyns, was now put down at £8,000, including 
£3,000 for sea-walls, notwithstanding the fact that "his Majesty 
had lately erected at a cost of £800 a wall between Walmer 
Castle and the sea," but for which, although it had been " since 
undermined by the sea and a great part [had] fallen down," the 
engineer considered that Walmer Castle would have been utterly 
ruined before this."J 

Meanwhile the difficulties of the situation had become 
complicated, at least in the case of Walmer, by a lawsuit, arising 

* Dofn. St, Papers^ Chas. I., ccclxxxi, 4, iv, i. 

t Ibid.y ccclxxxvii, ii, i. 

X Dom. St, Papersy Chas. I., cccclxxzi, 55. 

History of Walmer. 



from a dispute with the lord of the manor, — " touching the title 
to certain lands lying between the sea and Walmer Castle, and 
the damage sustained by the Castle through the bieaches made 
by the sea in the bank or cliff lying between the outward pact of 
the moat and the sea." The particulars of this dispute appear 
to have been as follows. James Hugessen, Esq., having 
purchased the manor of Lady Perkins, widow of Sir George 
Perkins, and Sir Richard Minshaw [Minshnllj her son-in-law, 
subsequently conveyed it to his son, William Hugessen, upon 
his marriage i and the latter together with Richaid Sladden, who 
seems to have been his tenant, having laid claim to the ground 
above mentioned and "intruded" into it, proceedings were 
instituted in the Court of Exchequer, in which the Attorney 
General, Sir John Bankes, appeared on behalf of the Crown as 
Plaintiff; the defendants being the above-named James and 
■William Hugessen and Richard Sladden. 

The Information of the Attorney General, which is dated 
March, 1640, gives a sufficiently clear idea of the case for the 
prosecution. By it we are informed; — "That the Kinge is seised 
of the Castle of Walmer standinge uppon the downes in the 
Countye of Kent with several! Bulwarks thereunto belonginge 
in the right of his Crowne. This Castle was built for the 
defence of the Kingdome. 

"That ther was a space of ground Contayninge 18 yeards 
in breadth of firme land betwixt the Castle moate and the Sea. 
And that there was Aunciently a banck or Clif on the outward 
parte of the said land the Castle and the Sea, And see 
longe as the said Ctif or banck Continued ferme, the Sea had 
noe power to approach any further. 

"That Conies was planted and Continued there, by the 
lordes of the mannour Which undermined the banck or Clif, 
whereby the Sea did eate away the land to the moate Walle of 
the said Castle. 

"That the defendants Claymes to be owner of the mannor 
And of the land betwixt the moate trencbe and Bulwarks and 
the sea, which is now eaten away : 

" To supply the defects of the bancks and Clif his Majestie 
hath bene at 600'' charge to build a Wall which Is now almost 
utterly ruined by the rage of the sea beatinge against the said 

88 History of Walmer. 

Wall, wearinge away the ferme land at both ends of the said 

The witnesses for the prosecution gave their testimony in 
substance as follows : — 

Firstly, Robert Gillow, Edward Smith, W. Adams, and 
Edw. Hamon, maintained, "That as longe as the bancks Con- 
tinued firme the sea came noe nerer to the Castle then the Clif." 

Secondly, Edward Smith, John Adams, and Robert Gillow, 
maintained, *'That the Conies and treadinge downe of beasts 
of the towne of Walmer [he] beleeves was the decay of the 
bancks"; and John Adams further declared that "30 yeerea 
agoe Conies was in the Clif." 

And, thirdly, Edward Smith and Robert Gillow maintained. 
** That the Wall had not been needed to be built if the bancks 
had bene kept." 

In opposition to the above the Defendants replied in 
substance as follows : — " That they never knew of any banck of 
Clif but that they are lords of the said mannour and doe 
Conceave that all the land betwixt the Castle Bulwarks and the 
Sea was their land belonginge to the said mannour, but they 
never knew that ever the lord of said mannour or tenant did 
repaire the said banck or Clif. 

" Confesseth the makinge of the late wall by the Kinge And 
that the kinge as he [meaning each of the several defendants]. 
Conceaves ought to mayntayne the Bancks and Clif."* 

The subsequent papers bearing on this dispute add bat 
little to the foregoing ; the only additional evidence for the 
defence being that William Hugessen since he had been owner 
of the manor, had ** destroyed the conies " in all the grounds 
adjacent to the castle ;t while James Hugessen, who allowed His 
Majesty's right to the Castle of Walmer, nevertheless claimed 
the ** several bulwarks and trenches " as part of the " freehold 
of the manor." The latter also professed further that he " knew 
not that there had been any firm land lying between the outward 
part of the moat and the sea, containing in breadth about 1& 
yards, nor that there was a bank or cliff on the outward part of 

* Dom, St, Papers^ Chas. I., ccccxlix, 64. 
t Ibid,^ ccccxliv, 61. 

History of Walmer. 


the lands towards the sea " : when he was owner of the manor 

he endeavoured to destroy the conies which were very few.* 

The " Replication " of the Attorney General is dated in 
June 1640; and in it he maintained "that the bulwarks and 
trenches have always been belonging to the castle of Walmer 
and are no part of the manor." 

It would be interesting to know what was the judgment in 
this case, but there are apparently no papers remaining to 
enlighten us. However, there can be little doubt (whatever may 
have been the case with the bulwarks) that the dispute as to the 
ground before the castle was decided in the King's favour; for, 
very shortly afterwards, three Officers of the Ordnance Depart- 
ment were appointed to survey the castles and to eslimate the 
expense of putting tbem in a safe and serviceable condition; 
and from their certificate, dated June 21st, 1641, we learn that 
it was now proposed to expend £3000 in perfecting the defences 
against the sea. Moreover, the sea-wall in front of Walmer 
Castle, which the Attorney General stated in his " Information" 
cost the King £600, is in this certificate said to have been 
lately erected at a cost of £800"; f from which we can only 
conclude, that, after the dispute with the lord of the manor had 
been settled, the King expended £200 in putting his sea-wall in 
order, that is, in repairing the breach and protecting the ends. 

The Castles now appear at last to have been put into a 
proper state of repair. 

We must mention here the engagement which took place 
off Deal, in 163a, between the Spanish fleet, under Don 
Antonio de Orquendo, and the Dutch under Van Tromp ; in 
which the Spanish fleet was destroyed. The fight was carried 
on so dose in-shore, that at Deal "a bullet fell into a stable and 
struck off a horse's head while eating his meat in a manger," 
and, on the Strand, "a minister whose calling might have re- 
strained his curiosity," riding upon the shore to see the sea-fight, 
had his horse killed under him by a roving shot, though his 
person was preserved. {Dom. St. PaptrsS] 

Lord Zouche's admonitions appear by this time to have 
been forgotten, as, in 1641, Capt. Byng has a complaint to 

■ Ibid., ccccli, 38. 
Stale Fapers, Charles I., cccckxsi. 55, 


History of Waltner. 

make of his lieutenant, named Ambrose : — "These towe laat 
Saterdaj at nights hee resorts to the castle, all Sandayes heelies 
in bed, and on Munday mornings at the opening of the gates 
ODt hee goes and till Saterday at night againe I heare not from 
him nor knowe where hee is." He requests Capt. Collins of 
Dover to send for Lieut. Ambrose and " skoole " him as he shall 
think fit. 


^^^^ THE CASTLES {continutd}. 

The Great Rebellion— Insurrection in Kent— The Kentish Petition— Rendez- 
vous on Barham Downs— Sir Richard Hardrcs at Sandwich— Dover 
Castle besieged — Admiral Raiiisborough — Revolt of the Navy — Sum;n- 
der of the three Castles— Declaration df Navy — The seamen's oath — 
Advance oi Royalists to Blackheath— Defeat at Maidstone — Storming of 
Dover Castle — The siege raised— Fight at Sea — Storming of Walmer 

I Castle — Relief of Sandown and Deal — Fight at Walmer — Further 
Declaration of Navy — Reduction of Walmet Castle — Engagement at 
' Deal -The Prime'i First /"nnVj— Colonel Rich's despatch— Letter 
f describing the Victory — Royalist Victory at Sea— The Earl of Warwick 
I -—Garrison and pay temp. Commonwealth — Dutch War of 1652 — 
\ Prisoners— Charles II, and the Castles— The garrison at various periods. 
A T the commencement of the Gruat Rebellion, the three 
y^ castles fell into the hands of the Parliament ; though the 
precise date remains uncertain, except in the case of Deal 
Castle, which was taken possession of by Colonel Sands on 
Monday morning, the 29th of August. 1642. 

In the Kentish Rising, which took place a few years later, 
the castles bore a very conspicuous part. 

In 1644, Parliament ordained that Christmas Day in future 
should be observed as a fast, and that " all men should pass it in 
humbly bemoaning the great national sin which they and their 
fathers had so often committed on that day " in keeping it as a 
feast. Parliament never did a more foolish thing, and rarelj' 
anything more unpopular. 

In Canterbury this ordinance eventually led to a riot, which 
was only the prelude to the formidable rising known to history 
as the " Insurrection in Kent." The good people of Canterbury 
on Christmas Day, a.d. 1647, shewed their determination to 
observe the festival in the old way, by assembling for divine 
worship at St. Andrew's Church ; where the Rev. Mr. Allday 
officiated, and preached a sermon suitable to the occasion ; a 
; then so much out of use, we are told by a contemporary. 

92 History of Walmer. 

** that the people began to forget that Christ was ever bom, as 
well as the celebration of his birth."* 

Mr. Allday successfully brought his service to a close, 
notwithstanding a considerable tumult outside the church ; but 
later in the day the civic authorities paraded the streets, and 
insisted on the shops being opened for the transaction of 
business, it being Saturday and market day. Against this intol- 
erable interference with their liberties the people immediately 
rebelled, raising the cry, ** For God, King Charles and Kent"; 
and seized the defences of the city, including the magazine: 
and though the rioters were eventually quieted by some persons 
of influence in the city, who prevailed upon them to lay down 
their arms, a subsequent attempt (instigated by the mayor in 
spite of his own promise), to bring the Christmas ** delinquents" 
to justice, by means of a special commission under Judge Wild, 
led to a petition to Parliament being drawn up by the grand 
jury themselves, after they had twice ignored the bill. As this 
petition led to so many important consequences, with which we 
are immediately concerned, it will be worth while to give it in 
extensOj as recorded in the Expedition of Kent already quoted : — 

" TO THE Right Honorable the Lords and Commons, 


The Humble PETITION of the Knights, Gentry. Clergy, 
and Commonalty of the County of Kent, subscribed by tke 
Grand Jury, on the Wth of May. 1648, at the Sessions of tke 
fudges, upon a Special Commission of Oyer and Terminer, held 
at the Castle of Canterbury, for the said County. 

•* Sheweth. 

*• That the deep sense of our own miseries, with a fellow- 
feeling of the discontents of other Counties exposed to the like 
sufferings, prevaileth with us, thus humbly to present to your 
Honors these our ardent desires. 

I. " That our most Gracious Sovereign Lord King Charles, 
may with all speed be admitted in safety and honor, to treat with 
his two Houses of Parliament, for the perfect settling of the 
peace, both of Church and Common Wealth, as also of his own 
just Rights, together with those of the Parliament. 

* The Expedition of Kent, by Matthew Carter, Quarter-Master General in the 
King's forces, reprint 1788, p. 2. 

History of Walimr, 


II. "That Tor the prevention and removal of the manifold 
Inconveniences, occasioned by the continuance of the present 
Anny, under the command of the Lord Fairfas, their Arrears 
Diaj be fonhwith andiied, and they disbanded. 

III. " That according to the fundamental Constitution of 
this Common Wealth, we may for the future be governed and 
judged b; the English Subjects undoubted birth-right, the known 
and established Laws of the Kingdom, and not otherwise. 

IV. "That, according to the Petition of our Right, our 
Property may not be invaded by any taxes or Impositions what- 
soever : and particularly, that the heavy burthen of Excise may 
no longer be continued, or hereafter imposed upon us. 

"All which our earnest desires, we humbly recommend to 
yonr serious considerations, not doubting of that speedy satis- 
faction therein which the case requires, and we humbly expect. 
Whereby we may hope to sec (what otherwise we cannot but 
despair of) a speedy and happy end of those Pressures and 
Distempers, whose continuance will inevitably ruin both 
ourselves and posterities. Your timely prevention whereof, by a 
mutual agreement to what we here propose in order thereunto, 
shall oblige us ever to pray." 

As many as twenty thousand names were appended to this 
petition in the course of a few days ; and it was arranged that 
the petitioners should assemble at Rochester on the Prince of 
Wales's birthday, May 29th, 1618, and proceed to Blackheath. 
Ten thousand Kentish men are said to have taken up arms, 
including a force of one thousand horse and six thousand foot 
under General Edward Hales, the heir to a Kentish baronetcy. 

The same day that the petition was drawn up, steps were 
taken to secure the castles and magazines in the county, and 
with so much success, that, in a very short time, as we shall 
presently see more fully, the only important defences remaining 
in the hands of the King's enemies were Dover and Queen- 
borough. The rendezvous in this part of the country was on 
Barham Downs, where, notwithstanding the discouragement 
offered by a pouring wet day, the trained saldiers of the district 
mustered in considerable force, on May 23rd ; Colonel Hatton 
being in command of the horse, and Colonel Hammond of the 

94 History of Walmer. 

That same night, after the rendezvous broke up, Dover 
Castle was invested by Colonels Hatton and Hammond ; while 
Sir Richard Hardres, Sir Anthony Aucher, and Mr. Anthony 
Hammond, jusiices of the peace, together with about seven 
score trained men, proceeded towards Sandwich ; where after 
some parley they were admitted. 

The next steps were directed towards securing the fleet, 
then lying in the Downs ; one Major Keme being employed in 
this service. This gentleman, who must have been a remarkable 
genius, is described as ** formerly a divine and a captain at sea, 
but now a major in the service of the Parliament ; " in addition 
to which he appears to have been ** chaplain to the Earl of 
Warwick," the Lord Admiral at that lime, and ** minister of 
Deal." Major Keme, no doubt knowing well the minds of the 
seamen, came to Sandwich on the evening of the 24th of May, 
and offered to use his influence with the navy in the ELing's 
cause ; professing himself at the same time " very penitent," we 
are told, " for having engaged himself in so unjust a cause and 
horrid engagement " as the service of the Parliament.* This 
offer appears to have been an unexpected piece of good luck for 
the Royahsts, but it was at once accepted, though its bona fides 
seemed somewhat doubtful. At least, it was thought, it could 
do no harm ; and, if the major were in earnest, much good to 
their cause might come of it. He was therefore employed to 
carry a copy of the Petition to every vessel in the Downs. 

This business having been settled, Sir Richard Hardres, 
doubting the loyalty of the municipal authorities, proceeded, 
before leaving Sandwich, to seize the magazine ; and then, 
having caused a waggon to be loaded with powder, match and 
ball, he set out with it for Dover ; taking care to secure the town 
with a sufficient garrison of trustworthy men, loyally officered. 
The route to Dover took Sir Richard and his company through 
the town of Deal ; and as they passed at no great distance from 
Deal Castle, they were espied from the ramparts by Colonel 
Rainsborough, at that time captain of the castle and vice-admiral 
of the fleet,t who was observed to flourish his sword above his 

* The Expedition of Kent, p. 34. 
t Rainsborough was one of those military men, who, in consequence of 
suspicions as to the loyalty of many of the naval officers, had been trans- 
ferred by the Parliament to the naval service. Remarkable as it seems. 

History of Waimer. 95 

head in a deSant manner, as the little Royalist band marched 

'by. Probably, too, they heard as he did. and with much more 

cause for satisfaction, the acclamations that proceeded from the 

ships in the Downs; which, while they both surprised and 

alarmed the admiral, were not fully explained to themselves until 

some few hours later. 

I At Dover, Sir Richard Hardres resumed command of the 

■forces drawn up before the castle under Colonels Hammond and 

iHatton, which already numbered five hundred foot and two 

r hundred horse, besides several trained companies ; being 

received with great rejoicing on the part of the townspeople. 

And that same night arrived iMajor Keme in the royalist camp, 

lo report the unqualified success of his mission to the fleet. 

"No sooner," he said, "were his letters read, than the mariners 

e and all declared for the King, the liberty of the Kingdom, 

ind the engagement of the gentlemen of Kent ; boldly disputing 

■tlie affair upon deck with arms in their hands, seeming fully 

■resolved to do their utmost against those who should oppose 

■them." Only a very small proportion of the officers and some 

' few of the mariners, evinced any dislike to these proceedings; 

and all such malcontents were immediately seized and confined 

in the holds of their respective ships, 

The acclamations that had greeted the ears of Sir Richard 
Hardres's loyal band, on their march from Sandwich, were thus 
explained : they were, in fact, the loud huzzas and shouts which 
proclaimed the revolt of the navy.* But Major Keme had more 
news yet to tell. Where was (he admiral, the defiant captain of 
Deal Castle ? He, in truth, alarmed by the commotion apparent 
on every vessel, had hastened on board his ilag~ship ; but, on 

a few of these men proved to be excellent naval commanders, notably 
Blake, whose exploits against the Dutch are matters of history. Deans 
was onotlier instance. 
' Major Keme was probably only a tool in the hands of more important 
persons in this matter. It is related that Edward, son of Sir Sidney 
Montague, of Boughton in Northamptonshire, was created by King 
Charles 11., by patent dated 12th July, 1650, Baron Montague of St. 
Neots, Viscount Hinchinbroke and Earl of Sandwich, " as compensation 
for his signal services in delivering up to him the English fleet which he 
commanded during the time of the Protectorate, haying by great prudence 
and skill so influenced the minds of the sailors that they concurred peace- 
ably in the transfer of their allegiance." 

96 History of Walmer. 

coming near, his boat was forced off by the mariners, who 
refused to acknowledge his authority, saying, " He had nothing 
to do with them, nor should he." Demanding the reason of 
their mutinous behaviour, the only satisfaction he could get was 
the reply, that *• They were upon different designs than those 
they knew he would lead them on, or join with them in, having 
declared themselves for the King and the Gentlemen of Kent." 
They acknowledged his former kindness to them as a good- 
natured commander, for which reason they would do him no 
personal injury ; but refused his request for a pinnace to carry 
him to London ; telling him " they could not spare the least 
vessel in the Downs, they were engaged for better service " ; but 
adding, " there was a Dutch fly-boat on shore, and for sixpence 
he could have a passage in her." This, therefore, he was 
constrained to do, and the more so when the news speedily 
reached him that the garrison at Sandown Castle had joined in 
the revolt. Taking therefore with him his wife and family, 
whom he had left in Deal Castle, he made the best of his way to 

The quondam divine, having thus proved himself so trust- 
worthy a gentleman, and so successful a diplomatist, was now 
employed to negotiate with the garrisons of Walmer and Deal 
Castles ; his credentials consisting of letters of summons for 
their immediate surrender. On this business he appears to have 
started the same night : while, with the design no doubt of 
backing up his arguments by means of a demonstration in force. 
Sir Richard Hardres and a number of Kentish gentlemen, 
making together " a handsome company," set out early next 
morning for Deal ; being attended by Colonel Hammond's 
regiment and Colonel Hatton's horse, together with some 
dragoons ; and leaving behind them in Dover, and before the 
castle, the trained bands of the town and three other companies. 
This strong force, for Colonel Hammond's regiment alone 
numbered fully a thousand men, all ** well armed and resolute," 
must have created a considerable sensation as they approached 
the castles ; for, notwithstanding that they marched under white 
colours, ** answerable to the candid innocency of a peace- 
making engagement," there is no doubt they were prepared for 
extremities. At all events the defenders thought the approach 
of such an overwhelming force extremely undesirable, and 

accordingly sent messengers, praying them " not to draw any 
nearer till they had concluded their conditions, the articles being 
then drawing up " ; a request which was so far complied with 
that " a hault was made, and a rendezvous, the party also drawn 
up and planted in orderly front towards the castles" ; while Sir 
Richard Hardres and his brother officers, forming together a 
troop of about forty gentlemen, rode away to Deal, where they 
were most joyfully received by the populace. 

During the course of this memorable day, and whilst the 
surrender of the castles was being definitely arranged, a visit lo 
the ships in the Downs was undertaken by the Royalist leaders, 
who were welcomed on board with universal expressions of great 
gladness ; the seamen declaring with one voice that " they now 
only lived, having a long time, as it were, lain amazed betwixt 
life and death," and that "they desired rather to die in the 
service of the King, than to live again in that of the Parliament." 
Having thus satisfied themselves as to the loyally of the navy, 
the Ro)'alist party returned ashore; but not till they had first 
distributed to every ship "a sum of money to drink"; which 
was received with many expressions of gratitude on the part of 
the crews; who, at their putting off, saluted them from every 
vessel with many rounds from their cannon, answered with as 
many shouts and acclamations. 

By this time the day was drawing to a close ; and now the 
articles of surrender for the castles of Deal and Walmer were 
duly signed ; the conditions being, that the garrisons should 
"march away with their baggage, leaving their arms and 
ammuiiition behind them entirely, without any embezzlement or 
diminution." Sir Richard Hardres, therefore, began to prepare 
for the further march to Sandwich ; having first made things 
secure here by the appointment of Mr. Anthony Hammond and 
Captain Bargrave, the latter an ex-naval officer, and both of 
them justices of the peace, as Commissioners (or the manage- 
ment of affairs at Deal and Walmer and in the fleet ; and having 
also despatched messengers for Sir John Mennes and Captain 
Fogge, both sufferers in the King's cause, and the former of 
them captain of Walmer Castle until the outbreak of the civil 
war. The presence of these two gentlemen was earnestly desired 
by the officers and seamen of the fleet, on account of their great 
[perience in naval matters, These arrangements detained Sir 

gS History of Walmer. 

Richard a sufficient length of time for him to witness the exit of 
the garrison from Deal Castle; but Walmer was not actually 
delivered up until after his departure. 

When Sir Richard Hardres had left the fleet, the next step 
taken by the officers in command, was to draw up and subscribe 
the following declaration and oath. They then, having been 
joined, it is to be presumed, by Sir John Mennes and Captain 
Fogge, set sail for Holland ; with the object of taking on board 
the Duke of York, as their Admiral-in-chief. 

•* The Declaration of the Navie, being the True Copie 
of a Letter from the Officers of the Navie to the Commisstoners r 
with their Resolutions upon turning out Colonell Rainsborough 
from being their Commander, 28th May, 1648. 

" Worshipfull, 

•* These are to certify you that wee the Commanders, and 
Officers of the Ship Constant Reformation, with the rest of the 
Fleet, have secured the Ships for the service of King and Parlia- 
ments and have refused to be under the Command of Colonell 
Rainsborough, by reason we conceive him to be a man not wel- 
affected to the King, Parliament and Kingdome, and we doe 
hereby declare unto you, that we have unanimously joyned with 
the Kentish Gentlemen in their just Petition to the Parliament^ 
to this purpose following, videlicet : 

"First, that the Kings Majesty with all expedition be 
admitted in Safety and Honour, to treat with his two Houses 
of Parliament. 

** Secondly, that the Army now under the Command of the 
Lord Fairfax, to be forthwith disbanded, their Arrears being 
paid them. 

" Thirdly, that the known Laws of the Kingdome may be 
established and continued, whereby we ought to be Governed 
and Judged. 

"Fourthly, that the Priviledges of Parliament and the 
Liberty of the Subjects may be preserved. 

"And to this purpose we have sent our loving Friend 
Captaine Penrose, with a Letter to the Earle of Warwick, and 
we are resolved to take in no Commander whatsoever but such 
as shall agree and correspond with us in this Petition, and shall 


History of Walmer. 99 

resolve to live and dye with us, in the behalfe of King and 
Parliament, which is the Positive Result of us. 

** We humbly desire your speedy Answer. 

Officers of the Constant Reformation : 
Thomas Lisle, Lievetenant. 
Andrew Mitchel, Boats. 
James Allen, Gunner. 
Tho. Best, Carpenter. 

Officers of the Swallow : 

Leonard Harris, Capt. 
Jo. London, M'- 
Nich. Laurence, Lievet. 
An dr. lackson, Gunner. 
Jo. Short, Carpenter. 

** Signed likewise by the Captaine of the Roebuck, Hinde, 
and severall other Officers of these and other Ships."* 

The Oath.* 

** Wee the Officers and Common-men belonging to his 
Majesties ships, the Constant Reformation^ the Swallow^ the 
Roebuck^ the Hind^ &c. 

** Do in the presence of God and this Company, freely and 
unconstrainedly declare, That we will with our Lives and 
Fortunes, and to the utmost of our abilities endeavour to main- 
taine the Glory of God, the Purity of that Religion which is 
most agreeable to the Word of God, the Honour, Freedom, and 
Preservation of His Majesty, the Priviledge of Parliament, and 
the liberty of the Subject : So help me God." 

To return now to affairs on land. After the surrender of 
the castles of Deal and Walmer, Sir Richard Hardres marched 
his force on, as already stated, to Sandwich, where they were 
quartered for the night. And the next morning (Sunday) they 
hastened on to Canterbury, leaving behind, for the sake of 
security, a small additional force of five trained companies \ 
Sandwich being considered ** a place very factious, and apt to 
take the opportunity of the weakness of the country, to make a 
mutinous opposition in case of a retreat." Remaining at 
Canterbury that night, the next day they left a few knights and 

♦ Civil War Tracts, 1648, B.M.E. 669. No. 82. 

lOO History of Walnur. 

gentlemen in command of the three trained companies of the 
place, which, together with two local companies of Flemish 
settlers then being raised, appeared a sufficient force to secure 
the city, and then proceeded for Rochester; where, with the 
exception of Colonel Hammond's regiment of foot, which halted 
for quarters at Sittingbourne, they arrived in the evening. 
There they found the Royalist gentry assembled in large 
numbers ; but learnt that the main body of the Kentish men 
were mustered at Dartford, some twenty miles further on : and 
that night there arrived some gentlemen from the counties of 
Essex and Surrey, who desired to treat with them, with a view 
to the co-operation of the men of those parts. 

But now the tide began to turn against the men of Kent. 
The further march to Blackheath, which was to have been 
resumed at daybreak, was interrupted by the arrival at midnight 
of a special messenger, who brought an order from the House 
of Commons to the Commissioners joined in this enterprize, to 
the following effect : — 

"That, whereas they did understand, that the people of 
Kent were coming up to Westminster in a tumultuous and pre- 
tended petitionary way, they knew not the intentions of it, and 
had therefore referred them to treat with their General, the 
Lord Fairfax, and the Committee of Derby House." 

Whether it had been anticipated up to this time that there 
would be a revolt of the army, as there had already been on the 
part of the fleet, does not appear ; but certain it is that the news 
of their having to deal with the Lord Fairfax, came upon the 
Kentish men as a thunderclap. A council of war was immedi- 
ately held ; and orders were despatched to Dartford for the main 
body to fall back on Rochester. 

The next day, the small force of Royalists, which had been 
left at Stone Bridge near Gravesend, in the hope of securing 
that passage, were routed and put to flight. Then that night, 
(May 31st), a sudden attack was made upon Maidstone, where 
a Royalist force of about eight hundred men belonging to the 
regiments of Sir John Maynes (Mennes ?) and Sir William 
Brockman were quartered ; and after an obstinate fight, which 
lasted six hours, these were defeated, with the loss, it is said, of 
200 killed and wounded, and four hundred prisoners. 

History of Walmer. 

How the news of this disaster was receive 
can easily be imagined ; but, nevertheless, the i 
Still remained there under the Ear! of Norwich, 
prevailed upon to be their Lord General, detern 
to Greenwich ; hoping there to receive the 

body, who 
n they had 
to advance 
■d help from 


Essex and Surrey, as well as the co-operation of the people of 
London. But the promised help was withheld, and the camp 
in Greenwich Park soon became the scene of confusion and 
discontent. Provisions were hard to get ; desertions became 
more and more numerous; the Earl of Norwich, who had gone 
into Essex to ascertain the stale of the county, remained away 
longer than was expected ; and at length the remaining troops 
made the best of their way across the Thames, in such boats as 
they could get, to remain true to theit cause until the surrender 
of Colchester on August 28th. 

Meanwhile the Royalist affairs in East Kent, which began 
so favourabl)', were also on the decline; though the cause was 
not abandoned without a gallant effort. On the very day that 
Walmer and Deal Castles surrendered to Sir Richard Hardres, 
an assault was made on Dover Castle, by the trained companies 
left there under Mr. Arnold Brumes and others, and prosecuted 
with the utmost determination. "They drew up," we are told, 
"the great pieces which were planted on the beach, and 
mounted them on the most advantageous ground upon the hill 
near the castle " ; and " though both small and great shot were 
all the while played upon them very thick from the castle," yet 
they effected this with the loss of only one man. Then, their 
cannon being placed to their satisfaction, in a commanding 
position, and " but a small distance from the castle, they Sred 
very briskly upon it and battered down the old walls very much " ; 
but still could not induce the defenders to give it up, "and 
storm it they could not," This was on May 25th, and the siege 
continued about a fortnight longer; the besiegers, meanwhile, 
having been reinforced hy the arrival of Sir Richard Hardres 
and his followers, who returned here from Rochester when the 
main body advanced to Greenwich. But about June 7th, the 
approach of a large force under Colonels Rich and Hewson, and 
Sir Michael Livescy, turned the scale. The Royalists were 
obliged to raise the siege ; and retreating first to Sandwich and 
then to Canterbury and Faversham, ultimately surrendered on 

I02 History of Walmer. 

easy terms, about June 12th. As for the three castles of Walmer, 
Deal and Sandown, which, together with the revolted fleet, 
continued to hold out for some time longer, their tale shall be 
told in the following despatches, which have been preserved in 
the form of the Civil War Tracts. 

** A Fight at Sea Between the Parliament's Ships and 
those that revolted And the boarding of some of the Parlia- 
menfs Ships by a party from the three Castles in Kent that 
are kept for the King And the storming of Waymor Castle, 

" My last was of the eighth of this present from the Downs ^ 
since which time we have attempted to put to sea, severall times, 
but was forc*st back thither again, by extraordinary stormes, and 
crosse winds, by which we were all in some danger of the King's 
ships, and the three Castles in the Downs, to be stayed and 
plundered by them. 

** As for the Kings ships, they sent men aboard of all our 
three ships to demand Powder and Ammunition for them and 
their Castles, and got aboard of them, and to show their Bills 
of Laydings, and Letters, who affirmed they had none, nor any 
powder or ammunition, but for the use of their ships ; whereupon 
they were threatened to be carried for Holland, unless they would 
confesse and deliver what was desired, neverthelesse at the last 
all our Masters were released and the Kinpr*s ships set sayle for 
Holland upon the 12 day to speak unto the Duke of York as 
they pretended. 

"And upon the 17 day the Castles sent severall men and 
boats aboard of all our ships, with order to search and plunder 
us, but being withstood they went ashore, and swore God d. . . ^e 
them, they would goe ashore and sinke every ship of us, and in 
pursuit thereof they did their bestindeavours, by shooting twelve 
pieces of great Ordnance at the least, which forced us to weigh 
Anchor, and fall of to the Sea : Although the wind was contrary 
and calme, so that we lay at their mercy, and in great danger, 
if we had not been timely relieved, by a good party of the Lord 
Generairs Army, that marched towards the several Castles, and 
found them other imployment, which fell very happily out for 
us, for by this meanes we gained time to goe out of their 
command without any hurt or losse, only Captain Newburts was 
plundered of two rich swords worth five or six pound, as he 

History of Walmer. 


ned, wee being thus forced to Sea, and the stormes arising 
continuing for the space of two dayes, did put our Ships in some 
danger, neverthelesse. thanks be to God wee beat it out, and 
recovered this place the 20 day, where we Ride safely in this 
Bay, ready for the first [air winde, which God in his mercy grant, 
and that with speed, for the Corn is very prout, as is in danger 
lo be spoyled." 

"From aboard of 1 he Supply in Portland Bay 
neer Weymouth, the 22 of June, 1648." 

"The Copy of a lellsr hom Porlsmoulh." 
'■ Noble Sir, 

"The nine ships in Holland, viz. The Rtformalion, the 
Cotcvtrtine, the AnUlope, the Swallow, and the rest at Gorilh that 
revolted from the Parliament of England, are raakiny addresses 
to the Duke of Yorke, to joyn with them, and send them in 
provisions, which they want, and are labouring for ; But the 
Duke told them at present hee could not satisfie their desires, 
because of his want of monies. The falling off of those ships 
hath put the Navy much out of order, and makes other Sea-men 
tumultuous, and if some course be not taken to reduce them, I 
fear no Commander will be safe in any ship except it please 
God that some way be found out for agreement between the 
King and Parliament, I pray God so to direct the Parliament 
to propound, and his Majesties heart to incline to grant, that 
there may bee a peace. 

" Waymor (Walmer) Castle was stormed with some iosse, 
it was thought Prince Charles would have been with Langdale 
in the North of England by this time, hut monies coming not in 
as expected, it caused his stay to raise monies upon use. 
Captain Crowders the Reare-Admiralls ship is to be rig'd before 
. Bhe can go out, God send a speedy and safe peace." 

"Porlsmoulh lb fum, 1648."* 

" A great Fight at Walmer Castle in the County of 
Kent between The Parliament's Forces who had besieged Ike 
said Castle, and the Forces sen! over by his Highnesse the Prince 
of Wales, with Ike mamur of the Fight, Ike success thereof, and 

• CivU fVar Tracts, B,M„ E. 450, No. I 

I04 History of Wa Inter. 

the numhtr that was slain on both sides. Likewise the Princes 
relieving of the two Castles 0/ Deal and Sandown, etc, 

•• Sir, 
" Vpon Wednesday last, there hapned a desperate engage- 
ment betwixt the Parliament's Forces, and a party belonging to 
his Highnesse the Prince of Wales at Walmer Castle, the 
manner thus : — 

" The Prince having sent a party from France, under the 
command of Col. Fitz-BeaU with Armes and Ammunition for the 
relief of the two Castles of Deal and Sandawn^ and having 
effected the same, the said Colonel resolved for Walmer Castle, 
and thereupon hoysted sayl and steered towards Walnur^ where 
they arrived towards the evening, accompanied with three other 
ships very well man'd and when they were within half musket 
shot of the shore, they let fly a broadside at the Parliament's 
forces, who were intrenched upon the Breach {sic) neer the 
Castle; insomuch that there began a very dangerous and hot 
dispute, the fight continuing for the space of an hour and a 
half; the Cavalry plaid very fast with their great and small shot 
all the time, the Parliamenteers answered them with the like 
Vollayes, and at the last beat them off from the shore, and forced 
them to Sea, with the losse of six men, and nine wounded. 

**The Enemy fought resolutely, but, it is supposed, with a 
great deal of losse made their retreat, for it is said that divers 
were seen to fall upon the Decks of the ships. 

"This is a great dishearming (disheartening?) to the 
besieged, to have relief attempted without successe, though as 
yet they slight any overture of surrender or treaty. Divers 
Granadoes have been shot into the Castle, yet are they within 
not brought thereby to the least complyance of disposition to 

" Canterbury^ July 6, 1648, four in the morning^* 

From a further ** Declaration " made by the revolted sea- 
men on July 8th, we get a list of the principal vessels which 

* CHdl War Tracts^ B.M. E. 451, No. 86. The date of the above events 
must have been July 5th ; as we learn from a subsequent despatch that 
July 15th was a Saturday, and from the above that the attempted relief 
took place on the Wednesday before July 6th ; which last-named day was 
a Thursday. 

History of Walmer. 

took part in the insurrection, 
order : — 

The Comlanl Reformation. 

The Couverline. 

The Swallow. 

The Antelope. 

The Satisfaction. 

In the Declaration 

was made:— "That tli. 

put into such hands, as 

Ten are named in the following 

The Hynd. 

The Roebuck. 

The Creseenl. 

The Pellican. 

The Blackmori Lady. 
1 which these names occur, complaint 
Power and affaires of the Navy, were 
s were not onely enemies to the King and 
Kingdome, but even to Monarchy it selfe (jiir). that the stile of 
Commissions at Sea was lately altered, leaving out the King's 
name, and mentioning onely the Parliament and Army, which 
we understand to be a disinhetision (jiir) of His Majesty and His 
Children, that we had no settled forme of Divine worship, no 
Communions, little or no Preaching on board but by illiterate 
and mechanique persons, that there was a designe of introducing 
Land Souldiers into every Ship to master and over-awe the Sea 
men, things so contrary to the ancient Customos and orders of 
the Sea, that we thought our selves bound in Conscience to doe 
something for the recovery of our owne right and re-establish- 

The following is a copy of the further "Oath" taken at 
this time by the seamen of the revolted ships ; in which, as will 
be seen, they pledged themselves to the Restoration of King 
Charles, and vowed fidelity to "His Highness the Prince of 
Wales " and the " Lord High Admiral the Duke of York," and 
obedience to their c 

'■ In pursuance of the Covenant I have already taken, I, 
A.B., doe in the presence of Almighty God, the Searcher of all 
hearts, solemnly vow and protest. That in the first place I shall 
heartily endeavour the freedome and Restaoration of my 
Soveraign Lord Kinp Charles to all his full and just Rights; 
and will behave myself faithfully in the service of His High 
Ness {sic) the Prince of Wales. Next I do vow all true obedi- 
ence to my Lord High Admirall the Duke of Vorke, and that I 
will conform my self cheerfully to all his Highesse {sic) lawfull 
Commands which shall be for the service of his Royal Father ; 
That I will hold no correspondence with the Enemy, but shall 

io6 History of Walmer. 

faithfully discover all Designes that I can come to the knowledge 
of, of that nature ; and shall endeavour with the utmost hazzard 
of my life to defend and protect his Highness Person from all 
danger ; nor will ever give consent to deliver him up without 
the King his Royall Father's command or his own consent. 
And as I shall be faithfull and just in the performance of all 
this, so help mee God, and the contents of this Book." 

We come now to the reduction of Walmer Castle, the date 
of which event is not recorded, any more than are the particular 
circumstances under which it at length fell. But there are at 
least some facts to throw light upon the subject. The Castle 
had now been besieged by Colonel Rich's forces for upwards of a 
month ; every attempt at relief had failed ; and the garrison were 
no doubt absolutely starved out. The Civil War Tracts shew 
the surrender to have taken place between the eighth and 
fifteenth of July. One of these papers, dated from Canterbury 
on July 16ih, records "a fresh alarum from the sea," which had 
been experienced by the Parliament forces in this part, " since 
the reducing of Waymor (Walmer) Castle by Colonel Rich " ; 
and refers to the hope that had been entertained, " that Sand- 
wich (probably Sandown is meant) and Deale would thereupon 
have done the like," that is, would have surrendered : while from 
the same source we learn, that '* the revolted Ships are come 
from Holland and are now in the Downes," not for the purpose, 
as had been fondly hoped, of submission ; but in order '' to 
oppose the power of Parliament " ; also that they had on board 
the Duke of York as Lord High Admiral, and Prince Maurice 
** the Prince Elector Pallatine's second brother," as Rear 
Admiral : and that '* the Officers of the ships that disserted {sic) 
the Parliament, had all their Commands, and further promises, 
with large Commissions granted to them." 

But notwithstanding the fall of Walmer Castle, the two 
other Castles continued to find employment for Colonel Rich 
for some time longer, as we shall now see. 

•• The true Relation of the Arrival 0/ Thikty Flemish 
Ships, and Six of those that Revolted, before the Town and 
Castle of Deals : Wherein the Prince, the Duke of Fork, and 
many Qouldiers are said to be imharked for England : with the 
violent battery they made against the Besiegers, and the effects 

History of Walmer. 

thireof. Together with The manntr of Ike Siege, the progresse 
ofiht Besiegers, and the dtsperalt carriage of the Besieged. 


" With my last I sent you word of the surrender of Warmort 
(Walmer) Castle unto tis. and I might say much of the further 
particulars thereof, but that I doubt not but ere this you have 
heard of it at large: Immediately thereupon we drew on our 
Leaguer beroraZ)i'ii/-Caj//f, where we now lie; and on Saturday 
rooming the fifteenth of this instant July, there appeared six 
men of war (being part of the revolted Ships,) before the Town 
and Castle of Deal, and by their churlish tokens, they sent us, 
made it appear to us what they were, for they shot very near a 
hundred grt-at Pieces at us, yet thanks be to the Lord, they did 
us little harm ; only two men were slain by their shot, and two 

I more by the fall of a Chimney which the Canon beat down; 
BThat very morning also the enemy sallied out of Deal Castle and 
Btended to surprise our forlorn guard, which was between three 
bid four liundred yards of the Castle; but they were soon dis- 
bDvered, and by a Reserve guard, (whom Captain Gayl of 
Eoieman-s/nei commanded) they were gallantly repulsed, and 
driven back to the very gates of the Castle, and this with the 
losse of three of our men, and some few wounded ; As for the 
losse on the Enemies' part, it is not certain, yet some of our 
Souldiers observed about eight or nine of them to be carried off 
on pick-pack. 

" The day following being Sunday there appeared near 
about thirty Fleming Ships before Ihe Castle and Towne of Deal 
^t are very quiet etc. 

" Reported that the Prince, Duke of York, and many 
dreds of Souldiers are in the revolted Ships, but there is 
e reason for that opinion etc. 

" Your friend and servant. 

" R.G."* 
From my Quarters in 
;^/(r Deal, July 20 

The nest of these printed despatches describes an engage- 
^nt at Deal, and is headed as follows : — 

"A Great Fight between the King's Majesty's Forces under 
• ObH fi'ar Tracis, B.M., E. 453, No. 26. 

io8 History of Walnur. 

the command of his Highnesse the Prince of Wales and the 
Parliament Forces, neer Deale Castle, August 4, 1648." 

From the contents of this Tracts it appears, that the Prince 
of Wales, Lord High Admiral of the Narrow Seas, having 
returned from Yarmouth Roads to the Downs, caused all his 
*• Marriners and Sea-men " to bind themselves by an oath* : — 
" That they shall endeavour to the utmost of their power to release his 
Majesty from the hands of his Enemies^ and to prosecute their 
Engagement for the advancement of the King^s cause, with the 
hazard of their lives and fortunes.** It then proceeds as follows : — 
•* The Prince liaving despatched part of his fleet to watch the 
motion of the Parliament shipping coming from Portsmouth the 
rest lies hovering up and down in these parts and have landed 
some Forces neer Deel and Sandown who thought to have fallen 
upon our men unawares and to have raised the siege. But on 
news of their landing Colonel Rich hastened towards them with 
his horse, engaged and disputed the ground and charged quite 
through the Prince's Van of Foot commanded by the Lord 
Hopton and Colonel Boys doing some execution, the Sea 
Royalists fought very resolutely, their great Ordnance began to 
roar, the conflict was great, and the dispute resolutely maintained 
by both parties : till at last the Royalists run, our men pursues, 
and had it not been for the shipping which plaid so fast upon us 
with their Ordnance, we had taken and killed most of them." 
The " key shot '* from the ships, however, effectually covered the 
retreat of the Royalists, and compelled the Parliament forces to 
retire ; the loss in this action having been thirteen men of the 
latter, and as many as thirty-four of the former, killed and 

''The Princess First Fruits: Or a Full and Perfect 
KELATION of two VICTORIES obtained by Colonel Rich his 
Brigade, together with the Forces under the Command of Sir 
Michael Levesey^X over some forces landed out of the Revolted 

* The full text of this Oath has already been given, 
t Civil War Tracts, B.M., E. 457, No. 79. 
J Sir M. Levesey, alias Livesey, or Lucey, was created a baronet when 16 
years old, and when 34 sat upon the Commission which condemned the 
King to death. He was an active magistrate and as such married many 
couples during the Commonwealth. He represented Queenborough in 
the House of Commons; served the office of Sheriff; and held a com- 
mission as Colonel in the Parliament Army. 

History of Walmer. 109 

ships neer Sandown Castle^ in the County of Kent, August 
10 6* 14. Together with A Perfect List of the Commanders 
and officers taken Prisoners, and the number of slain on both 

" To the three Sons of their Father the D."* 
** Put up thy Pipes Prag. Melancholicus 
Bedew thy sheet with tears : Elencticus ! 
8ay^ whereas thy Jacob's staff, what star to foe 
Did stain your glory with this overthrow ? 
Come leave your lisping, and at length be wise. 
The despis*d Cause must Conquer all your lies. 

** Loving Brother, 

The Prince (whom so many of our Pulpits flattered, 

hath given us a taste of that sweet fruit, which the Kingdome is 
likely to gather from his Government, if the Lord in wrath 
permit him to rule over us : The yong man hath begun a health 
to England's happiness, and the people's liberty, in a cup of 

**Upon Thursday the 10 of this present, his Highness, as 
they call him, (for my part I know not how tall he is) landed a 
party of some 80 of his men, under the command of one Aldredge, 
a cheesemonger, who lived some time in Bread-street, and was 
Apprentice with Mr. Rob. Smith ; there might be a kinde of ill- 
favoured policy, in sending out these Water-Rats at the Heels 
of this Cheesemonger, the smell of his old profession might 
engage them farther with him, then their personall valour could 
carry them on ; and indeed it proved so, for being landed, they 
fell upon a small party of Sir Michaell Liveseys foot who were 
upon guard, at the two houses, which we call the Half-way 
houses, between Sandwich and Sandown, beat them off, and took 
possession of the houses ; Sir Michael's horse taking the alarm 
charged the enemy with abundance of Gallantry, routed the 
Party, wounded many, killed eight or nine upon the place, and 
put the rest (they having first fired the Warriner's house) to 
flight. Among the prisoners taken, Aldredge was one, who knew 
me well, and told me that he went aboard at Yarmouth with 

* My pen is too loyal to attempt an explanation : the mind that suggested the 
hyperbole must have been as contemptible as it was traitorous. 

no History of W aimer. 

Cap. Johnson : this poor man was miserably wounded in the 
back, shoulder and arm, cut in the head, and both hands, yet that 
party, with whom he unhappily engaged, refused to affoard him 
any succour or means (if possible) to cure his wounds : Sir 
Michael sent a Trumpet to Sandmvn Castle, acquainting them 
with his condition, and permitting them, if they please, to take 
him in, but they (whose mercies are cruelties) would not. This 
Aldredge told me, that Prince Rupert and the Lord Gerard 
promised him to follow, but whether they did or not, he could 
not say : and for valiant Captain Johnson^ if you enquire of him, 
take it merrily : 

'* Bui Oh Thom Johnson ! Where was he ? 
Truly where safest *tzvas to be, 
Beset with Bottles, three times three. 

Which no body can deny. 

*• Had it been a drinking match on shoar, the High 
Admirall himself, could not have kept his new Col. aboard ; but 
I am perswaded the Gentleman is sick of fighting, and wisheth 
himself in his Landladies Chimney-corner at the spread Elagle 
in GtatiouS'Strett Farewell '* 

** Your affectionate Brother 

" LH."* 
''Canterbury August 11. 1648." 

** Colonel RicKs Letter to the House of Commons 
Of a GREAT VICTORY Obtained against Eight hundred of the 
Prince's forces. Lately landed in Kent by Sandown CcutU, 
Where were One hundred and eighty kilVd in the place. One 
hundred Prisoners taken, Three hundred Arms, and all their 
chief Commanders, as by x list herewith appeareth. 

•* To the Honorable William Lenthal Esq : Speaker of 
the Honorable House of Commons. 

'*Mr Speaker, 

** Upon several reiterated Intelligencies of some hundreds 
of men for the land-service, which the Prince had come from 
Holland, and lay ready in the ships here to be put on shore and 
attempt us, I drew what Horse we had here togethre and after 

* Cival War Tracts, B.M., E. 383, No 23. 

History of Walmer. 

five nights expectance of them, began to conceive their inten- 
tions of landing here altered, though the Ships continued ; this 
I was confirmed in by Captain Batlin's going two days since 
with some five or sis Sail and many Boats, towards Sandgate* 
Castle, where I sent a Troop to prevent inconveniences, and 
accordingly came thither very seasonably etc. 

"This morning came from Sandown Castle in good order 
and equipage about 800 men, very confidently towards Upper 
Deal (which were landed in the night unknown to us) and 
waving our Fort towards the Sea, intended to come up upon the 
back of our Leaguer at Deal Castle, which so soon as in view, 
we drew what Horse and Foot of a sudden we could get 
together, which were not above 300 Foot and 100 Horse (the 
rest being ordered to re-inforce the Guards in and near our 
Trenches before Deal-Castle, expecting a Sally at the same 
jnncture) and charged them; after some time of dispute with 
Musquct shot, the Bodies closed nearer, the horse pickering up 
and down in their flanks aswel as they could over the ditches, 
together with the foot who gave on freely, forc'd them to run. 
ours pursuing them up to the very Castle bridge, killing in all 
about One hundred and forty at least upon the place, as is the 
opinion of all else besides myself in the action, and have taken 
about One hundred prisoners, and about three hundred Arms ; 
in this action I have lost the quarter- master to my own troop, 
that was slain upon the place, and no other officer ; the Lieu- 
tenant to my Major's Iroop shot in the Knee, about three Horse- 
n killed and three or four Foot Soldiers, ten or twelve Horses 
whereof my Major's was one, who through the whole 
tction performed his duty with much diligence and boldness; 
[^either did Col. Hewson's Lieut : Col : neglect any advantage 
the Field or Trenches : A perfect List of the prison- 
s is not yet come, though many of quality are taken, as Major 
jneral Gibson, who commanded the whole parly, as appears by 
Ihe Prince's Order taken in his pocket to command all ; Sir [ohn 
eyei. Sir John Kmhford, Col. Walker, Lieut: Col. Gamlin, 
■ Den, &c, many Captains and Lieutenants, one more 
_^otable than the rest, Lieut: Lendal, Lieutenant to the present 
Admiral, Boatswain's mate to Col. Rainsborow, the chief Agent 
to manage the Revolt of the Sea-men, who commanded now the 

• Sandgate Castle near Folkestone. 

112 History of Walmer. 

Party of the Sea-men, which as the prisoners inform, were 
most for action before they came on shore, but in time of 
Ser\ice failed their leaders. 

" Your most faithfull and humble Servant 

Nath : Rich.** 
**Deal, August 14. 1648." 

"The List of the Prisoners taken (in the above engagement). 

Major General Gibson. Lieut : Lindal Lieutenant to the 

Sir John Boys, Admiral, formerly Boatswain's 

Sir John KnoUtsford, Mate that betrayed the Ships. 

Col : Lindsey. Lieut : Nock, 

Lieut : Col : Bah, Sir John May his Son, Servant 

Lieut : Col : Gamltn, to the Prince. 

Major Burridge. ^Ir. Blithe. 

Major Dtn. Mr. Corraine. 

Capt. Hull. Mr. Howson. 

Capt. Wright. Mr. James. 

Capt. Bowman. Mr. Bennet. 

Capt. Coary. 

Capt. Fool, 

"Seventy-three private Soldiers, One hundred and eighty 
killed upon the place, About Three Hundred Arms taken. 

•* Most of those that escaped are wounded. 

•*No Officers of ours lost, but my own Quarter master. 
Major's Lieutenant wounded. Three Horsemen killed, Four Foot 
killed, and about Ten Horse Shot."* 

A further description of the same fight is contained in 
another Tract entitled : — " A true Copy of a Letter to a friend 
in London, concerning the late fight at Deale in Kent, with the 
number of the slaine^ and a perfect list of the prisoners taken" ; — 
a very different style of composition to Colonel Rich's business- 
like despatch, and abounding in allegorical perversions of Holy 
Scripture. This letter which is dated " Canterbury, Aug. 15, 
1648," commences, "Worthy Friend," and is subscribed "your 
much obliged friend to ser\'e you, D.H." The part which 
concerns us runs as follows : — 

" Yesterday (being the 14 of this present month) the Eling^s 
Son (the darkness of his father's image) landed about 5 or 600 
armed men (fit instruments as any in Colchester or Hamilton's 

♦ Civil War Tracts, B.M., E. 459, No. 3. 

History of Walmer. 



Aimy, to establish the happiness of this Kingdome) neer San- 
down Castle, this morning they sallied out of the Castle (where 
they secured themselves the last night) and intended to have 
&llen upon our friends in their quarters at Upper Deak, and to 
have swallowed them up for breakfast. But God (who ordained 
the earth to help the woman against the Dragon) sent a man 
before, a Seaman, who coming out of the ship, listed himselfe 
under Col. Rich, and furnished them with intelligence of their 
designe ; this caused our friends to draw down al. or the greatest 
part of their forces both horse and foot to lower Deals (who else 
had layn scattered about the country 4 or 5 miles in compass) 
it ia a sad truth that our honoured Friends in the L. Gen. his 
Army, are so few, and they so weak by reason of sickness, that 
some companies do not afford above 40 fighting men ; yet the 
L. who useth to appear then most when his power shall not be 
darkened by the shadow of an arme of flesh) put such courage 
into their hearts, and clothed their arme with such sinews and 
Htrength, that they gave them such a blow, as was beyond their 
own, contrary to their enemies and above their friends expecta- 
tion, the manner briefly thus. 

" Major Husbands led the horse, Lieut. Col. Axled the foot. 
Sir Michael Livesey charged gaUantly with them, before I can 
tell you they fought, they ran. In the charge Col. Riches 
Quarter M'' and 3 troopers of ours were slaine, 18 private 
aonldiers wounded: Major Husbands had the heel of his boot 
shot off, the Lieut. Col. horse kild under him, but he was soon 
furnished with another for the chase, in which 180 of the enemy 
fell (never to rise more) upon the sands, Gibson their Major 
Gen. with 20 more Commanders and Officers, and 73 private 
souldiers taken prisoners, 300 armes, with abundance of brave 
pillage, the Commanders so much gold and silver in their pockets 
as if they had no need for the Cities 20.000//." 

'■ A Per/eel Copy of a list of the Commanders and Officers 
taken Ike 14 of August 1648. Neer Sandown Castle in 
Kent as it was presented to his Excellency the Lord General 

Major General Gibson, Commander in Chief. 

Sii John Boyee, the old Rob Carrier of Dunnington Castle, 

114 History of Walmer. 

shot in the belly, pricked in the neck, and wounded in 

the head with the Bat end of a musket.* 
Sir John Knoisford 
Co] one! 1 Limey 
S\v John Corran 
Sir Hugh Mahan, sometime servant to the Prince 

Lieut. Col. Ball Capt. Poole 

Lieut. Col. Gambling Mr. Hason 

Major Drure Mr. James 

Major Burrage Mr. Blix 

Capt. Hull Lieut. Handen formerly Bosons 

Capt. Right mate 

Capt. Bourman Lieut. Castate 

Capt. Corpe Lieut. Mashee an Irish man 

''With 180 killed on the place 73 private souldiers taken 
prisoners, and 300 Arms." 

The following is a copy of a letter from " Col. Rich to the 
Speaker" under date of August 25th, 1648, in which the writer 
gives some account of the capture of Deal Castle and the results 
which he anticipates, in consequence, to the garrison at Sandown 
and the Royalists at sea ; and further states, in alluding to the 
damage sustained by the two castles already captured, that " the 
General," meaning General Fairfax, had been pleased to appoint 
him to the captaincy of Walmer Castle for the present. 

" CoL Rich to the Speaker,"' 

" Since the surrender of Walmer Castle, there hath been no 
time lost to use all means possible to reduce Deal Castle, which 
was thought fit to be attempted first, because the strongest ; the 

* Sir John Boys, of Bonnington in Groodnestone, greatly distinguished himself 
by his gaJlant defence of Donnington Castle. With a small garrison of 
only 200 Royalists, he held the Castle against tremendous odds, fix>in 
Sept. 1644 to April 1646. When at length compelled to surrender, he 
dictated his own terms: the garrison marched out armed and with 
colours flying, while passes were given to such officers as desired to go 
abroad, as well as to those who preferred to remain in England. For 
this glorious defence. Sir John was honoured by his sovereign (Chas. L) 
with the following augmentation to his arms, namely : — On a canton, az«, 
a crown imperial, or. In spite of the wounds he received at Deal, the 
sturdy Royalist lived to see the Restoration ; having died at Bonnington 
in Goodnestone, A.D. 1664. (V. Arch, Cant,, iii. pp. 183, 189.) 

History of Waltner. 

' defendants of which were more numerous and active than those 
I Sandown, of which I hope now to give you also a good 
account in a few days. 

"After man)' dangerous and difficult approaches upon a 
stony beach, where no less than sis or seven pieces of ordnance, 
within pistol-shot of our work, till it was perfected, annoyed us, 
all hopes of relief being cut off from ihe besieged, though in 
view of the whole fleet, it hath pleased God to give this place ia 
our hands, though very Utile necessitated to surrender, we 
I finding in the castle a good proportion of powder, match, com, 
meal, butler, cheese, pork, peas. &c., they wanting nothing but 
beer instead of which they had enough of wine and water. The 
conditions which are given them, I here send by the bearer, 
lieut. col. Astell, which are no limitalion but to the soldiery. 

"The castle is much torn, and spoiled with the granades, 
s Walmer was, or rather more ; the repair of which as well as 
\ that of Walmer, I submit it to you, whether necessary before the 
winter come on. 

"In this and the other leaguer at Walmer, the bearer 
I lieutenant colonel A.ntell hath been extraordinary active and 
I diligent, and will, if your leisure permits, give you account of 
( Ibe several provisions we find here ; and that this castle wanted 
I not men to defend it, there being no less than two hundred 
[ and upwards that marched out. 

" I have formerly \iiy formally] written to the committee at 
' Derby House, to take course for repairing money for Walmer 
Castle, not thinking fit to trouble your more weighty affairs for 
ao slender a thing, I being something more than ordinary con- 
cerned in its accommodation, since the general hath been pleased 
lo commit it to my care at present. Three hundred pounds will 
\ complete it. I fear five hundred pounds will scarce render this 
[ in so good a condition as it was before it was besieged. 

"The remaining Castle (though I suppose upon some 
t grounds will not hold out long yet,) can be of little use now to 
I the fleet here, we being able to prohibit their coming ashore 
r for fresh water, without which, these ships cannot be many days 
ether. What service is yet to be done here there is no 
• assistance of mine shall be wanting, which is but weak, and at 
I best scarce worthy your acceptance ; and for what hath been 

Ii6 History of Walnur. 

done of late here that God may have all the glory, which is the 
desire of Your most faithful and humble servant." 

'• Nath. Rich." 
" Deal, Aug. 25th, 1648." 

" A Great Victory obtained by His Highnesse the Prince 
of Wales neer the Downs, against a Squadron of the Rebels 
Shipping, on Munday last: with the particulars of the Fight ^ 
200 killed, 500 taken prisoners, two of their Ships sunk, five 
boarded, 40 piece of Ordnance taken, and all their Arms and 
Ammunition, And the Princess Resolution touching the Earl 
of Warwick. 

''Noble Sir, 

"Yesterday we received intelligence from the Prince's- 
Navy, that upon the discovery of divers Ships at Sea, Captain 
Batten received Commission from his Highnesse, to fight with 
them, and upon Sunday morning last, weighed anchor, hoysted 
sayl, and made towards them with a gallant Squadron of ships, 
viz. the Swallow, the Constant Warwick, the Roe-Buck, the 
Pellican, the Blackmorc Lady, and some others, who upon sight 
thereof, the Rebels ships held off, and were loath to engage. 
Captain Batten perceiving this, commanded forth the Swallow, 
the Warwick, and the Roe-Buck, who after three leagues sayle, 
came within shot of them, gave them a broad side, & engaged, 
insomuch that there hapned a very fierce and tedious fight 
continuing for the space of 7 hours, and with great gallantry 
and resolution ; but after an hour's dispute, the rest of the 
shipping came up, and gave the Rebels severall broadsides, 
sinking two of them, and boarded the rest, disputing the 
Conquest above Decks, killing many, casting them into the Sea, 
the rest cryed for quarter and submitted to mercy. 

" In this fight it is reported, that the Prince lost not many 
men, the enemies were great, above 200 slain, and neer upon 
500 taken prisoners, three ships sunk, and four boarded, and 
secured, above 50 piece of Ordnance, and great store of Arms 
and Ammunition and other rich Booty, which they had taken 
from divers English Merchants, and others, being all of them 
Irish Pyrats and robbers at Sea. 

History of Walmer. 



" It is reported here, that the Ear! of Warwick intends to 
pat to Sea very suddenly, and that the Prince is resolved to fight 
with him, and hath sent severall ships to attend his motion etc," 
"Dover, 29 August, 1648."* 

So much for the Civil War Tracts, which appear to contain 
nothing further of importance in connection with this episode 
of English History. But Walraer and Deal Castles having 
fallen to the Parliament forces, as described in the above extracts, 
and Sandown being, as we have also seen, closely besieged, the 
surrender of the last named Royalist Fortress could on!y be 
a question of a few days ; though evidence is wanting as to the 
exact date of its capitulation. 

With respect to the fleet, the opinion has been generally 
entertained that a grand opportunity had been thrown away. 
With the exception of the victory described in the last quoted 
Ihici (on which occasion, however. Prince Charles is said to 
have made captures to the value of ;^200,000), nothing definite 
had been accomplished, although for nearly a month from the 
date of the revolt, the seamen were actually masters of the whole 
sea-coast, and might easily have made a descent on the Isle of 
Wight and rescued the King. 

About this time the Earl of Warwick, having effected a 
junction with Sir George Ayscue, their combined fleets anchored 
in the Downs, within hail, it is said, of the Royalist navy, but 
■without either party attempting to bring about an action. War- 
wick, indeed, was strongly suspected of the intention to go over 
to the Royalists in the event of the Scottish invasion having 
proved successTuI ; but when news came of their defeat at 
Preston, he was content with allowing Prince Charles to draw 
off his fleet to the coast of Holland ; where discontent set in, 
and most of the sailors returned to the service of the Parliament. 

When the Castles fell into the hands of the Parliament, 
their establishment and pay became as follows : — 

Walmer Castle: — "A Governour at two shillings three 
pence per diem, one Corporall at twelvepence per diem, twenty 
soldiers each at eightpence per diem and sixpence per diem for 
fire and candle." 

• Ovii iVar Tracts, B.M., E. 463, No. i* 

1 1 8 History of Walnier, 

Sandown Castle : — **A Governoiir at two shillings sixpence 
per diem, a Corporall at twelvepence per diem, and twenty 
soldiers at eightpcnce a piece per diem and sixpence per diem 
for fire and candle for the guards." 

Deal Castle : — ** A Govemour at two shillings sixpence per 
diem, a Corporall at twelvepence per diem, twenty soldiers cache 
at eightpence per diem, and sixpence per diem for fire and 
candle for the guards."* 

The next event of importance in which the Castles figured, 
was the Dutch war of 1652. when troops were sent down to 
Deal, and earthworks were thrown up between Deal and Sand- 
own Castles ; one of the incidents of the war having been the 
attempt of Van Tromp, with the main body of his fleet, to 
capture the prizes brought into the Downs by Sir George Ayscue 
and his ten men-of-war. Hemmed in by a strong squadron of 
the enemy stationed off the North Foreland, and another squad- 
ron of forty sail within a short distance of him in the Downs, 
the English commander wisely got his ships under cover of the 
artillery ashore, and the Dutch were obliged to abandon their 

The Castles on the Downs were very serviceable at this 
period, as well as in the war with the Dutch and French in 1666 
and 1667, and care was taken to keep up their supplies of 
military stores. 

In January, 1660, we have a sign of the times in an order 
from the Council of State to Colonel John Dixwell, Governor of 
Dover Castle. Designs in Kent are spoken of "against Par- 
liament and the public peace." to check which Colonel Dixwell 
was to apprehend the following persons : — ** Sir John Boyce, 
Thomas Engham, Captain John Bowes and Sir William Mann to 
be confined in Dover Castle ; and old Mr. Boys, Mr. Sumner, 
the Proctor, and Mr. Masters of Powles, to be kept in safe 
custody at Deal Castle."t Colonel Dixwell was to have a 

* Dom. St. Pap. Chas. 11., xxix. 22. i. 

t The earliest mention of prisoners at Deal Castle occurs in the reign of 
Elizabeth. They were two children, a boy, and a girl, Barnard and 
Elizabeth Johnson, alias Deaken, named in Jan. 1584 among persons 
detained ** for religious and other causes.'* 

History of Walmer. 119 

vigilant eye upon the county and endeavour to secure the 
public safety. 

Of the persons above mentioned, Sir John Boyce will be at 
once recognized as the devoted royalist who was wounded at 
Deal on Aug. 14th, 1648 ; Thomas Engham, afterwards Sir 
Thomas Engham of Goodnestone, became captain of Walmer 
Castle, Aug. 15th, 1663 ; and Mr. Sumner or rather Somner, is 
remembered as the author of " A Treatise of the Roman Ports 
and Forts in Kent." 

Immediately after the Restoration, some important altera- 
tions were made with respect to the garrisons of the three 
castles, as well as of others along this coast, including Dover. 
From the order issued by the King to the Sheriff of Kent, Jan. 
25th, 1661, we find that these garrisons, which, during the 
Commonwealth had been abnormally large, were now reduced to 
the following strength : — 

Walmer Castle : — a Captain, Lieutenant, Porter and six- 
teen gunners aad soldiers. 

Sandown Castle: — a Captain, Lieutenant, Porter and six- 
teen gunners and soldiers. 

Deal Castle : — a Captain, Lieutenant, Porter and eighteen 
gunners and soldiers. 

The following comparative statement shews the changes 
made at different periods, in the constitution and pay of the 
garrison at Walmer Castle. 

(a.) Temp. Hen. VIII. {Local Historians,) 

£ s. d. 
Captain, per annum . . 

Deputy, or Lieutenant, „ , , 
First Porter „ 

Second Porter, „ .. ,, 

Ten gunners and four soldiers, per annum 

30 9 


9 13 


9 13 


8 6 


116 II 

;fi74 13 4 per annum. 

(^.) Temp. James I. {Siate Papers, 1607.) 

£ s. d. 
Cz.-^i2ixa.y per annum 30 8 4 

I20 History of Walmer. 

Lieutenant „ .. 12 3 4 

Porter „ 12 3 4 

Subporter ,, .. .. .. .. 926 

Ten gunners and five soldiers, per annum 136 17 6 

;f200 15 o peranmmt. 


(7.) Temp, Commonwealth {State Papers,) 

£ s. d. 
Governor, per annum 41 i 3 

Corporal, „ .. •• .. 18 5 o 

Twenty Soldiers, „ . . , . . . 243 6 8 

Fire and Candle for Guard, per annum ,, 926 

£31^ 15 5 per annum. 

(a.) Temp, Charles II. {State Papers), 

£ s. d. 
Captain, per annum ,, . • . . 30 8 4 

Lieutenant, „ 926 

Porter, „ 12 3 4 

Sixteen gunners and soldiers, /^ra;f;ff//n.. 146 o o 

£1^1 14 2 per annum. 

: \^ 


THE CASTLES (cottUnued). 

Colonel Hutchinson— The War with France and Holland, a. d. 1666-1667— 
Peace proclaimed — The English Revolution, A. D. ;688 — Alnrm from the 
Downs — Deal Castle shaken by an earthquake — Final remarks as to Deal 
and Sandown Castles — Captains. 

THE nest event of any importance in the history of the 
Casties was the confinement at Sandown of Colonel John 
Hutchinson, who io the Long Parliament sat for the borough of 
Nottingham, of the Castle of which place he was the governor. 
The story of his incarceration has been recorded in most 
touching terms by Mrs. Hulchinson in her Jlfemoriah of her 
husband, from which source the following information has been 
chiefly gleaned. 

Immediately on the arrest, which took place at Nottingham 
on Oct. 11th, 1663, under "an order from Mr, Frances Leke 
one of the deputy lieutenants," Colonel Hutchinson, though 
then in ill-health, was taken to Newark, and "about four in the 
morning was brought into the Talbot and put into a most vile 
room," where two soldiers kept guard upon him. A week later 
(Oct. 19th), he was taken by Mr. Leke to the Marquess of 
Newcastle, from whom he learnt that his apprehension was in 
consequence of a letter from the Duke of Buckingham, com- 
manding him to seize the colonel and others on suspicion of a 
plot. After this interview. Colonel Hutchinson was taken back 
to Newark (Oct. 22nd), whence five days later he was conducted 
to London. 

He arrived at the Crown Inn, Holborn, on November 3rd, 
and was on the following day committed to the Tower ; where 
he was kept in close confinement under a warrant dated Oct. 
20th and signed by Secretary Bennett, He remained in the 

122 History of Walmer, 

Tower for six months, the warrant for his removal, together with 
a certain Captain John Gregory, to Sandown Castle, being 
dated May 3rd, 1664 * 

Mrs. Hutchinson, who now took up her residence in Deal, 
gives a description of Sandown Castle which is worthy of literal 
transcription : — **\Vhen he (the Colonel) came to the castle he 
found it a lamentable old ruined place, almost a mile distant from 
the town, all out of repair, not weather free, no kind of 
accommodation, either for lodging or diet or any conveniency of 
life. Before he came, there were not above half a dozen soldiers 
in it, and a poor lieutenant with his wife and children, and two 
or three cannoniers, and a few guns almost dismounted, upon 
rotten carriages ; but at the colonel's coming thither, a company 
of foot more were sent from Dover to help guard the place, 
pitiful weak fellows, half-starved and eaten up with vermin, 
whom the Governor of Dover cheated of half their pay, and the 
other half they spent in drink. These had no beds, but a 
nasty court of guard, where a sutler lived, within a partition 
made of boards, with his wife and family."! 

No doubt some allowance must be made for the circum- 
stances under which Mrs. Hutchinson wrote her narrative, but 
it is easy to conceive that Sandown Castle would not prove to 
be the most luxurious of prisons. Nevertheless, a certain amount 
of consideration appears to have been shewn. The colonel was 
allowed to send for beds to an inn in the town, whence he 
hired three for the accommodation of himself, his man and 
Captain Gregory ; though this addition would have added but 
little to his comfort without the further luxury allowed him of 
getting "his chamber glazed.*' What this said chamber was 
like even with these additions, may be gathered from the 
following description : — ** a thoroughfare room that had five 
doors in it, and one of them opened upon a platform that had 
nothing but the bleak air of the sea, which every tide washed 
the foot of the castle walls; which air made the chamber so 
unwholesome and damp, that even in the summer time the 
colonel's hat-case and trunks and everything of leather, would 
be every day all covered over with mould, — wipe them as clean 
as you could one morning by the next day they would be mouldy 

♦ Calender of State Papers, 1664, p. 579. 
t Memorials of Colonel Hutchinson^ p. 330- 1. 


History of Walmer. 123 

■^^— l^■■-l ■■■ ■ ■ ■ — II ^ ii»»»iii »^^^»^»M»« ■ ■ I ^^— ^i^ 

again, and though the walls were four yards thick, yet it rained 
in through cracks in them, and then one might sweep a peck of 
saltpetre off them every day, which stood in a perpetual sweat 
upon them."* 

Although kept in the closest confinement during the first 
three months of his imprisonment at Sandown, Colonel Hutchin- 
son was allowed the solace of constant visits from his wife; 
who, together with their son and daughter, walked out from the 
•* cut-throat town " of Deal to dine with him every day. returning 
back again at night **with horrible toil and inconvenience." 

Mrs. Hutchinson's story is indeed full of pathos, and she 
lingers over every detail ; telling how, when no other recreations 
were left him, the colonel diverted himself with sorting and 
shadowing cockle-shells, which she and her daughter collected 
on the shore, ** with as much delight as he used to take in the 
richest agates and onyxes he could compass, with the most 
artificial engravings." 

Permission was at length obtained for the colonel, in 
company with a keeper, to walk by the sea-side. This order 
which was dated August 8th, 1664,f was brought down with all 
speed by his brother ; but it was too late to be of more than 
temporary benefit to the suff'erer. In less than a month (Sept. 
3rd,) after one of these walks, Colonel Hutchinson ** was seized 
with shivering and pains in his bones " ; and from this attack 
he never recovered. He died on Sunday, Sept. 11th, 1664. 

During the progress of the wars with France and Holland 
in the reign of Charles II., the State Papers contain a good 
many references, as might be expected, to the events which 
then took place in the Downs ; while at the same time they 
inform us as to the defensive preparations which were made on 
shore. Thus in a letter from Richard Watts, (Public Notary at 
Deal, who had removed to Walmer on account of the plague,) 
dated from Walmer Castle, July 2nd, 1666, mention is made of 
"the trained company of Deal and Walmer"; who, according 
to the report, were unable to muster, in consequence of the 
extreme prevalence of the plague in Deal. There must have 
been great excitement in the surrounding district at that time ; 

^Ibid,, p. 331- 
t Calendar of St, Papers^ 1664, p. 662. 

124 History of Walmer. 

for only three days previously Mr. Watts wrote, that the ** Ports 
and shires were all in arms, day and night, with strong artns and 
resolved spirits," in consequence of a report that ** the French 
shipped 8000 men near Calais yesterday intending to land near 
Dungeness " : he says *' the people resolve to give them welcome 
and shew themselves faithful to fight for King and Country."* 

The engagements with the Dutch, during June and July of 
this year, are events that figure on the pages of English History. 
On the first of June, the English admiral. Monk, discovered 
De Ruyter and De Witt with eighty-four sail at anchor off the 
North Foreland, and, though his own squadron consisted only 
of fifty sail, he immediately bore down upon the enemy, who, in 
a panic, cut their cables and made for their own coast. The 
subsequent engagement resulted in a doubtful victory for Monk, 
who was by-and-by reinforced by the arrival of Prince Rupert's 
squadron. A second engagement towards the end of the month 
off the Dutch coast, resulted in a loss to the enemy of two men- 
of-war and one hundred and fifty merchantmen. 

The letters written by Richard Watts from Walmer Castle 
during these and the following months, contain frequent 
allusions to the events connected with the war. 

In the following year, a.d., 1667, the Dutch avenged their 
previous defeats by sailing up the Thames, where they committed 
considerable havoc : ** the roar of foreign guns was heard for 
the first and last time by the citizens of London" on June lOth, 
1667. Meanwhile activity prevailed all along this coast. 
Colonel Titus, governor of Deal Castle, with his "yellow 
company," and the trained band under Captain Poole, had long 
been exercising at Deal ; and orders were now given to make 
breastworks of turf on the stone walls of the three castles. The 
authorities at Sandwich, though badly supplied with artillery 
and ammunition, caused the walls round the town to be 
manned and guarded. To the latter place as being somewhat 
safer than Deal, many of the principle inhabitants of Deal 
removed ; while others sought a refuge at Canterbury. The 
sound of firing at sea was continually heard, and, as there 
were only about 300 men available for the defence of this coast, 
the anxiety must have been considerable. On July 11th, Sir 

* Dom, St, Papers , Chas. II., clx. 117. 

History of Walmer. 


John Coventiy, the plenipotentiary, arrived, and having been 
received by Colonel Titus, with his trained band and yellow 
company, was nobly entertained at Deal Castle and soldierly 
guarded on board the Dutch ship that awaited him. He was 
saluted with eleven guns from Deal Castle, and the company 
gave him Ihree volleys and three shouts. The excitement did 
not end till Aug. 31st, 1667, when peace was proclaimed, as 
recorded in the following passage from one of Mr. Watts' 
letters: — "The peace between His Majesty and the French and 
Danish King and Stales of Holland was proclaimed to-day with 
arms and trumpets, and a procession of magistrates and soldiers. 
After the proclamation was read the third time. Deal Castle 
shot off eleven guns, Walmer five, and Sandown Castle three, 
and bonfires are preparing. Hopes they will end the day in joy, 
moderation and sobriety. The Deal people would not a little 
rejoice to have him enter this in the Gazette to their fame." 

We pass now to the Revolution of 1688. On November 1st 
of that year, after various delays, and having once in the previous 
month been compelled to put back by a storm from the south- 
west, William, Prince of Orange, at length set sail for England 
before a favourable wind. At first he made for the coast of 
Yorkshire, but a strong easterly gale compelled him to change his 
course; and he proceeded down Channel to Torbay, in Devon- 
Bhire, where he arrived on November 5th ; Lord Dartmouth, who 
was in the Thames with a powerfal fleet, ready to intercept the 
invader, being kept there by the very gala that now favoured the 
Prince of Orange, until too late to prove his somewhat doubtful 
loyalty. By December Clh the successful invader had advanced 
to Hungerford: on the night of the lOlh the Queen and her 
child, the Prince of Wales, made their escape from London to 
Gravesend, and were conveyed thence in a yacht to Calais : and 
then followed the flight of the King himself, and the disband- 
ment of the regiments of Irish ; which, to the great exasperation 
of bis English subjects, James had brought over, after the trial 
of the seven bishops, in the previous June. It is with the events 
of December 8th, and the few following days, that we have 
I sow to do. 

While the Prince of Orange was everywhere, along his line 
of march, receiving large additions to his armj', by desertions 

126 History of W aimer. 

from James, the belief prevailed in these parts that the cause of 
the Stewarts was about to receive support from the French ; and, 
in fact, that Louis was even then in the act of despatching an 
army to England. Accordingly, when, on December 8th, the 
mayor of Dover received a report that the Irish troops were march- 
ing on the town, and that the French were designing to land there, 
the utmost excitement prevailed : Dover Castle was immediately 
seized for the Prince of Orange : and two days later (Dec. 10), 
the news having meanwhile been rapidly circulated, it was 
proposed at Sandwich that a similar step should be taken with 
regard to the three castles on the Downs; — the Sandwich 
people to seize Sandown, the Deal people to take possession of 
Deal Castle, and ** the country people," by whom I suppose 
were meant the inhabitants of Walmer, to occupy Walmer 
Castle : intentions which were, however, forestalled by the people 
of Deal, who were found next day (Tuesday, December 11th), 
to have already, themselves, taken possession of the three 

The excitement was now increased by the appearance in 
the Downs of some twenty small vessels ; — smacks and yachts : 
and the refusal of the crews of these strangers to allow the near 
approach of a party who put off from Deal, gave colour to a 
wild rumour, which had already obtained credence, to the effect 
that they had on board some three thousand Irish who would 
presently attempt a landing. At Sandwich, a small body of 
seamen and porters armed themselves with clubs and swords, 
and proceeded to the mayor's house, to demand whether they 
should reinforce the people of Sandown Castle, or defend the 
town ; but the mayor being absent, they received very little 
encouragement from his deputy, and so proceeded no further. 
At Deal the excitement was even greater, and the male 
population generally, being determined to repel, if possible, the 
expected Papist invasion, seized any weapons they could find ; 
those who were most fortunate arming themselves with swords, 
though most had to be content with a club or even a scythe. 

The next day, December 12th, it was reported from 
Chatham that a number of the inhabitants had been massacred 
there by the Irish soldiers ; which further increased the general 
consternation. The militia were assembled at Sandwich, and 
kept under arms in the Com Market all night. 

History of Walnur. 127 

But by the following morning t!ie alarm had somewhat 

I abated; and though the precaution was taken of mounting the 

I guns at Canterbury gate (Sandwich), and of testing their 

efficiency by firing them off, the militia were released, and only 

hair a company were kept on watch nest night. 

Then followed the report that the King had been captured 
at Faversham, while attempting to make his escape from the 
country ; which news was confirmed here on Thursday, 
December 13th. This circumstance proved that the adherents 
of William had the ascendency in Kent, and no doubt tended 
much to allay the popular fears ; and, as the French shewed no 
sig^is of interposing, the people seem gradually to have settled 
down in these parts, as elsewhere. The trained bands, which, 
since the landing of the Prince of Orange, had performed watch 
and ward, continued in arms but a little longer, and were then 

On September 9th, 1692, an earthquake occurred which 
appears to have been felt most violently all round the coast from 
Sheerness to Portsmouth, as well as on the other side of the 
water in Holland, Flanders, and Normandy. At Sandwich, Deal, 
and Dover the effects of this disturbance were of a very alarming 
character, houses trembling, chimneys falling, crockery rattling 
and tumbling off the shelves, and beds and tables rocking so 

I violently that persons could neither lie on the one nor write on 

[ the other. At Deal Castle the massive walls vibrated to such a 
ree, that the inmates e.xpected every moment that the 

I fortress would be demolished, and themselves crushed to death 

I beneath its ruins. 

On Dec. 20, 1745, Admiral Vernon, from his ship the 

I Norwich, in the Downs, sent information to John Norris, Esq., 

' (lieut. of Deal Castle), and to the mayor of Deal, that the second 

son of the Pretender was at Dunkirk, where, as well as at Calais, 

the enemy had collected in large numbers, and that a descent 

might be expected. All the neighbouring towns were to have 

, advice for assembling for their common defence. 

So far the history of the three Castles has been traced 
f conjointly, and for the simple reason that this was manifestly 
f the most convenient, not to say the only way, of giving an 

128 History of Wdltner. 

adequate account of the one with which these pages are more 
immediately concerned, namely, Walmer Castle. But the later 
history of the two Castles of Sand own and Deal I shall now 
dismiss in few words. 

More than a hundred years ago, a.d. 1785, the sea broke 
through the outer wall of the moat at Sandown, rendering the 
Castle '' barely habitable*' and leaving behind a large accumula- 
tion of shingle. Eight years later, a.d. 1793, the encroachments 
of the sea were reported to have rendered that castle ** unfit for 
habitation*' ; but, in consequence of the French Revolutionary 
War, it was put into repair, and once more garrisoned with 
soldiers : and later on, that is to say from an early date in the 
present century, it did duty as a Coastguard Station. Its last 
Captain, Sir John Hill, of Walmer, was appointed in 1851 ; but 
the command was then only honorary. The inroads of the sea 
continuing, the materials of the castle were, in 1863, sold by 
the War Ofiice for ;^565, and in the following year the central 
tower and the upper part of the bastions were pulled down. 
Thus Sandown Castle was reduced to a heap of ruins, which from 
time to time, whenever a portion has been undermined and 
rendered dangerous by the action of the waves, have undergone 
further demolition ; till at last little remains of the old fortress 
but an unsightly pile of chalk. 

On the other hand. Deal Castle with its modern sea 
front, has settled down into the peaceful residence of its noble 
captain ; having long ceased to feel the threats of the insatiable 

The following is a complete list of the captains of each of 
the three Castles, so far as it is possible to ascertain their names. 
It should, however, be here observed that during the Common- 
wealth the style of the chief Officer of the Castles was changed 
from ** captain'* to '* governor"; but Charles II. restored the 
more ancient title. Most of the earlier appointments appear to 
have been for life. 

Captains of Walmer Castle. 

1. Thomas Alleyn ; appointed by Henry VIII. 

2. William Blaicbinden ; appointed 12 Jnne, 1551. 

3. William Hawkes ; named as captain, 29 ApL, 1576. 

Hhtory of Walmer. 


John Bacon ; named in 1558, 1559, and 1560. 
Edward Isham ; named as captain, 31 Oct., 1697. 
Sir George Perkins ; returned as captain, 7 Oct., 1607. 
William Boughton ; appointed 28 June, 1609. 
Edmund Lisle; appointed 29 March. 1617. 
9. Sir John Mennes ; appointed 10 Nov. 1637 ; dispossessed 

in 1642. 
Colonel Rich ; appointed by the Lord General Fairfax, 

July, 1648. 
Alban Spencer; named as " Governor," 17 Nov. 1653. 
Edward Lisle ; named as Captain, in the State Papers, in 

il3. Sir 



John Mennes ; restored before Aug. 11, X662 ; 
resigned in April, 1663. 
Sir Thomas Ingham, or Engham ; appointed April 15, 

Christopher Boys; appointed in 1677. 
The Honble. Chas. James Fox ; mentioned as captain 

in 1767 and 1779. 
William Scott ; captain in 1799. 
George John Piercy Leilh ; captain in 1800. 
John James Watts, the last captain ; appointed by the Duke 

of Wellington, 26 Mar., 1833. 
Of the above-named "captains." tbe history of Sir John 
Mennes is perhaps the most remarkable, from his having lived 
during the stormy period of the Civil War. The son of Andrew 
Mennes. Esq., of Sandwich, he was born in St. Peter's Parish, 
March Ist, 1599; educated in the Grammar School; and, in his 
17th year, became a commoner of Corpus Christi College, where 
he continued some years. He became a skilful physician and 
chemist, and was an accomplished poet ; and. while yet ayoung 
man, visited nearly every part of the world. In the reign of 
James I., he had a place in the navy office, while in 1636 he 
.appears as a captain of militia, and, three years later, as captain 
iflfa troop of horse in the expedition against the Scots ; having 
'uneanwhile, 10 Nov., 1637, been appointed to Walmer Castle. 
He received the honour of knighthood at Dover, 25 Feb., 1642, 
leing at that time rear-admiral. When the Civil War began, he 
'flnffered much from his loyalty lo the king. In the Royalist 
Rising of 1648 he figures as captain of the revolted ship 

130 History of Walmef\ 

Swallow, With the Restoration his fortunes revived. In May, 
1661, he was captain of the Henry and Vice-Admiral of the 
fleet in the Narrow Seas ; in the following year he was made 
'* Comptroller of the Ships " ; while about the same time he was 
restored to Walmer Castle. In 1662, he was selected to convey 
the Queen-Mother to England, and during his absence bad the 
misfortune to lose his wife, who died at Fredville, and was 
buried at Nonington. Sir John resigned the captaincy of 
Walmer Castle in April, 1663. He died 18 Feb.. 1671, and was 
buried in St. Olave's Church, Hart Street. A vault, which 
belonged to the family of Mennes, in the south-east angle of 
the north aisle of St. Peter*s, Church, Sandwich, has still 
suspended above it part of the armorial achievement of a 
member of this family, consisting of helmet with crest, etc. 

In 1558, William Blaicbinden, or Bleckenden, one of the 
above-named captains, was murdered within the castle. The 
murderer was tried and executed at Sandwich. 

After the time of Christopher Boys, the record of captains 
is incomplete. The books of the Registrar of the Cinque Ports 
mention only the Hon. Chas. James Fox, G. J. P. Leith, and 
J. J. Watts. Mr. Leith was, it seems, reappointed by the Duke 
of Wellington, 20 May, 1829. Capt. Watts is described as " late 
captain 85 Foot." 

Captains of Deal Castle. 

1. Thomas Wingfield, appd. by Henry VIII., Baron in 

Parliament for town and port of Sandwich, 25th and 
26th. Hen. VIII. 

2. Thomas Boys, appd. 20th Feb., 1551. As a gentleman- 

at-arms he attended Henry VIII. at the siege of 
Boulogne : was receiver of the county of " Guynes " ; 
and mayor of Calais two successive years ; ob. 1562*3. 

3. John Baker, named in Surrenden MSS., c. 1569. 

4. Peter Hamond, capt. in 1572, and still capt. in 1589. 

5. Matthew Bredgate. Grant ** in reversion" dated June 

28th, 1599. 

6. Erasmus Finch, ob. 1611. 

7. William Byng, or Bing. Grant (in reversion ?) dated 

Sept. 21st, 1608. A prisoner in Dover Castle, 1618. 


History of Walmer. 


In June, 1660, he petitioned for his restoration to the 
keepership of Deal Castle "granted him in 1611," and 
from which he was expelled by the Earl of Warwick, 
Admiral during the late troubles, for refusing to admit 
some pressed soldiers into the garrison without the 
king's warrant. 

Thomas Fulnetby, referred to as captain, June 12th. 1625 ; 
but in 1638 and 1640 as lieutenant. Perhaps he was 
" de put)* -captain," as the second in command was often 
called. Wm. Byng was returned as captain in the 
muster rolls of the garrison in 1620 and 1624, and is 
named as captain in 1630 and 1632. 

Colonel Rainsborough, captain in 1648, having been 
doubtless appointed at the expulsion of Wm. Byng. 
He was vice-admiral of the fleet, being one of those 
military men transferred to the naval service in the 
interests of ihe Parliament. Expelled at the Royalist 
Rising both from his castle and ship. 

Samuel Taverner, named Jan. SOtli, 1653, and subsequently, 
as "Governor"; and as a schismatic and formerly 
commander of this castle in 1664. 

William Byng, restored in 1660. 
[ J2. Silius Titus, grant dated May Slst, 1661. He was groom 
of the bedchamber to Charles II. Frequently referred 
to as Colonel Titus in connection with the Dutch war, 
(■13, John Norris, captain in 1767. 

Francis Osborne, Marq, of Carmarthen, afterwards Duka 
of Leeds, appd. 1777, ob. 31st Jan., 1799. 

George Augustus, Lord North, afterwards Earl of Guilford, 
appd. 1799, ob. 20th April. 1802. 

Robert. 1st Lord Carrington ; appd. by Pitt, 5th July, 1802 ; 
re-appd. by Wellington 30th May, 1829; ob. 18th 
Sept.. 1838. 

William Wellesley-Pole, Earl of Mornington and Lord 
Marj-borough, appd. 19th Sept., 1838, ob. 22nd Feb., 

James Andrew Brown Ramsay, Earl, and subsequently 
Marq. of Dalhousie, K.T., appd. 24th Jan., 1842, and 
resigned in 1847, when made Govern or- General of 

132 History of Walmer. 

India; appd. Lord Warden, by letters patent, 15th 
Feb., 1863. 

19. Richard Charles Meade, Earl of Clanwilliam, G.C.H., 

D.C.L., appd. 28th Feb., 1847, ob. 7th Oct., 1879. 

20. John Robert Townshend, Earl Sydney, G.C.B., appd. 

24th Oct., 1879, ob. 14th Feb., 1890. 

21. Farrer Herschell, Lord Herschell, D.C.L., appd. 24th Feb., 

1890. Lord Herschell is the present Lord High 
Chancellor of Gt. Britain. 

Captains of Sandown Castle. 

1. Richard Tuke, gent., appd. by Henry VIIL 

2. Aaron Windcbanck, named in Muster Roll, Sept. 29th, 


3. John Haydon, named in 1612, last mentioned in 1617. 

4. Sir Charles Glemham, Kt, named in 1619, and as 

deceased in 1626. 

5. Sir Thomas Love, Kt., grant dated 8th May, 1626. 

6. Sir John Pennington, admiral of the fleet, capt. in 1684 ; 

still captain in 1642. 

7. Brute Buck. Hasted says appd. 11 Charles I., but this 

date must be wrong. He is not mentioned in the 
State Papers, etc. 

8. Sir Charles Berkeley, junr. ; grant dated in Dec, 1660. 

He held the office "during pleasure," and was 
"discharged" in 1661. 

9. Henry Norwood, appd. for life, 31st July, 1661. 

10. William Freeman, on surrender of Henry Norwood, 

10th April, 1663. 

11. John Hardres, in reign of Geo. L He was a major of 

militia, and citizen of Canterbury; was returned to 
parliament in 1705. 

12. William John Ker, Earl of Ancrum, afterwards Marq. of 

Lothian, K.T., mentioned as captain in 1765; still 
captain in 1772. 

13. J. Robinson, named in 1799 and 1809. 

14. John Methurst Poynter, appd. by Wellington, 20th May, 

1829 ; probably re-appd. then, being named as capt. 
in 1823 and 1828. 

History of Walmer. 133 

Peter Fisher, appd. 31st Jan., 1835 ; resigned, on appt. 
to Sheerness dockyard, I7th Dec, 1841. 

Edward Harvey, afterwards Sir Edw. Harvey, G.C.B., 
appd. 26lh Oct., 1844; resigned, on appt. to Malta 
dockyard, in 1848, being then rear-admiral and second 
in command of the Mediterranean fleel. 

William Willmot Henderson, appd. 11th Oct., 1848; 
resigned in 1851, on appt. to chief command on S.E. 
coast of S. America, being then a rear-admiral. 

Sir John Hill, Kt., rear-admiral of the white, the last 
captain, appd. 20th Sept., 1851. ob. 20th Jan., 1855, 
The last five were all appd. by Wellington. 


WALMBK CASTLE f Continued J. 

The official residence of ihc Lord Wanlco— The Rampirls— Office of Lati . 
Warden — I^rd Wardens who have resided there — Buonapuie expected J 
— Pill*s prquntions — The Cinque Ports' Volonleers — Fleet of lagBcal 
filled out— Ntbon in the Downs— Sir Atthut Welleslcy at Deal— Ai 
uUetnal machine — Aildilions tu the Custlea — Anecdote of I/ord Car 
ton — Improvements by I.ady Hester Stanhope and othcis — Anecdote <i 
the Duke Of Wellington— HistoriciJ trees. 

LEAVING now the castles of Deal and Sandown, we proceet 
to the later history of Walmer Castle ; which, at the very 
momenl when Sandown was decaying, and itself, like Deal 
Castle, was losing its slralegical value, was nevertheless gainii 
increased renown as the ofhcial residence of the Lord Warden 
of the Cinque Ports. 

And, indeed, it would have been difficult to find anywhei 
a more appropriate abode for the Chief Officer of the sevei 
Cinque Ports, two Ancient Towns and their Members, than tbi 
maritime fortress on the Downs. It is true that when tht 
Duke of Dorset, somewhat early in the last centUQ", became' 
the first of a succession of illustrious statesmen to lake up his 
residence here, the independence of the Potts had already 
begun to suffer from the gradual decadence, since the close, 
of the Stewart pciiod, of the great and important Court 
Chancery.* But. though practically shorn of bis civil ju; 
diction, the Lord Warden still had. what has remained tl 
this day in spite of changes, his Court of Admiralty ; in whii 

* This Court, which was an independent tribunal, was anciently held in S 
James's Church, Dover. It took cognizance of all civil ' 
within the liberty of the Ports, and sat every three weeks ; being preside 
over either by the Lord Warden himself or his lieutenant, or a dq»itj| 
nominated by him or his Seneschal. The appeal from it Uj { 
Warden's Court of Shepway alone. It fell altogether into disuse in tl 
reign of George 1. 



alone coiild mRritime causes be disposed of. He still had also 
his Court of Lodemanage, by which all appointments and 
regulations as to the Cinque Ports' " loadesmen," or pilots, were 
made; though this useful body has in recent years (a.d. 1853) 
been placed under the control of the Trinity Board. And, 
therefore, as the Admiral of the Ports, and the responsible 
Warden, to whom is committed the charge of "divers castles 
and forts " along the coast, Walmer Castle offers him a fitting 
abode; — both from its central position within the liberty of the 
Ports, and its contiguity to the Goodwin Sands, more often 
formerly than at present the dreaded cause of fatal wrecks; as 
well as from its unrivalled prospect of the Downs, the great 
maritime highway of a world's commerce, and the '-silver 
streak" that invites, while it opposes, the hostile armaments of 
continenlal powers. 

No finer view of its kind can be obtained anywhere on the 
shores of England, than the view from the ramparts of Walmer 
iCastle of the famous Downs, with its passing men-of-war and 
vessels of commerce, the foliage of the trees in the castle 
grounds flanking the whole and adding its verdant freshness to 
the picture. This celebrated anchorage, several miles in length, 
idered safe for shipping, in almost all weathers, by its 
sheltered position between the Forelands, the Goodwin Sands 
■so treacherous and fatal if approached too nearly — forming 
lu protection on the east. Here, in the old days, before 
'the introduction of steam, four or five hundred vessels, 
bound to and from every part of the world, might often 
be seen weather-bound at anchor ; and, even now, it is by no 
unusual, in the winter months, to find two hundred vessels 
detained here at one time. The spectacle presented at such 
times, when the wind becomes favourable, is one to be 
remembered— the shouts of the seamen borne across the sea aa 
they fetch home the anchor, the vessels shaking out their sails 
and gliding before the swelling breeze, like swans with distended 
wings, the sky now changing from grey to blue, the placid water 
so lately heaving its angry breast — here is a picture to stir alike 
the heart of landsman and sailor. " Yesterday," wrote Nelson, 
at anchor off Walmer, and unwell, " if I could have enjoyed the 
sight, passed through the Downs one hundred sail of West 
Indiamen." Truly, a stirring scene ! 

136 History of Walmer. 

The position of the Lord Warden at the present time has 
been compared, and in some respects justly, with that of the 
Lord Lieutenant of the County. He has the power of recom- 
mending officers for the Militia and Volunteers, he appoints 
justices of the peace for the Cinque Ports, Commissioners of 
salvage and the judge of the Court of Admiralty, as well as the 
officers of the Ports. The captaincy of Deal Castle is also in 
his gift, and he is, as Constable of Dover Castle, ex-officio chair* 
man of the Dover Harbour Board, besides being a patron of the 
living of St. Mary's Dover. He still claims a right to flotsam, 
jetsam, and lagan, or floating, cast up, and submerged wreckage, 
the only remaining profits attached to the office, though formerly 
the Lord Warden received a salary of £3000 a year — ^a pajrment 
which ceased at the death of the Earl of Liverpool, in 1828. 

The following is a list of the Lord Wardens, from the time 
when Walmer Castle became their recognised residence : — 

1. Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Duke of Dorset, K.G. ; 

appointed 1708, and again in 1727. 

2. Robert D'Arcy, Earl of Holderness ; appointed 1765. 

3. Frederick Lord North, afterwards Earl of Guilford, K.G. ; 

appointed 1778. 

4. The Right Honourable William Pitt; by letters patent, 

August 18th, 1792. 

5. Robert Banks Jenkinson, Lord Hawkesbury, afterwards 

Earl of Liverpool ; letters patent, 30th Jan., 1806. 

6. Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, K.G., G.C.B., 

G.C.H. ; letters patent, Jan. 27th, 1829. 

7. James Andrew Brown Ramsay, Marquis of Dalhousie, 

K.T. ; letters patent. 15th Feb., 1853. 

8. Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston, K.G., G.C.B. ; 

letters patent. 15th April, 1861. 

9. Granville George Leveson-Gower, Earl Granville, K.G. ; 

letters patent, 11th Jan., 1866. 

10. The Right Honourable William Henry Smith; letters 

patent, 7th May, 1891. 

11. Frederick Temple Hamilton-Blackwood, Marquess of 

Dufferin and Ava ; letters patent, 23rd Nov., 1891. 

Since the time of the Duke of Dorset, the Lord Wardens 
have been in the habit of residing here for at least a consider- 

History oj Walvur. 

able portion of each y 


J their tenure of office, with the 
ilhousie, who, at the time of his 
appointment, was Governor-General of India. Lord Dalhousie 
returned to England in 1856, but it is doubtful whether he ever 
took up his residence at Walmer Castie. In his lime (1853) the 
Court of Lodemanage, which hitherto had possessed the 
privilege of appointing and regulating the Cinque Ports' pilots, 
was abolished, and its jnrisdiction transferred to the Trinity 

The office of Lord Warden having become more or less 
"honorary," it was proposed to abolish it altogether after the 
death of Lord Dalhousie; and this would probably have been 
done, but for the manifest unpopularity of the suggestion. A 
memorial to the Queen was immediately originated at Dover, 
in which, after reciting some historical particulars connected 
with the office, it was represented, that, although the jurisdiction 
of the Warden in civil affairs had been abrogated by Parliament, 
the peculiar jurisdiction of the Cinque Ports yet remained, and 
that some not unimportant functions still attached to the office 
of Constable and Lord Warden. In the end, therefore. Lord 
Palmerston, the Prime Minister at that time, was nominated; 
and he revived and underwent the ancient ceremony of public 
installation at a Grand Court of Shepway, held on the Breden- 
stone Hill, at Dover, on Aug. 28th, 1861, the first Court of 
Shepway held since 1765, when the Earl of Holderness took office. 
Lord Palmerston was succeeded in December, 186.5, by Earl 
Granville, and he, like his predecessor, consented to a public 
installation, which however did not take place, in consequence 
of certain differences as to precedency between the ports of 

Dover and Hastings. Thi 

prevented the ceremony in his case, but hi 
. DufTerin, the present Warden, was duly inst; 
\ June 22nd, 1892. 

The period of the French Revolution wa 
for the inhabitants of this part of the kingdi 
year 1793, and only eleven days aftei 
XVI., the National Convention of Fra 

d death of Mr. Smith 


Dover on 

Early in the 
of Louis 
hose hands the 

government of that country was vested on the outbreak of the 
Revolution, declared war against Great Britain ; and in the 
following year an invasion was threatened. No exertion was 

138 History of Walmer. 

spared by the people of this country, in order to receive the 
enemy witli the proper degree of warmth, and corps of Volun- 
teers were rapidly formed in every direction. 

Amongst the preparations deemed necessary by the Govern- 
ment on this part of the coast, where, from its contiguity to 
France, an attempt at landing might naturally be expected, two 
batteries were constructed on the shore to the northward of 
Sandown Castle ; one of which, namely that known as No. 2 
Batter)', still remains as a Coastguard Station, though the other 
has disappeared through the encroachments of the sea : and in 
order to effect rapid communication with the Downs, a 83rstem 
of Semaphores was established ; signal stations being erected 
at Deal and Betteshanger, as well as at St. Peter^s in Thanet, 
and on the cliffs near Kingsdown and Dover: while shortly after 
the completion of these preparations, some further steps were 
taken, by the construction of Barracks at Walmer, for the 
accommodation of the troops stationed there. 

Meanwhile active measures were also being taken in these 
parts for the raising and equipment of Volunteers. Mr. Pitt, 
the Lord Warden at that time, never behindhand in such matters, 
immediately on the declaration of war, proceeded to urge upon 
the Cinque Ports the importance of raising several companies of 
Volunteers for the defence of the coast: and the Ports, who 
never withheld either men or money when the demand was 
made upon them by the exigencies of the kingdom, were by no 
means backward in their response to his appeal. On Thursday, 
April 24th, 1794, a general deputation of the Cinque Ports and 
their Members, met the Lord Warden at Dover Castle, to confer 
with him on this subject. Plans were now unanimously agreed 
upon, by which it was decided to form bodies of infantry and 
cavalry, ** for the general purpose of strengthening the internal 
defence of the kingdom," and to raise a sufficient sum of money, 
by means of a subscription, for the support of such military 
forces. The battalions thus to be raised were " to be entirely 
voluntary, except on being actually called out to repel invasion, 
or suppress riots : in which case the whole body, which should. 
march for either service, were to be under military law." Mr. 
Pitt, who, it seems, had already promised a considerable sub- 
scription, now engaged to contribute the further sum of £1000. 
To add to the significance of this meeting Mr. Pitt, as Constable 

History of Walmer. 139 

and Lord Warden, was received, on entering Dover Castle, 
with a discharge of artillery ; and was attended by a captain's 
guard and a military band. 

The following list of the sums raised on this occasion, is 
recorded in the Introduction to Lyon's History of Dover^ under 
the heading, — ** Sums raised for equipping several companies of 
horse and foot, to be called Fencibles '* : — 

JL s. d. 

The Rt. Hon. W. Pitt, Warden of the Cinque 

Ports, and Constable of Dover Castle 
Colonel North, Governor of Dover Castle 
John Trevanion, Esq. 
Charles Small Pybus, Esq. 
John Smith, Esq. 

Port of Dover . . , . , , 




Town of Rye . , 
„ Winchelsea 








St. Peter's 






• • 






885 2 


887 18 


325 5 

104 17 


92 12 

398 5 


236 16 


144 14 


218 9 



538 16 






73 15 

36 16 

;f6s2i 7 


As might be expected from the circumstance of Mr. Pitt's 
residence here, if for no other consideration, Walmer figured 
conspicuously in all these preparations, and had its own 
company of volunteers, called the ** Walmer Volunteer Com- 
pany"; of which the Kentish Register^ for 1794, records the 
appointment in July of that year, of " George Leith, jun. esq. 
to be captain ; and John Bray, and Henry Boys, gents, to be 

140 History of Walmer. 

On Thursday, Sept. 15, 1795, the troops in this district 
were reviewed by H.R.H., the Duke of York, near Charlton in 
Dover ; His Royal Highness being attended by the Right Hon. 
Wm. Pitt, the Duke of Richmond, and many other persons of 

An interesting light is thrown on the doings at Walmer 
Castle at this time, by the subjoined extract from a letter on the 
character of Mr. Pitt, written by the Marquis of Wellesley to 
the late Lord Stanhope, November, 1836, and subsequently 
published in an article in the Quarterly Review : — *• Mr. Pitt 
lived most hospitably, entertaining all his neighbours, as well as 
the officers of the neigbouring garrisons and of the ships in the 
Downs, and he was most attentive to his duties as Lord Warden 
of the Cinque Ports. In the year 1797, 1 was appointed Governor 
General of India — and in the month of September I went to 
Walmer Castle to meet Mr. Pitt and Mr. Dundas, and to receive 
my last instructions. I found Mr. Pitt in the highest spirits, 
entertaining officers and country gentlemen with his usual 
hospitality. Among others. Admiral Duncan was his constant 
and favourite guest. His fleet was in the Downs preparing for 
the memorable victory of Camperdown. The Admiral was a 
lively and jovial companion, and seemed quite delighted with 
Mr. Pitt's society. After his resignation in 1801, Mr. Pitt was 
closely occupied at Walmer Castle, in forming a corps of Volun- 
teer Cavalry, living with his officers, and passing the greater part 
of his time on horseback, under the firm expectation of a 
French invasion." 

On the 27th March 1802, the Treaty of Amiens brought the 
war to a temporary close, and all fears of invasion were over for 
the present. It was however but a brief respite, for the storm 
quickly regathered, and in the following year war broke out 
again. In a very short time an army of three hundred thousand 
men, under Buonaparte, were assembled on the heights of 
Boulogne for the conquest of Britain. But meanwhile the 
preparations on this side of the channel had likewise been 
renewed : Volunteers were again enrolled throughout the length 
and breadth of the country ; and Kent was not behind. What 
is more to our purpose, Pitt was again busy at Walmer Castle» 
organizing and directing with his wonted activity ; and it was 
probably at this time, if not on the occasion of the previous 

History of Walmer. 



alarm, tliat all the present guns were mounted at Walmer and 
Deal; especially since, in addition to his horse and foot, Pitt 
organized some " Bombardiers." who used to muster at the 
castles for exercise. An official List of Volunteers, which has 
been kindly lent me by Mr. Fynmore, of Sandgate, shows that 
the Cinque Ports' Volunteers, raised on this occasion, consisted 
of two battalions, and it records amongst others the following 
appointment of officers : — 

Col. in chief Rt. Hon. Robert Li. Hawkesbury. 

Lieut. Colonel (1j/ Ba.) Charles, Vise. Mahon fappd.) 30 
July 1803. 

Lieut. Colonel {Ind Ba.) Robert. Ld, Carrington {appd) 30 
July 1803. 

Chaplain— Richard Harvey {appd) 10 Sept. 1803. 

Surgeon— William Halite (a^/if) 10 Sept. 1803. 

Not the least interesting among Mr. Pitt's devices for the 
defence of these shores, was the equipment of a fleet of luggers, 
consisting of every boat of that description then available in 
these parts; which numbered as many as thirty-five. Each of 
these he fitted out with a twelve or eighteen-pounder cannonade 
according to their size, and manned them with the brave boat- 
men whose hardy daring has become a bj'-word. And on 
September 15th, 1803, when all were ready for action, this fleet 
of luggers was reviewed by Mr, Pitt. At a given signal the 
whole live and thirty boats launched simultaneously from the 
beach, and came to an anchor with all speed in their appointed 
order, about a cable's length from shore ; the line extending from 
abreast the White Bulwark to some distance bej-ond Walmer 
Castle, Thus they waited til! noon, when, according to appoint- 
ment, the Lord Warden's flag on Walmer Castle was to be 
saluted ; then with commendable punctuality the southernmost 
boat fired the first gun, and the salute was taken up by every 
lugger in succession till the round of thunder had been com- 
pleted. This scene was witnessed from the ramparts by Mr. Pitt, 
iLord Mahon, Lady Hester Stanhope, and others ; after which, 
with very little loss of time, the whole party embarked in a 
large lugger steered by Thomas Canney, Warden of the Pilots, 
to inspect the line of boats ; whose crews exhibited the greatest 
enthusiasm, and received Mr, Pitt with true British cheers, which 
were acknowledged in kind by the Lord Warden and his 

s party. 

142 History of W aimer. 

In this manner an hour and a half was quickly passed, Mr. 
Pitt*s boat sailing in and out among the anchored luggers, until 
the crew of each had received their proper share of notice ; 
after which he returned with his guests to the castle. 

A large number of spectators witnessed these interesting 
proceedings from the shore, and when, after recruiting them- 
selves with " refreshments," the crews of the luggers repeated 
their manoeuvres, the shouts at sea were taken up ashore till the 
air was rent with acclamations. 

From the Notes and Extracts of Letters^ in the Stanhope 
Miscellanies, we get some further information respecting the 
doings at the castle during this exciting period. Lady Hester 
Stanhope came to live at the castle, by the invitation of Mr. Pitt, 
shortly after the death of her grandmother. Lady Chatham, in 
April 1803. She came, therefore, at a critical time, and, as 
might be expected, her letters from Walmer contain many 
references to the anticipated invasion. Speaking of Mr. Pitt 
she says, in October 1803, he •'absolutely goes through the 
fatigues of a drill-serjeant ; it is parade after parade at fifteen or 
twenty miles distance from each other" ; and again, " Mr. Pitt 
is dertermined to remain acting colonel* when his regiment is 
called into the field." With regard to the volunteers, she says 
in the same letter : — " few regiments for the time were ever so 
forward " ; while as to the invasion she remarks : — " I should 
not be the least surprised any night to hear of the French 
attempting to land, indeed I expect it ; but I feel equally certain 
that those who do succeed in this will neither proceed nor 

♦ Mr. Gattie in his recently published Metnorials of tht Goodwin Sands, p. 79, 
says, " Mr. Pitt himself was enrolled as a private of the infantry division " 
of the Cinque Port Fencibles, and mentions the alleged discovery at the 
castle in the time of the Duke of Wellington, of " a small regimental 
tin canteen which had formed part of the * kit * of a private " belonging 
to that corps, and which on close examination was found to have engraved 
upon it the name of " private William Pitt." Mr. Gattie does not 
express any doubt as to the truth of this " interesting discovery," but it 
scarcely seems to agree with Lady Hester's statements. Perhaps it is 
worth while mentioning, in connection with this story, the curious circtim- 
stance, that the parish registers record the burial of two men named 
William Pitt ; one on Dec. 9th, 1838 ; and the other on Sept. 7th, 1839; 
and neither of them, of course, the William Pitt. The William Pitt 
who was buried in 1839, is described as a Gunner of the Royal 

History of Walmer. 


"Come tlie Con 

And be means 

Pitt will send hii 

From his forti 

Another letter dated Ja 

tions to have be< 

expectation of thi 

return." The same volume supplies the following lampoon bj 
Peler Pindar (Dr. Wolcott), which appears to have correctly 
represented the belief of Ibe natiun in the efficiency of Pitt's 
preparations : — 

whenever he will, 

when Neptune is calmer, 

a d bitter pill 

s, the castle of Walmer." 
Uth, 1804, shews these prepara- 
still going on. " We are in almost daily 
,1 of the French," writes Lady Hester, 
and Mr. Pitt's regiment is now nearly perfect enough to receive 
them. We have the famous 15:h Light Dragoons in our 
Barracks; also the Northampton and Berkshire Militia, The 
first and last of these regiments I command, and have an orderly 
dragoon whenever I please from the former and the band of the 
latter. I never saw any Militia regiment so well officered, or 
composed of such pleasant men as the Berkshire. . . . Oh, such 
miserable things as the French gun-boats! We took a vessel 
the other day loaded with gin — to keep up their spirits I 
sQppose : another with abominable bread and a vast quantity of 
peas and beans, which the soldiers eat. One of the boats had 
an extreme large chest of medicine, probably for half their 
flotilla. Their guns are ill-mounted, and cannot be used with 
the same advantage as ours, but are fine pieces of ordnance. 
Buonaparte was said to be at Boulogne a few days ago, our 
officers patrolled all night with the men which was pleasant. I 
have my orders how to act in case of real alarm in Mr. Pitt's 

During part of the time embraced by these two alarms of 
invasion. Nelson lay in the Downs ready for action, and many 
an interview look place between him and Pitt at Walmer Castle. 
This was 1801 in which year Nelson made two attempts to 
destroy Napoleon's flotilla at Boulogne, namely on the 4th and 
15th of August. His flag-ship was the Medusa, a thirty-two gun 
frigate, and he had with him a swarm of gun-boats and bombs ; 
and although he met with little success on either of these 
occasions, there can be little doubt that the terror of his name, 
no less than the preparations ashore, preserved the land at that 
time from invasion. Be that as it may, however, the I 

144 History of Walnur. 

France were soon afterwards provided with work in other 
directions, and Nelson was relieved from his duties here ; though 
it was not till after the destruction of the French fleet at 
Trafalgar that Britain was absolutely safe. 

But Nelson's crowning triumph was purchased with his life, 
and on December 16th, 1805, his flag-ship the Victory , home- 
ward bound with the remains of the departed hero, reached the 
Downs under jury-mast, and a N.N.E. gale having sprung up, 
came to an anchor for three days. 

On January 2drd, 1806, the gallant Lord Warden also 
passed to his rest. 

An incident in connection with Nelson's second attack on 
Boulogne, was the death of Capt. Parker, who died at Deal of 
the wounds he received on the 15th of August, and was buried 
in St. George's churchyard, his funeral being attended by 
Nelson in person. A great deal of sympathy was aroused by 
the death of this young oflicer, who was only twenty-three years 
of age; which, with the presence of Nelson, attracted an immense 
concourse of people at the funeral. 

Some time during the year 1805, Sir Arthur Wellesley 
landed at Deal on his return from India ; and a few months later 
he was here again, with the object of taking the command of the 
troops destined for a secret expedition to the mouth of the 
Weser. It is related of this expedition, that, after their embark- 
ation in the Downs, no less than three unsuccessful attempts 
were made to sail ; each time storms having sprung up, which 
drove them back to their anchorage, after considerable losses 
from wrecks on the Goodwin Sands. 

In this year also (1805) Mr. Pitt received at Walmer Castle 
a number of military and naval officers, amongst whom were 
General Don and Sir Sidney Smith, whose object was to make 
experiments with a contrivance for blowing up ships at anchor. 
The machine was so far successful, that a large brig, anchored 
off" the castle for the purpose of the experiment, was completely 
destroyed ; but it was thought very doubtful whether it would 
prove serviceable in actual warfare. 

To the period when the Lord Wardens first made Walmer 
Castle their official residence, may be traced the commencement 
of the numerous alterations which have been carried out at 

History of IVabner. 


different dates, with the view of providing more comfortable 
accommodation. The earliest of these is ascribed by Hasted, 
and those who have copied him, to the Earl of Holderness, and 
Pritchard asserts them further to have been carried out in the 
year 1730, but still refers them to the Earl of Holderness,* 
although the date of his appointment to the office of Lord 
Warden was five and thirty years later. But notwithstanding 
this manifest error, it is most likely that Pritchard has recorded 
the correct date ; since the additions usually attributed to the 
Earl of Holderness, are shewn by old engravingsj- to have been 
completed boforc the year 1735. They would therefore seem to 
,have been made by the Dtikt of Dorset , who held the office of 
iOrd Warden during a very long period. 

Most of the subsequent Lord Wardens are said to have 
effected some kind of alterations or additions to the castle ; the 
tinost extensive having been those of Mr. Pitt, the Earl of Liver- 
■ipool, and the late Earl Granville. 

. connection with Mr. Pitt's additions a very good story 

has been handed down from Bishop Wilberforce, which 

associates the alterations at Walnier with those done at Deal 

Castle at the same period. The story goes, that shortly after 

Mr. Pitt had appointed Lord Carrington to the captaincy of 

Deal Castle, the Lord Warden (Mr. Pitt) began the alterations 

at Walmer Castle, which made the sea-front very much what il 

now is. It then occurred to the captain of Deal Castle, that it 

too required improvement, and he set to work on a scale much 

exceeding the buildings at Walmer. When the works at both 

castles were completed, Lord Carrington went to Mr. Pitt, and 

said, " I suppose the time is now come when we may apply to 

the Treasury to defray the cost of our alterations." To which 

Mr. Pitt sternly replied, " Whatever alterations we have made, 

I must be paid for out of our own pockets." The result was that 

■Lord Carrington had to pay several thousand pounds, which he 

Kdid not at all like, though he left his castle with far better 

■ accommodation tliau that of the Lord Warden, 

The alterations effected by Earl Granville, consist chiefly, 

in additions to the outer works which formed the gateway, by 

increasing the height of which, thirteen additional rooms have 

• Prilchard's Hislery ef Dial, p. 344. 

m\ The engi-avings in question were by " S. and N. Buck, del el scu., i;3s." 

146 History of Walmer. 

been provided, while the appearance of the castle far from 
suffering, as it certainly did from some of the earlier alterations, 
has really been much improved. The tower shewn in the 
engraving, was also added by Earl Granville. These alterations 
were carried out by Mr. George Devey, the architect, at the 
time of the demolition of Sandown Castle ; part of the stone 
of which was purchased by Earl Granville, and conveyed here 
for the purpose. 

The same cause which brought about the alterations in the 
castle, led also to the improvements to the grounds that encom- 
pass it. The earliest of these improvements dates back to 1805, 
and is due to Lady Hester Stanhope, who, as already stated, 
resided at that time at the castle with Mr. Pitt. It appears that, 
in a conversation with some friends who were staying with him 
at Walmer, the remark was made by Mr. Pitt, in Lady Hester's 
hearing, that the castle was certainly not a beautiful residence, 
but that it only wanted trees to make it so. She observed the 
remark but said nothing : very shortly afterwards, however, when 
Mr. Pitt had gone to town, she set to work to improve the place 
in the manner which Mr. Pitt appeared to imply as desirable. 
Her method shall be told in her own words as recorded in her 
Memoirs : — ** I got," she says, ** I know not how, all the regi- 
ments that were in quarters at Dover, and I employed them in 

levelling, fetching turf, transplanting shrubs, flowers, etc 

A few civil words, and occasionally a present, made the work ga 
on rapidly, and it was finished before Mr. Pitt's return." What 
length of time was spent in these improvements is not recorded, 
but we are told of the pleasure expressed by Pitt, when he first 
obtained a view of the garden from the window on the staircase ; 
and what delighted him particularly was the taste which Lady 
Hester had displayed, in keeping ** to the old manner of avenues, 
alleys, and the like," as most suitable to an ancient castle.* 

Some letters preserved in the Stanhope Miscellanies (3rd 
series), give some particulars of other improvements effected in 
the grounds by Lady Hester. Thus on January 25th, 1805, she 
writes to Mr. Pitt, that " Burfield," the gardener at the castle^ 
" went to Maidstone yesterday for the last lot of trees and 
shrubs, which he expects will be all planted in ten days, unless 

* Memoirs of Lady Hester Stanhope^ vol. ii, pp. 66-7. 

History of Walmer. 


a frost prevents it." She also mentions in the same letter a 
conversation with Burfield, "about what was likely to grow in 
the chalk-pit;" and states that they were "both agreed upon 
filling it with a variety of creepeis, furze, broom, or about any- 
thing that will grow and make it look less barren." 

In another letter, dated Feb. 3rd, and addressed to W. D. 
Adams, Esq., Mr. Pitt's private secretary, she mentions that she 
had " charge of improvements here, plantations, farms, buildings, 
etc." And ag^ain, in April of the same year, she writes to Mr. 
Adams, " I am pretty well, but I am not allowed to go out yet, 
which vexes me, as I wish to attend to a plantation Mr. P. knows 
nothing of. Lord Gtaitford has left his place in this part of the 
world, and is cutting down trees, and making all the money he 
can of it. He has allowed me to take a great many shrubs 
{these he gives to me), and as anything green in this part of the 
world is a treasure, I have been employing myself to cultivate a 
frightful barren bit of ground behind the castle, as it might be 
years and years before such an offer of plants might again be 
made ; and buy them you cannot, of a considerable size at least ; 
and little twigs make no show ; and should Mr, Pitt come the 
end of the week. I should like the plantation finished." 

It was most probably while the plantation mentioned in the 
last letter was being made, that the soldiers from Dover were 
employed ; and Lady Hester would seem from the previous letter 
to have been already occupied, with Mr. Pitt's knowledge, in 
planting the chalk-pit, and other improvements, while the 
.building was going on at the castle. This, if correct, makes 
le work done by the soldiers to have been merely supplemen- 
laty to other improvements, executed at the same time, with 

Pitt's concurrence. The chalk-pit, which, according to 
tradition, supplied the principal material for filling in the thick 
walls of the castle, it is needless to say, has now become the 
very pretty spot known to modern Walmer as " Tht GUn." 

The next considerable improvement to the grounds was 
made by the Earl of Liverpool, who added the two meadows — 
since thrown into one — with the express proviso that, in the 
event of the office of Lord Warden being ever abolished, they 
should revert to the representatives of his own family. 

The Duke of Wellington did not improve the grounds : on 
the contrary, he seems to have allowed them to fall into a state 

148 History of Walmer. 

that would very much shock the professional gardener. But 
then the Duke*s gardener was not a professional, but a veteran 
sergeant of the Peninsular Army, and a Waterloo man, named 
Townsend, who received his appointment to the post of gardener 
at Walmer Castle under the following peculiar circumstances. 
The story goes, that shortly after the Duke became Lord 
Warden, he received a letter from Sergeant Townsend, com- 
plaining that he had been discharged from the service without 
a pension : that thereupon he immediately replied, " Field 
Marshall the Duke of Wellington would be happy to see 
Sergeant Townsend at Apsley House on Friday at noon " : that 
on the interview taking place, his Grace inquired, " Do you 
know anything about gardening ?" and, on receiving a negative 
reply, added, ** Then learn, learn, and come here this day fort- 
night at the same hour." The sergeant withdrew, and when, in 
obedience to orders, he appeared the second time at Apsley 
House, was greeted with — "Take the place of gardener at 
Walmer Castle ; and on replying, *• But I know nothing about 
gardening," was cut short by the Duke with " Nor do I, nor do 
I, take your place at once." 

Earl Granville completed the adornment of what are now 
really picturesque grounds. In 1865, when first appointed Lord 
Warden, he found them very much overgrown with trees and 
shrubs ; and to the judicious care with which many of these 
were cut away, must be ascribed the beauty of the trees that now 
stud the lawn, which latter was practically made at this time. 
The moat was also transformed by Earl Granville into the very 
quaint and pretty garden which it now is. 

Among the historical trees in the grounds of the castle 
should be mentioned an Acacia, which is pointed out as having 
been planted by Queen Elizabeth : from its size and appearance 
it looks as if it might have been raised from a seed borne by the 
tree that good Queen Bess is said to have planted, but it can 
hardly be the original. Then there is the so-called palm, or in 
other words the Yew, which is put down to Lord Clive ; also 
a very handsome Tulip-Tree and a splendid Lime, which 
tradition has associated with Pitt and Fox. The Duke of 
Wellington planted here a cutting from the willow by the grave 
of Napoleon at St. Helena, which lived till shortly after Earl 
Granville became Lord Warden : the tree in question stood in 

History of Wabner. 149 

the garden, and there is still a willow in the moat that is said to 
have been a cutting from it. And Earl Granville planted, in 
] 887, a cutting from a willow, itself a cutting planted at Tully 
Allan by th« Count de Flahault, who had accompanied the 
Emperor in most of his campaigns, and attempted to go with 
his fallen master in his exile. He was known afterwards as 
Ambassador to Vienna and London, and as Chancellor of the 
Legion of Honour. The clumps of trees in the meadow, as 
well as those on the beach in front of the castle grounds, were 
also planted by Earl Granville. 




Rojralty at Ihe Castles — Progress of Henry "VIII.— Landing of Anno of I 
Clcves— Queen EJiinbelh— Charles I.— The Queen Mother— Henhetu f 
Maru — Charles II. — Katheiine of Braganza— James II. — The DdIm 1 
anil Dtujliess of Clareoce — Wellingloii uud his royal guests — The Duchess I 
of Kent and the Princess Victonn — The Kiag aad Qoeen a! the Bdgiftna I 
— Her Majesty ani] Prince AJbert — A royal birthday kept at Walmct I 
Caslle—Prioce Albert's visit to the beacon-refuge — The royal yacht in the 
Downs — The Prince Consort's last visit— Wellington's last royal guesla. 

ROYAL visitors at the Castles that once in warlike earnest 
■' Kept the Downs," have been somewhat numerous. 
Henry VIH,. Anne of Cleves. Elizabeth. Charles I., Henrietu 
Maria, Anne of Denmark, Charles II., Katherine of Braganza, 
James H., Ihe Doke and Duchess of Clarence, better remem- 
. bcred as William IV. and Queen Adelaide, the Duchess of Kent 
and her daughter (our present beloved Queen), the King and 
Queen of ihe Belgians, the Prince Consort, the first Duke and 
Duchess of Cambridge and their children, have all been hure — 
several of them more than once — and two of them, Anne of 
Cleves in la39, and Queen Adelaide in 1818, the latter being at 
that time Princess Adelaide of Saxe Meiningen, first trod British 
soil at Deal. 

The progress of Henry VIII. along this coast with the 
object of hastening on the construction of the castles, has 
already been mentioned ; but the date of (his visit is not quite 
clear. Boj's refers to an expected visit of King Henry to 
Sandwich in 1531, and records the preparation in that year ol a 
handsome present for his Majesty, consisting of " two complete 
fat oxen, twenty fat wethers, twenty couple fat capons, the value 
of the whole being estimated at 20 marks." But an extract from 
the Sandwich Corporation Vear-Book,* alludes lo "a house 
wherein King Henry VHI'*' had been lodged twycs"; and, as 

• See Boy's SanihiiKh, |i. bgi. 


History of Walmer. 



the date above mentioned is some three years before ihe 
probable coraraencemenl of ihe castles, we may therefore 
conclude the visit of 1531 to have been a preliminary one, made 
perhaps with the intention of selecting the most suitable 
positions for his projected coast- defences. Henry's inspection 
of the works themselves could hardly have been earlier than 
1534, and \ery probably was even ialer. 

In Nov., 1533, the Earl of Southampton received orders to 
.proceed to sea with a fleet of fifty vessels, for the purpose of 
escorting over to England the Lady Anne, sister to the Duke of 
Cleves. She arrived here towards the end of December, and was 
received, on landing, at Deal Castle, Her marriage with Henry 
VIII. took place on the 6th of January following ; but the fickle 

ith her appearance a 
divorced by parliame 

he had 

it in the 


king, not being so enchanted ' 
been with her portrait, she 
I following June. 

I The tradition that Queen Elizabeth lodged one night at 
FSandown Castle during her progress in lfl73, seems to be without 
foundation.* From Nichols we learn, that, leaving Westenhan- 
ger on August 26th, she arrived at Dover the same day, after a 
short halt at Folkestone ; that she remained at Dover till the 
31sl, when she proceeded to Sandwich ; and that she stayed at 
Sandwich till September Srd.f The natural inference from this 
account is that the Queen arrived at Sandwich the same day she 
left Dover. And with this agree the Sandwich Records ; which 
describe her reception at Sandown Gate about seven o'clock on 
■the Monday evening (August 31st), and then state that she 
iti! she came to Mr. Manwood's house wherein she 
(lodged, a house wherein Kinge Heniy the VIII''' had been 
lodged twycs before." The further statement of Nichols that 
'lier Majesty remained at Sandwich ti'I Thursday, September 3rd, 
also conflnned by the local record of her visit. 

But although Queen Elizabeth could not. therefore, have 
been lodged at Sandown, even for a single night, during this 
progress, the journey from Dover was not a long one, and there 

• Query. May not this tradition have arisen from the undonbted 
tliat Queen Elizabeth, during one of her visits to the coast < 
ealertained and lodged at Sami^alc Castle ? 

t Nithol's Progresses ef Queen Elisabeth, p. 49IJ. 

152 History of Walmer. 

would be ample time for the " inspection " of the castles on 
the Downs, which she is said to have made tn route ; and there 
would, doubtless, have been time also for her Majesty to plant 
at Walmer the Acacia-tree which tradition ascribes to her. 

Before leaving this subject it should be remarked, that, 
according to another version of the story, it was in 1588, the 
year of the Spanish Armada, that Queen Elizabeth '' was lodged 
one night at Sandown Castle.*' 

From the State Papers we find that the " Prince Royal," 
afterwards Charles I, was in the Downs on May 29th and 30tb, 
1623, but whether he landed, or not, is not stated. He anchored 
off Deal. 

In 1638, Sir John Pennington, admiral of the fleet and 
captain of Sandown Castle, was ordered to cruise off the North 
Foreland in expectation of the Queen Mother (Anne, daughter 
of Frederick II of Denmark), who intended to land if possible 
at Deal on her way from Holland. Some " bold and handsome 
boats " were sent to Sir John for her service. The weather, 
however, proved unfavourable, and she was obliged to land at 
Harwich. She came here, nevertheless, in 1641, to embark for 
Holland, and Sir John Pennington had then " to victual and 
lodge her majesty and thirty persons." All ammunition was 
withdrawn from the ships and castles, " for fear of doing any 

In 1642 the Queen (Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV 
of France) and her daughter the Princess Mary, sailed from 
Deal for Holland, in the month of February. 

King Charles II is known to have been at Deal Castle twice 
at least. On the first occasion he came here from Sandwich in 
company with the Duke of York, Prince Rupert, and the Earl 
of Sandwich. This was in 1659, the year before the Restoration, 
when from one end of the Kingdom to the other, the people of 
every rank were longing to receive back again their exiled 
Sovereign. Accordingly, he met with a cordial reception in the 
old Cinque-Port town, where the Mayor •* presented his majesty 
with a glass of sack at the Bell Tavern, which he drank on 
horse-back;" after which, we are told, "Mr. Mayor and his 
brethren accompanied the King on the way to Deal." 

The second visit was in 1661, when the King is said to have 
landed from his yacht in the Downs. 

History of Walnur. 


The Duke of York, afterwards James II, appears to have 
paid another visit to Deal, three or four years later, as on March 
4th, 1644-5, we find preparations being made to receive him 
here ; and there is similar evidence of a further visit by the King 
and the Duke of York, in the summer of lti66. 

Whether the King came again, in 1672, seems doubtful; pro- 
bably he did not ; though his Queen, Katherine of Braganza, 
certainly did pay a visit to these parts in that year. It seems 
that, on the occasion of this visit, the Royal party, consisting of 
the King and Queen together with their attendants, travelled 
together as far as Canterbury, where they seem to have parted 
company ; (he King riding on to Dover, and the Queen proceeding 
to Sandwich. The date of her visit to the latter place was May 4th, 
and we are told that after a short stay there, (but whether for a 
day or two, or only for a few hours, is not quite clear,} she went 
on to Deal Castle. 

The visit of the "Sailor-King," at that time the Duke of 
Clarence, was made to Walmer Castle in the summer of 1820, 
during the Wardenship of the Earl of Liverpool. He was 
accompanied by the Duchess, Adelaide of Saxe Meiningen, 
better remembered as Queen Adelaide. The latter is said to 
have cherished a special regard for Deal and Walmer, from the 
circumstance of having first set foot on the shores of England 
at the Naval Yard, which existed here till 1864. It was in 1818 
that Her Royal Highness arrived in the Downs, accompanied 
by several men-of-war under the command of Lord Keith ; and 
immediately after landing she was received at "The Three 
Kings Hotel." 

The Duke of Wellington was repeatedly honoured with 
visits from Royalty, during his occupancy of Walmer Castle. 

Thus Earl Stanhope mentions in his Conversaltons his 
meeting Prince George of Cambridge (the present Duke) at 
dinner at Walmer Caslle, on October Hlh, 1833; and on 
October 17th. 1837, records a luncheon at the Castle to meet 
the Princess Augusta of Saxony. 

From the same source, also, we learn that two years later 
the Duke of Cambridge* with the Duchess and Princess Augusta, 

• The father of Prince George above-mentioned, and titst Duke of Cambridge. 

154 History of Wa Inter. 

spent five days at Walmer Castle, namely, from October 3rd to 
October 8th. And how they were entertained we are also 
informed. On the evening after their arrival, there was a 
dinner party of eighteen persons, followed by a concert, for 
which the Duke of Wellington had engaged several vocalists 
from London, and to which he invited most of the neighbours : 
another dinner given on the 6th Oct., was followed by a larger 
party still, and a concert in the evening : while on the last day 
of their sojourn, October 7th, a great public breakfast given by 
the Duke in their honour, at 2 p.m., was attended by from a 
hundred to a hundred and twenty persons, many of whom came 
from Ramsgate and Dover ; and in the evening there was 
another concert and large party. 

But the chief interest centres in the visits of our present 
beloved Queen, who first became acquainted with Walmer in 
1835 ; in the autumn of which year, she being then the Princess 
Victoria and a girl of sixteen, paid a visit to the Duke of 
Wellington and lunched at the castle, with her mother, the 
Duchess of Kent, and the King and Queen of the Belgians. 

The following account of this visit has been preserved in a 
letter by the then Lady Burghersh to her husband : — " The King 
and Queen of the Belgians arrived exactly at 2 in the same 
carriage with the Dnchess of Kent and Princess Victoria. The 
Duke of Wellington and I went to meet them on the drawbridge, 
and brought them up the outside staircase to the ramparts 
(where nearly all the company were already assembled), the 
lower battery firing a salute. The scene was beautiful ; the 
whole of the beach in front of the castle and the roads leading 
to Deal and to the village, were filled with people ; all the 
colours hoisted at the different places along the coast and on 
the ships, of which, fortunately, there were quantities in the 
Downs. The only drawback was that we were disappointed of 
getting a band from Canterbury, so there was no music. After 
walking about the ramparts and speaking with the company, the 
King and Queen went with the Duke round the garden, but the 
Princess Victoria had a little cold ; so I staid in the drawing 
room with her and the Duchess of Kent, and baby was brought 
in and behaved like a little angel, and was much admired. She 
was sent for again afterwards to see the Queen. As the crowd 
outside were eager to see Princess Victoria, I asked the Duchess 



of Kent if she thought she might come out for 

shew herself, and I fetched my ermine tippet for hnr, which she 

put on, and came out on the ramparts and was very much 


Seven years later we find her Majesty again at Walmer 
Castle ; being no longer a girl, but a Queen and a mother. 

It was on the morning of Thursday. November 10th, 1842, 
that the Royal party, consistingof the Queen, Prince Albert, and 
their two children, ihs Prince of Wales and the Princess Royal, 
left Windsor Castle, accompanied by a distinguished suite, 
en route for Walmer Castle ; where they arrived the same day 
escorted by a troop of the 7th Hussars, then quartered at 
Canterbury, and with a guard of honour furnished by the 51st 
Infantry. With the exception of the journey from Slough to 
Paddington, the whole distance was accomphshed by road ; Her 
Majesty being everywhere greeted with the most enthusiastic 
demonstrations of loyally and esteem. On the outskirts of 
Upper Deal, the Royal Party were met by the Duke of Welling- 
ton, who afterwards rode on to receive Her M;ijesty and the 
Prince at Walmer Castle, which was then placed entirely at their 
disposal ; the Duke proceeding to Dover to take up his quarters 
during the royal visit. 

Although the accommodation at the castle was somewhat 
restricted, being much less in those days than at present, no 
effort was spared to ensure the comfort of the roj'al guests and 
their suite. Two of the principal rooms in the castle had been 
thrown into one, for the sleeping apartment of Her Majesty and 

Prince ; while the portion of the fortress appropriated for 

royal nursery, consisted of four rooms in "the outworks or 
north lower,"' with the windows facing in a northerly direction. 
Viscount Sydney* as the Lord in Waiting, and Lady Porlmao as 
the Lady in Waiting, as well as the Honble. C. A. Murray, 
Master of the Household, and others, occupied some other 
rooms; while the rest of the guests were accommodated in a 
large house about three quarters of a mile away. 

There were in the Downs at this time the Thunderer, line- 
battle ship. Captain Pring, the government steamer Fearless, 
iptain Bullock, and three revenue cutters, the Ranger, th^Lady 

L the captaincy 

156 History of W aimer. 

Flora, and the Sea-Lark ; all of which, at night, had their masts 
and rigging brilliantly illuminated with an immense number of 
blue lights, giving, as we can imagine, " a very pleasing effect 
from the shore." 

The inhabitants of the whole district seem to have vied 
with each other in their efforts to do honour to the royal visitors ; 
the illuminations throughout the neighbourhood being most 
brilliant. And on the following morning, when the ro3ral 
standard was hoisted on Walmer Castle, the Thunderer manned 
yards, and saluted Her Majesty with twenty-one guns. 

The royal party remained at the castle nearly a month ; and 
it was while here that the Queen received by special messenger 
from Downing Street, the news of the recapture of Ghuznee and 
Cabul, and the rescue of the prisoners. 

On Monday, Nov. 14th, a visit was paid to Dover, where 
the Queen and Prince met with a most enthusiastic reception, 
though the tidings of the intended visit only reached Dover 
about an Jiour previously. At Dover Castle they were received 
by the Governor, Colonel Jenkinson, with a guard of honour 
from the 19th Foot; and after an inspection of the castle and 
its various objects of interest, which occupied about three- 
quarters of an hour, they drove to the beach through the principal 
streets of Dover, and then returned to Walmer Castle. 

A feature worthy of special notice in connection with the 
Queen's sojourn at Walmer, was the celebration of the birthday 
of the Princess Royal, on the 21st of November. Royal salutes 
were fired by the Thunderer^ and another of Her Majesty's ships 
which had come into the Downs that morning, and a grand 
regatta was held by the Deal and Walmer boatmen. A fleet of 
about fifty first-class luggers launching from the beach at a given 
signal, as on this occasion, and manoeuvring in the Downs, must 
have been a sight to be remembered, and is one that will 
probably never be seen again at Deal, where the number of 
these boats is rapidly decreasing. Her Majesty took special 
delight in this spectacle, which she watched from the ramparts, 
in company with Prince Albert and the royal suite ; and the days' 
proceedings were brought to a close with illuminations and 
fireworks, and a royal salute from the Thunderer's 36-pounder8. 

On Thursday, Nov. 24th, the Queen and Prince Consort 
drove to Ramsgate, where they were received by Sir W. Curtis, 

History of Walmer. 


deputy-chairman of the Harbour Trustees. While promenading 
on the East pier, Her Majesty was deeply interested in the 
arrival in the harbour of four vessels, one of which, a brig, 
narrowly escaped collision with the stone-work. The launching 
of a Genoese vessel, called the Fdice, from the patent slip in the 
harbour, was also witnessed. The ro)'al party subsequently sat 
down to luncheon in the Pier-House ; after which an audience 
was given to the officers of the CompU de Flandrts, a Belgian 
brig-of-war, then in the harbour. 

On the following Wednesday (Nov. 30th), there was a meet 
of the Bcachborough fox-hounds at Betteshanger Gorse, at 
which the Prince Consort was present. There was a " brilliant 
field," composed of more than three hundred gentry and 
yeomanry from the surrounding neighbourhood. A dog-fox was 
started at the Gorse and killed near the Eastry turnpike, after a 
check of twenty minutes at Betteshanger Park, and the brush 
was presented to the Prince, who was well up at the death. 
Later in the day another fox was started at Knowlton Park, and 
this was killed at Betteshanger Gorse after a run of five and 
twenty minutes. 

Another notable circumstance was the visit of Prince 
Albert to the beacon-refuge, erected by Captain Bullock on the 
Goodwin Sands in 1840. His Royal Highness, who had some 
time before expressed a desire to inspect the beacon, seized the 
opportunity offered by a calm day on Wednesday, December 
7th. Leaving the beach about noon in the four-oared gig 
■.belonging to the Fearless, which was steered by Captain Bullock 
tomself, he proceeded first of all to inspect the Wasp, a sislcen- 

can brig commanded by Captain Drew, The Prince had never 
Jefore been on board an English brig-of-war, and expressed 
puch astonishment at the confined nature of the officers' berths, 

|nd the small space for the accommodation of the crew, in 

jomparison with the roominess of the Thunderer; — the latter 
!9sel, by the bye, had been visited by the Prince on the 

MConday after his arrival at Walmer, namely on November Hlh. 
Leaving the Wasp His Royal Highness proceeded at once 
|in board the Fearless, which then steamed out to the beacon, 
e situation of which was between the North and South Good- 
l^ns, in the part known as Trinity Bay ; passing on the way a 

&rge number of outward-bound vessels, said to have been 

158 History of Wahner. 

upwards of one hundred sail. Although the state of the tide 
would not allow a close inspection of the refuge, they remained 
in the vicinity for nearly half-an-hour : the Prince having mean- 
while learnt from Captain Bullock full details as to its con- 
struction and uses, tie then returned ashore ; landing opposite 
Walmer Castle, after an absence, altogether, of between two 
and three hours. 

An incident took place during this visit, which displays, in 
a remarkable degree, the natural goodness of heart and kindli- 
ness of disposition, which have always been shewn by her 
Majesty in her intercourse with her people. The Queen and 
Prince Consort were one day walking on the shore in the 
direction of Kingsdown, when they were driven by a sudden 
shower to take refuge in an old boat-house, which, besides 
being a place for storing boat's gear, served also as a dwelling 
for an aged boatman — Thomas Erridge — and his wife ; who, 
although they failed to recognize their visitors, readily offered 
them such mean accommodation as the place afforded. The 
royal pair were soon provided with a seat, consisting of some 
spars placed upon empty water- casks and covered with a spare 
sail ; and there they sat and conversed with their simple-minded 
hosts, until the shower ceased ; and the latter were aflerwards 
rewarded for their rude, but kindly hospitality, with a pension, 
with which the Queen provided them for the rest of their days. 

Although the weather was often more than boisterous during 
the Queen's visit, the royal pair could hardly have had more 
favourable weather for viewing that magnificent anchorage, the 
Downs, which, during the greater part of the time was full of 
shipping. More than once the weather was so rough that the 
packet boats from the Continent, unable to enter Dover harbour, 
had to land their mails at Deal, with the help of the boatmen, 
never so much at home as in a gale of wind. On another 
occasion, her Majesty's sympathies were aroused by the capsizing 
of a galley, and the rumoured loss of seven boatmen, in their 
efforts to assist a Lisbon steamer. Happily the men were saved* 
though with the loss of their boat, towards replacing which the 
Queen was so good as to send them a donation of £20. While, 
on yet another occasion, an interesting spectacle was afforded 
by the arrival from the West Indies of an 18- gun sloop, the 
Hyacinth^ which anchored off the castle, furled sails, manned 
yards, and fired a royal salute — all as quick as magic — then up 

History of Walmer. 


anchor, set sail, and resumed its course before a stifRsh breeze : 
all which was watched with tlie greatest interest from the castle. 
No wonder the Queen and Prince were delighted with Walmer, 
and never lost an apportunity of a walk on the Wellington 
Beach, as the sea-front was then appropriately called. The 
Prince Consort was indeed out in all weathers ; no matter how 
the wind blew, His Royal Highness was to be seen on the beach 
daring some part of the day. 

On Sundays, divine service was held in the drawing-room 
at the castle, and attended by the whole of the royal party and 

Eight years later, in the month of August, the Queen and 
her royal Consort being on their way to Holland, came into the 
Downs ; and her Majesty's yacht, together with the attendant 
man-of-war, having come to an anchor for the night, she 
received on board the Duke of Wellington ; who pot off from 
the shore in a small rowing-boat, and the sea having suddenly 
risen, came in for a thorough ducking when landing on his 

The last meeting between Prince Albert and the Duke of 
Wellington, took place at Walmer Castle, on a similar occasion 
to the last, and only two years later. It was on August 17th, 
1852, a month before the Duke's death ; the royal squadron 
having anchored in the Downs for one night, with the Queen 
and the Prince Consort en route for Belgium, His Royal 
Highness landed in a small boat from the Victoria and Albert, 
and paid a visit to the castle, where he had a long conversation 
with the aged warrior and statesman. 

One more royal visit and we have done. On the evening 
of Thursday. August 2(5, 1852, the Duke of Wellington, after a 
temporary absence in London, returned to Walmer Castle, where 
he received, on the following evening, the Grand Duchess 
Catherine of Russia, and her consort Duke George of Mecklen- 
burg-Strelitz. And on the following Saturday afternoon, the 
Duke accompanied his illustrions guests, who desired to embark 
for Ostend the same evening, as far as Dover ; where they were 
welcomed with a royal salute from the heights. Having taken 
leave of them at the Ship Hotel, his Grace, as Lord Warden, 
proceeded to inspect the works then in progress at Dover 
harbour. This was his last official visit to Dover. 


WALMER CASTLE (concluded). 

Death of WeUington — L5dng in state at Walmer — Removal of the body — ^The 
Duke's Room— His life at Walmer — Death of Lord Granville— Lord 
Granville at Walmer — A fox killed in the castle— Death of Mr. W. H. 
Smith — Relics of Pitt and Wellington — ^Nelson at Walmer Castle — Pitt's 
hospitality — Pitt's Room — Memorial of Lord Granville — ^The castle a 
saluting station — ^The Lord Warden's salute — Standard of the Cinque 
Ports — Anecdote of Mr. Gladstone. 

THE Duke of Wellington was Lord Warden for nearly four 
and twenty years, and during all that time rarely missed 
coming to Walmer after the prorogation of Parliament, staying 
usually till about the middle of November ; and, before leaving 
for Strathfieldsaye, generally held at Dover a Court of Lode- 
manage, to discuss and settle the affairs of the Cinque Ports* 

For some years before his death, the Duke had been in 
failing health. Seated in the drawing-room in his favourite arm- 
chair, he would often, after dinner, take a newspaper in one 
hand and a candle in the other, and fall asleep while reading in 
this dangerous position, to the great anxiety of his friend and 
companion, Mr. Arbuthnot. The end came suddenly at last. 
The Duke was accustomed to rise early, but, on September 14th, 
1852, when his valet called him as usual at six o'clock, he found 
the Duke particularly drowsy, and thought it best to leave him 
undisturbed for an hour longer. He therefore withdrew, but 
remained within hearing. It was fortunate he did so, for soon 
after he was alarmed at hearing groans from the Duke's room, 
and on re-entering was requested to send for Dr. Hulke of Deal, 
who came, prescribed some simple remedies, and, seeing nothing 
serious in the Duke's condition, departed. Shortly after this, 
however, the Duke became much worse, and messages were 
despatched for further help. On the return of Dr. Hulke with 
his son and Dr. McArthur, they found his Grace breathing 
laboriously, unconscious, and very restless. To assist respiration 
he was raised and put into his easy chair, where for a time he 

Hhiory of Walmer, 




breathed more freely ; but the end was very near, and at five and 
twenty minutes past three he expired, A message had mean- 
while been Sent to London for Dr. Williams, who only arrived in 
time to find the mortal remains of his illustrious patient laid out 
upon his little camp-bed. 

The Union Jack now drooped at half-mast high upon the 
castle ramparts: announcing to the world that the Iron Duke, 
the nation's idol was no more. 

The body of the departed hero remained at Walmer Castle 
until the eleventh of November, in the irregularly-shaped room 
shown in the engraving ; which still retains the name of " The 
Duke's Room." The scene at Walmer. subsequent to the removal, 
cannot be better described than in the following extract from a 
contemporary record, which conveys a most graphic idea of all 
the solemn proceedings of this time : — " In the small irregularly- 
shaped death-chamber lay the body of the Duke, inclosed in 
an outer coffin covered with crimson velvet, and with handles and 
funeral decorations richly gilt. On the lid, near the head, rested 
the ducal coronet, and beyond it the pall, gathered back, to give 
visitors a complete view. The coffin rested on a low stand, 
covered with black cloth, round which candelabra with huge 
was lights and plumes of feathers were arranged. The wails 
and roof of the small apartment were, of course, hung with 
black cloth, the single deep-recessed window closed, and candles, 
reflected against silver sconces, barely relieved the gloom of 
the sombre display. Visitors entering at one door passed by the 
end of the coffin, and then out at another without interruption. 
The ante-chambers and corriders were also darkened, hung with 
black, and lighted with candles placed at intervals on the side 

'The first day for admission of the public was Tuesday 
(Nov, 9th). Through the low strong archway of the entrance 
the visitors passed, first, along the curved glass-covered passage, 
then through the dimly lighted anterooms into the chamber of 
death, and then along corridors and down staircases and across 
the garden on to the beach. All the way at a few paces distance 
from each other on either hand, the guard of honour of the Rifle 
Brigade were placed, each man with his arms reversed, and 
leaning in a sorrowful attitude on his musket. Along the beach, 
as far as the eye could reach towards Deal, a long train of 


1 62 History of Walmer. 

visitors dressed in mourning passed and repassed throughout the 
day, while from greater distances conveyances arrived and took 
their departure in quick succession."* 

The stream of visitors continued throughout the Tuesday, 
and until four o'clock in the afternoon of the following day- 
during which time upwards of nine thousand people are said to 
have visited the chamber of the late Duke to witness the lying in 
state. But about 7 p.m. on Wednesday (Nov. 10th), the body 
was removed to Deal Station, en route for London, under an 
escort of about 150 men of the Rifle Brigade, commanded by 
Colonel Beckwith, and attended by mourning coaches in which 
were seated the Duke*s eldest son and successor. Lord Arthur 
Hay, Captain Watts, Mr. Marsh of the Lord Chamberlain's 
office, and others. 

As the funeral cortege prepared to leave the grounds, the 
solemn booming of the minute-guns resounded from the castle 
walls; while the wind brought back the echo from Deal and 
Sandown, where the like honour was paid to the memory of the 
deceased. Down the " sombre avenue," lighted by the lurid 
glare from the flambeaux with which a body of men led the way, 
and through the silent crowds who lined the road undeterred by 
chill darkness of a November night, winded the slow procession ; 
moving with measured tread, until at length they reached Deal 
Station ; the melancholy march of a mile and three-quarters 
having occupied no less than one hour and a half. There they 
were awaited by Mr. James Macgregor, M.P., the chairman of 
the South-Eastern Railway Company; and the hearse having 
been transferred to a truck, the journey onward to London was 
resumed at a quarter past nine. 

On arriving at the Bricklayers' Arms station, the hearse with 
the coffin was removed to Chelsea Hospital, under an escort of 
the 1st Life Guards ; and there the remains of the Duke 
continued to lie in state till removed for the Grand State Funeral 
which took place on the following Thursday, November 18th. 

The room in which the Duke died is the one that was used 
by him as his private apartment and bed-room combined. It is 
irregular in shape, but pleasantly situated on the south side of 
the castle, having one window commanding the sea, in the 

* Illustrated London NewSy xxi, p. 444. 

History of Walmer. 

direction of the French coast, and another overlooking the 
castle gardens. It was here that he used to retire to wriie his 
letters, or to transact any private business, The illustration 
shews it as it was in the DuWs lifetime. The bookshelves 
have many of his books upon them, which were " recent 

reports, official publications 
beside them is the small cf 
9in. broail, made of brass, 
folded up and packed away 
mattress is upon it, covered over w 
of horse-hair and covered with ch 
mahogany table "well stained w 

French memoirs, military 

nd Parliamentary papers." Close 

p-bedstead. eft. 6in. long by 2ft. 

d so constructed that it could be 

a small compass. Its horse-hair 

ith a quilt, but the pillow, also 

amois leather is absent. The 

ith ink" and furnished with 

I '* 


writing materials, occupies its accustomed place, and close by 
stands the smaller one, so contrived as to be useful for reading or 
writing in bed, though it is well known that the Doke almost 
invariably rose at 6 o'clock. A common dressing-table occupies 
the space in front of the only window shewn in the picture, 
which is the one that looks across the moat into the garden ; 
and between the dressing-table and the writing-table is the 
chair in which he breathed his last. This was an old-fashioned 
straight- backed chair, with projecting shoulders intended to 
Bupport the head. A curtain hides the fire-place, near which is 
the famous campaigning-chair ; and above the mantel is a 
chimney-glass, as well as three pictures, of which the one in 
the centre is an engraved portrait of Prince Arthur, Ihe Duke's 
godson. The high desk at which the Duke, and in after-times 
Lord Palmerston, used to stand and write, is not shewn ; and no 
wash-stand appears, for the simple reason that the Duke had 
none, but kept his two small basins and ewers, of common blue 
ware, in the cupboard shewn at the foot of the bed, where also 
he kept his two bronze hot-water shaving jugs. 

In 1861. shorii)' after the appointment of Lord Palmerston, 
several articles were removed from this room to Apsley House, 
with the consent of Lord Dalhousie's executors, in consequence 
of a threatened sale by auction ; but these have all been recently 
restored, through the generosity of the present Duke of Welling- 
ton, as related further on; and "The Duke's Room" is once 
;igain as it used to be, even to the yellow moreen curtains and 
the orignal bedding and chair-cover. The bookshelves have, 

164 History 0/ Walmer. 

however, been wisely covered with glass doors, and so converted 
into a cabinet, in which many articles of interest are kept under 
lock and key; including the Duke*s set of his own printed 
despatches, in twelve vols., the first volume of which has been 
despoiled of its title-page by some thief, or thievish collector, 
for the sake no doubt of the autograph. This cabinet also con- 
tains, among other things, two pairs of "Wellington" boots, 
and a volume of Statutes relating to the Cinque Ports, of the 
date of 1726. The latter was presented to the Duke of Welling- 
ton by Lord Mahon, and contains the autograph of each. One 
pair of the " Wellingtons," described in the schedule of heir- 
looms as a pair of ** Field Marshall's * Wellington ' boots," are 
believed to be the same that were worn by the Duke at the 
Battle of Waterloo. The famous camp-bedstead has now a 
green velvet coverlet, presented by the Countess of Derby 
in 1893, 

The engravings in this room include portraits of Mrs. 
Siddons, Mr. Burke, and Lord Onslow, as well as the Duke's 
print of the Chelsea pensioners reading the Gazette announcing 
the victory at Waterloo ; and in the adjoining dressing-room, is a 
curious piece of work, made by the Duke's house carpenter and 
shown at the Exhibition in 1851, being the representation of 
Strath fieldsaye House, in the form of a picture, composed it is 
said of 3,500 pieces of wood. The Duke of Wellington thought 
so much of this picture that it used to hang during his lifetime in 
the dining-room. 

There is also in the Duke's room near the south window, 
which is not shewn in the engraving, a map, or plan,of Walmer 
Castle, on rollers, shewing the meadows purchased by Lord 
Liverpool and added to the castle grounds on the understanding, 
that, in the event of the office of Lord Warden being abolished^ 
they should revert to the representatives of the Liverpool family. 

It may be here mentioned that my engraving of " The 
Duke's Room'* is copied from a water-colour drawing by Mr. 
Colnaghi, taken in October, 1852, at the time of the Duke's 
death, and presented by him to the Marchioness of Salisbury. 
This drawing subsequently passed into the possession of the 
Countess of Derby, who, in December, 1880, gave it to Lady 
Granville, who kindly allowed me to have it photographed for 
my " Records of Walmer" ; which book, by a curious coincidence. 

History of Wabner. 


: castles of Deal and Walmer were 
en, Lord Granville and Lord Sydney, 
I the years, respectively, of Waterloo 

. published when 
occupied by two nol 
whose birthdays wei 
and Trafalgar. 

The quiet unostenlations life which the Duke of Wellington 
led at Walmer, has been familiarized to us by Earl Stanhope in 
his " Conversations." Bat one trait mast be briefly alluded to, 
namt^ly, the Duke's love for children, which was evinced in a 
characteristic manner. We are told by Lord Stanhope that, in 
the autumn of 1837, Wellington had staying with him at Walmer 
Castle, two little children of Lord and Lady Robert Grosvenor, 
a boy and girl, and these chicks having expressed a desire to 
receive letters through the post — it was before the days of the 
penny post — the Duke used to write to them every morning a 
letter containing good advice for the day, which was regularly 
delivered when the post came in. He used also constantly to 
play fooball with the little boy upon the ramparts. 

It was in the October of this year that poor Haydon spent 
some days at the castle, having come down at the Dake's 
request, to paint his portrait for certain gentlemen at Liverpool. 
Haydon relates in his Diary, how charmed he was with the 
Duke's playfulness with " sis dear healthy noisy children," no 
less than with his unostentatious reverence at the parish church 
on Sunday. The Duke's pew, too, surprised him. From the 
" bare wainscot, the absence of curtains, the dirty green footstools, 
and common chairs," he thought when he found himself there 
that he must have been shewn into the wrong pew. The Duke's 
pew, it should be mentioned, was a large old-fashioned square 
pew, almost immediately under the pulpit as it was at that 
time : some years after the Duke's death, this pew was 
divided into three, one of which was for many years used by 
Earl Granville and his family, in fact until the erection of the 

■ new palish church. 

It is further related of the Duke of Wellington, that he 
lometimes took out with him, in his walks, a number of 

^sovereigns and half-sovereigns, each suspended from a red or 
blue ribbon, and that when he came upon a group of children, 
he would present them with one of these, either red or blue, 
according as they declared themselves when interrogated, to be 
3 army or navy. The Duke's early habits are well known. 

1 66 History of Wa Inter. 

and an old gentlemen still living, tells me that when he was a 
boy at Walmer. he and his school-fellows used frequently in the 
summer, to be taken down to the sea near Walmer Castle, at 
six o'clock in the morning, to bathe, and the Duke would often 
come on the beach and converse with them. 

The Duke's immediate successor, in the Wardenship of the 
Cinque Ports, was the Marquis of Dalhousie, at that time 
Governor General of India ; to which post he was appointed in 
1847, being then Earl of Dalhousie and captain of Deal Castle. 
Lord Dalhousie returned to England in 1856, but appears rarely, 
if ever, to have resided at Walmer Castle ; a circumstance 
accounted for perhaps by his holding the position of Lord 
Register of Scotland. 

At the death of Lord Dalhousie in December 1860, some 
considerable delay occured in the appointment of a new Lord 
Warden and there were even thoughts of abolishing the office 
altogether. But eventually, as already related. Lord Palmerston, 
the then Prime ^linister, was appointed, to the great joy of the 
Ports and their Members. Lord Palmerston retained the post 
till his death, on Oct. 15ih, 1865, of which circumstance there is 
a record in the Parish Vestry Book as follows : —Oct. 19th, 1866, 
Resolved *' that on account of Lord Palmerston's death and as 
a mark of respect to his memory the pulpit, reading desk, and 
pew attached to Walmer Castle be draped in black." 

Lord Granville, who succeeded Lord Palmerston, and 
retained the Wardenship for more than a quarter of a century, 
was always ready to uphold the dignity of the Cinque Ports, and, 
when the Local Government Act was passed in 1888, endeavoured 
to secure the formation of the Ports into a county ; subsequently 
remarking, when as chairman he presided at the first meeting 
to elect County Councillors for this district, that his eflforts 
had been frustrated by the radicalism of Lord Salisbury's 

The death of Earl Granville, in 1891, was received at 
Walmer with universal grief. His lordship had endeared 
himself to the whole neighbourhood, by his kind and genial 
manner, and the readiness with which he invariably took the 
lead in matters of local interest. The tower added to the new 
parish church in his memory, and recently dedicated by the 

History of Wahur. 



Archbishop of Canterhury,* is eviJence of the interest he took 
in church matters ; and one of his last acts in Walmer, was to 
prtisicie at a meeting for the relief of the distress amongst ihe 

'ill suffice to introduce us to Lord Granville 
Castle in the hey-day of his health. The 
;onferring there with a secretary from the 
n some question connected with the passes 
: listened with the closest attention 
:ad to him on the subject, and 

A single story w 
at home at Walmer 
Earl was one day c 
Russian Em bass)', on son 
of the Hindoo-Knosh. 

ports that i 


^^^1 CO 

constantly referred to the maps with which they were illustrated ; 
till suddenly the library door was opened, and in rusheJ the 
children, then very young and probably just released from 
lessons. In a moment what was the surprise of the visitor, to 
see his host sprawbn;; over his clierished maps, in a real or 
pretended effort to catch his children, who dodged round the 
legs of the table. There was an end to the study of Central- 
Asian geography, at all events for that morning; and Lord 
Granville presently proposed a ride till lunch-time, in which he 
led the way over some fences, where the Russian secretary was 
apparently less at home than in discoursing of the Hindoo- 

A curious incident occurred at Walmer Castle on Feb. llth, 
I. The West Street Harriers, chasing a hare across the 
country near St. Margaret's, lost the hare, but started a fox, to 
which they immediately gave chase ; and a most exciting run 
across country to Walmer ensued. Here the course of reynard 
was diverted by some football players, and he thereupon struck 
for the castle grounds, where he made the circuit of the moat. 
In the meantime Earl Granville and his family had come out to 
witness the chase, and to their surprise the fos suddenly went 
■Straight for the castle, and, running across the bridge, passed 
'.through the gateway, and found his way into the long corridor 
upstairs, whither he was followed by some of the hounds and 
lulled very near the " Duke's room." 

Mr. W. H. Smith died at Walmer Castle, in 1891, after 
three months illness, and just five months after his appointment 
to the ancient office of Lord Warden. He was taken ill in 
iLondon, on July 12th, and as soon as possible removed to 
• See Chapter xii. 

1 68 History of Walmer. 

Walmer, where, almost to the day of his death, he was able to 
take either a drive in his carriage or a cruise in his steam yacht, 
the Pandora, which lay in readiness off the castle. Yet so weak 
was his condition, that for these cruises he had to be carried to 
the boat which conveyed him lo the yacht, on a couch, which 
was hoisted on board by means of the davits. On the Friday 
before his death, he went out as usual in the Pandora, and 
cruised about the Goodwins, but there was a strong easterly 
breeze which made it very cold. On returning to the castle 
symptoms of gout were manifested, and his condition rapidly 
grew worse, and notwithstanding a temporary rally on the 
Monday, he gradually lost conciousness, and passed quietly 
away on the following day, Oct. 6th. Mr. W. H. Smith was 
First Lord of the Treasury at the time of his death. 

Through the thoughtfulness Jind generosity of Mr Smith, 
the memorials at Walmer Castle of Mr. Pitt and the Duke of 
Wellington, have now been secured to the castle as heir-looms. 
Since the time of Mr. Pitt, it had been customary for each 
succeeding Lord Warden to take over, at a valuation, from the 
representatives of his predecessor, the furniture and effects of 
the castle ; but both sale and purchase were purely optional, and 
it is quite conceivable that, sooner or later, circumstances might 
have arisen which would lead to the loss, as far as Walmer is 
concerned, of these valuable mementos of those great men. In 
fact, shortly after the death of the Marquis of Dalhousie, his 
successor, Lord Palmerston, hesitated for some time before 
accepting the valuation, and a public auction was actually in 
contemplation ; and this it was that brought about the removal 
to Apsley House, of some of the principal articles associated 
with the Duke of Wellington, such as the little camp-bed he 
always slept in, the folding-chair which, like the bed, he used in 
his campaigns, the arm-chair in which he died, and some other 

Already, when Earl Granville was appointed in succession to 
Lord Palmerston, a good deal of the furniture associated with 
Mr. Pitt and the Duke of Wellington had disappeared through 
the wear and tear of time ; though there still remained many 
articles in the principal rooms, especially in the drawing and 
dining rooms, the Duke's bedroom, and the rooms occupied by 
Her Majesty and the Prince Consort in 1842. For instance, 

I there were upon 

History of Walmer. 


there were upon the walls 

mber of 

Wellington was known to have valued, and the drawing-room 
still contained Pitt's satin-wood chairs ; which latter were now 
marked with a small brass tablet inscribed with their history. 
Lord Granvilli;, indeed, took the greatest pains, throughout his 
tenure of more than a quarter of a century, to preserve every- 
thing of interest, and to recover as far as possible whatever had 
been removed. 

Mr. W. H. Smith, on becoming Lord Warden in 1891, was 

greatly surprised to find that these relies were in no way secured 

to the castle, and at once formed the intention of making them 

heir-looms ; and although he was frustrated by death, his wishes 

carried out by his son, Mr. W. F. D. Smith, with the 

approval of the Queen, and the concurrence of the Premier and 

' " ;nt Lord Warden, the Marquis of Dnfferin and Ava. 

I Every article has now been carefully scheduled, the utmost pains 

I having been taken to render the indentification and history of 

I each one thoroughly accurate ; and in this work much valuable 

jdflsistance was given by Lady Charles Wellesley, as well as by her 

I son, the present Duke of Wellington, and the Countess Granville; 

T Lady Granville's authority being strengthened by the circumstance 

^'tiiat her lirst information was derived from the Duke's house* 

keeper, Mrs. Allen, who remained at Walmer Castle, through the 

two intervening tenures, into the time of Lord Granville. 

To make the collection more complete, the Duke of 
Wellington most generously offered to restore the articles, which, 
as above staled, had been removed in 1861 to Apsley House, on 
condition that they should be preser\-ed in the "The Duke's 
Room," and be included in the list of heir-looms to the Lord 
Warden — an offer which it is scarcely necessary to say was thank- 
fully accepted. 

The heir-looms, of which a framed schedule hangs in the 
long corridor of the castle, number altogether nearly seventy 
pieces of furniture and iifty pictures and engravings, besides an 
interesting series of about forty engraved portraits of former 
Lord Wardens collected by Lord Granville. Among the latter is 
a portrait of Mr. Pitt on horseback, in his colonel's uniform, 
engaged in reviewing his famous Cinque Ports Volunteers, 
Walmer Castle appearing in the background. Especially note- 
worthy among the furniture, and in addition to the Wellington 

I70 History of Wahner. 

relics already mentioned, are a set of Pitt*s Chippen- 
dale chairs in the smoking-room, a similar set, also Pitt's, 
in the dining-room, his satin-wood drawing-room chairs, the 
bedstead and sofa used by the Queen during her stay here in 
1842, and a curious but very comfortable chair with a saddle- 
shaped seat, designed for the occupant to sit with his book on 
the back of the chair and his elbows on its arms. Both Pitt 
and Wellington are said to have been very partial to this chair. 
There is also in a room nearly opposite the Duke's Room, and 
known as the ** Blue Room," a tallboy chest of drawers, the 
brass key-hole fittings of which have the inscription " Sacred 
to Nelson," which some have thought merely the ingenious 
device of some enterprising maker ; though it is tolerably 
certain that Nelson repeatedly used this room as his dressing 
room, when visiting Pitt from his flag-ship in the Downs, and 
tradition has it that he more than once slept here when detained 
ashore. Perhaps in this, as in so many other instances, tradition 
is not far wrong after all. Nelson was frequently in the Downs 
between 1801 and 1805, when the French were exoected, and 
often lay there for weeks together. There are therefore, as 
might be expected, several allusions to Walmer in his letters to 
Lady Hamilton, since published. On October 12th, 1801, he 
writes from his flag-ship the Amazon : — ** This being a very fine 
morning and smooth beach, 1 went with Sutton and Bedford 
and landed at Walmer, but found Billy fast asleep, so left my 
card ;" while in another letter he says, ** Billy Pitt has asked me 
to conic and sec him, and that I shall do out of respect for so 
great a man." 

The room in which Nelson and Pitt repeatedly conferred on 
State matters of importance, was thrown by Lord Granville into 
the drawing-room, to which it now forms a sort of alcove at the 
south-west angle. 

The trusteeship of the heir-looms has very properly been 
assigned to the Secretary of State for War, with whom also 
rests the responsibility of maintaining the fabric of the castle. 

Pitt's hospitality has already been referred to. The castle 
was constantly full of guests, and the accommodation in those 
days being very limited, Pitt had also a large house in Walmer, 
about half a mile away, where the younger guests usually slept. 
Two of the principal guest-rooms, quaint but probably comfort- 

History of Walmer. 


able enough, had been formed in the outer bastions on the 
landward side, by clearing out the chalk filling, and converting 
the gun embrasures into the deep-set windows with which 
visitors to the castle are familiar ; and Pitt's own room was by 
no means luxurious, nor the best in the castle. But concerning 
Pitt's room, the late Lord Stanhope has given the following 
interesting particulars, in a letter to Lord Granville, since 
privately printed: — "Pitt's own room seemed rather strangely 
chosen. It looked neither to the south nor yet to the sea, and 
had, on the whole, a gloomy aspect. For many years it con- 
tinued exactly as Mr. Pitt had left it. with the same paper on 
the wails. But when the castle was lent to the Queen and 
Prince after they married, the wall of Mr. Pitt's room was pulled 
down so as to join it to another apartment and make a new 
dining room. On her Majesty's departure, however, the wall 
was rebuilt in the old place. The Duke of Wellington told me 
that when he received a visit from Prince Talleyrand at Walmer 
Castie, during the Prince's embassy in England, Talleyrand 
asked particularly to occupy Mr. Pitt's room, and seemed to live 
there with some sense of triumph. His idea was that he had 
been treated slightingly by Mr. Pitt, when he came over as 
Secretary lo M. Chauvelin in 1792, and that to sleep in his 
rival's bed was like taking a ' revanche.' " 

Lord Granville's chief memorial at Walmer Castle, is the 
costly addition already noticed in connection with the various 
alterations that have been made from time to time. A very large 
sum of money must have been spent on this work, which was 
carried out by the architect. Mr. George Devey, in a style 
thoroughly appropriate to the older building, and then dedicated 
by his lordship, in a commemorative inscription beneath the 
oriel window over the gateway, " Palria Poslerisqiie" 

The room above the gateway is the one in which Mr, W. H. 
Smith, Lord Granville's successor, died. Near it, and looking 
over the garden almost due west, is the room known as the 
nursery, where there is an interesting memorial of iheGranvilles, 
and one that bears witness to the useful life ihey led in the quiet 
retirement of Walmer, namely a picture representing the Walmer 
lifeboat Centurion saving the crew of the schooner Hero on the 
Goodwin Sands, 16 Oct., 1872, and bearing the inscription: — 
"Presented to Lady Victoria Leveson-Gower by the Institute 
as a memento of her naming the lifeboat on the 15 Nov., 1374." 

172 History of W aimer. 

Walmer Castle is still, under the Queen's Regulations, a 
saluting station, and until some time during Lord Granville's 
tenure of office, a salute used to be fired from the castle ramparts 
on the Queen*s birthday; but the gun-carriages have now, 
through age, become of questionable strength, and although the 
guns themselves, which are smooth-bores, of George Ill's time, 
remain as sound as ever, they have for some years ceased to be 
used. Permission was however obtained to use them on the 
occasion of Her Majesty's jubilee, but on account of some 
difficulty in obtaining ammunition suitable for these old-fashioned 
pieces, the intention had to be abandoned. Down to the time 
of Lord Palmerston, gunpowder was stored in considerable 
quantities within the castle itself, until the discovery was made 
by a lady staying there, that the magazine was immediately 
beneath the kitchen stove. 

At sea the Lord Warden is entitled to a salute of 19 guns 
within the limits of his Admiralty, wherein he may hoist the 
standard of the Cinque Ports and the Lord Warden's flag — 
gorgeous flags of blue, red and yellow, in which are quartered 
with the well known monsters, half lions, half ships, several 
castles, an anchor and a vessel in full sail.* The late Mr. 
Smith displayed the Lord Warden's flag from his yacht the 
Pandora^ in the autumn of 1891, to the evident bewilderment of 
passing vessels and even of his friends ashore. At Dover, where 
the Pandora ought to have been well known, this strange flag 
was mistaken for some unwonted pilot-signal and a man was 
sent off accordingly. 

Apropos of the salute, it is related that in 1870, when 
Mr. Gladstone, at that time Prime Minister, was the guest 
of Lord Granville at Walmer Castle, a visit was paid at his 
request to a man-of-war then anchored in the Downs. A 
message had been sent on to the officer in command, who, 
anxious to pay proper respect to the Prime Minister, hunted in 

* The Cinque Ports' flag is as follows : — ist quarter, blue, three castles, 
probably representing those of Walmer, Deal and Sandown ; 2nd quarter 
red, three half lions and half ships ; 3rd quarter, half yellow with ship in 
lull sail, half red with three half lions and half ships ; 4th quarter, Uae, 
a castle, probably representing Dover Castle. The Lord Warden's flag 
is the same, with a square of yellow superimposed on the 2nd quarter, on 
which is a crown and anchor. 

History of Walmer, 


the Queen's Regulations for instructions. He found nothing 
about the Prime Minister, but discovered that the Lord Warden 
was entitled within his own jurisdiction to a salute of 19 guns, 
which was accordingly fired, and duly acknowledged by Mr. 
Gladstone, who, perhaps not unnaturally, took the compliment 
to himself.* 

" Life of W. H. Smith, vol. ii, p. 309-11 



History— The Old BuT3ck« aX Heal — A ludJoRius incident — Troops vttli- 
drawn— Bnrtadu proposed as a Poor-Housc — Quarters for the Bloekade- 
mta— A Ciiasl£uaiil Station— The DepAl Battalion — The Royal Marines I 
-The Military Burial -Ground— The Old Hospital at Walmer- The | 
Royal Naval HoEpilal — Fanning Ihe sict and voimded — Siege of tl 
k!rk— Walcheten Eapedilion— Coo^t Blockade — Crimean Wat —The J 
Nitvnl flarial-Ground— The Outplains. 

THE present Barracks it Lower Walmerconsisting of NoithtJ 
SoHth. and Cavalry Barracks, seem to have been com-^ 
menced shortly after the outbreak of the French Revolution, and 
to have bt:en ready for occupation in 1795, Originally intended 
for the accommodation of 1100 foot anda squadron of cavalry, 
they have extensive parade-grounds, and occupy altogether an 
area of about Iwenty-i-ight acres ; in addition to which there is a 
drill-prounci of some six acres situated in Gladstone Koad, 
just beyond the boundary of the parish. 

) Previous to the year 1795 troops appear to have been 
quartertd in the town of Deal ; and the " Old Barracks in Deal," 
are more than once referred to Jn the Vestry minute book, jr 
early pact of the present century, 

In the year 1811 an incident is related, which, though! 
somewhat ludicrous, nevertheless reflects the higheU credit onl 
the Amaiimian courage of the Cinque Ports' women, and thoso.| 
of Dover in particular. It appears that in that year the Cin 
Ports were required to raise a Militia regiment of their o 
which was to assemble for training at Dover; but when Ihe"^ 
muster look place, there was such a strong and vigorously- 
expressed manifestation of hostility on the part of the populace, 
" more particularly amongst the women," that the Cinque Ports 
Militia were put to flight. In consequence of this disturbance, 
and the defeat of the Militia, the latter were ordered to complete 
their service at Walioer Barracks. 

History of Walmer. 


Shortly afler the second peace of Paris (1815), a consider- 
able proportion of the troops were withdrawn from Lower 
Walmi?r, and a part of the South Barracks was thereupon used 
for the accommodation of the Blockade-men emplo3xd in 
repressing smuggling.* The parochial authorities now turned a 
jealous eye on the almost empty barracks, and petitioned tbe 
War Office to hand them over, or at least a pari of them, for use 
as a Poor-House. However, they remained in the occupation of 
the Blockade-men until the abolition of that service in 1831, 
when they became a station for Coastguards. 

The South Barracks continued to serve as a Coastguard 
Station until the year 1840, when, in common with the North 
Barracks, which also appear to have been dt'Serted for a few 
years previonsly, they were occupied by a detachment of the 
Royal Artillery. 

From 1839 to 1869 the Barracks continued to be occupied 
by line-regiments ; but in the latter )'ear, having then been used 
for about ten years as a joint depot for the 2nd Queen's, the 7th 
Royal Fusiliers, and the 23rd Welsh Fusiliers, forming together 
the Vlth Dep6t Battalion, tliey were transferred to the Admiralty, 
in exchange for barracks and other property situated in Wool- 
wich ; and they have ever since been used as the Dep6t for the 
Royal Marines; a detachment of which force had been previously 
stationed at the Royal Naval Hospital, from the time of the 
Crimean War. 

Attached to the North Barracks is a long, narrow strip of 
ground, situated nest the Gladstone Road, and of the area of 
about half an acre, which was formerly used as a burial-ground. 
It is distinguished in the parish registers as the " Military 
Ground," and some 740 burials are recorded to have taken place 
in it, though in all probability this is far short of the actual 
number. A great many of the men who died at Walraer during 
ihe French Wars, were buried here 2n pits ; and I have before me 
a letter from the Rev. D. B. Payne, in which he says:— "The 
pits were there — all sunk in — up to about 1B52, when the 'Rifles' 
lay here and the Burial Ground was levelled and planted. There 
I vas not a shrub in it till that time, and it was a most desolate, 

B^ The Blockade-men stationed at the South Barracks weie seamen entered on the 
books of H.M.S. Ramilliis, until 1819; after which they were seamen of 
H.M.S. Tuiavira. 

176 History of Walmer. 

neglected place. The pits were all along the wall that separates 
it from the Barrack Yard." 

There arc no monuments of any pretensions in this ground, 
and the only inscription of any special interest is the following: — 
"Algernon Stephens, late litrutenant 1st Royals, the colours of 
which regiment he carried at Waterloo, died Jan. 8th, ISHS." 
The last interment here, recorded in the parish registers, was on 
Nov. 19th, 1877, the subsequent burials being entered in the 
Dep6t books only ; but the ground has been altogether disused 
now for several years. 

Previous to the year 1812 there stood on the Strand, on the 
same site as that now occupied by the Royal Marine Infirmary, 
an old hospital, which is describt^d as having belonged "to a 
gentleman of the name of Leith," and is said to have been 
originally "a French prison." The Mr. Leith in question was 
no doubt the same " (George Leith, Esq., of Deal," who, aboat 
the year 1789, purchased the Walmer Court Estate of the 
representatives of William Western Hugessen, Esq. The stoiy 
goes, that, in the early part of the reign of George III., two 
naval surgeons, named Packe and Leith, contracted with the 
Admiralty to victual and render medical assistance to the sick 
and wounded, and that by this and other contracts the fortune of 
both these families was made. The story at all events accounts 
for Mr. Leith's possession of the hospital ; but what shall 
be said of the system, which allowed the sick and wounded 
seamen to be put out to farm } It could have had but little to 
recommend it ; and by the beginning of the present centar}', if 
not sooner, the Admiralty had acquired possession of this 
building themselves. 

Though this hospital was clearly intended as a naval 
hospital, its wards were on more than one occasion crowded with 
sick and wounded soldiers, during the protracted wars of the 
time of George IIL This was the case, for instance, in the year 
1793, when the Duke of York was compelled to raise the siege 
of Dunkirk, and, as Pritchard says,* "the dying and the dead" 
were brought ashore at Deal " in boat-loads " ; a circumstance 
which no doubt explains the mention in the parish registers of 

* History of Dealy p. 237, where it is further stated in connection with this 
subject, that " the number of cori)ses buried in St. €reorge*s Chapel 
burial-ground numl)crcd no less than 1,045 i" the year. 

History of Walmer. 


the "Camp Hospital," by means of which additional accom- 
modation seems to have been provided at this juncture. 

And much the same thing occurred again in 1809, during 
the expedition to the island of Walcheren. The British soldiers 
encamped in the swamps of that island, then rendered more than 
usually unhealthy by the cutting' of the dykes, and consequent 
flooding of the country, in the previous summer, succumbed by 
thousands to fever and ague. Out of an army of seventeen 
thousand men, no less than eleven thousand are said to have 
been on the sick-list at one time ; and of these, great numbers 
were brought across and landed at Deal, many of ihem to die 

In the latter year (1809), during a violent thunderstorm, the 
hospital was struck by lightning, and rent from the roof to the 
foundation; though, most providentially, not one of the 
numerous patients sustained any injury. The incident, which 
was in many respects remarkable, was subsequently communi- 
cated to the authorities by the Governor of the Hospital, 
(Commander Perser Dower), in the following terms:— "On 
Friday, the 7th inst. (July), about a quarter before midnight, the 
hospital received much damage from lightning. — It appears to 
have been attracted by the mill on the beach side, the sweep of 
which it shattered, and from thence struck the central chimney 
of the hospital, levelling it with the roof, atid igniting some 
shavings on the grate below. It seems that the k-ad on the top 
conducted the electric fluid to the extremity of the southern end 
of the body of the hospital, where, meeting with some obstruc- 
tion, it rent that head, and tore off the weather tiling, passed 
into the tenth (or upper) ward ; fused the top part of a foot-posl 
belonging to an iron bedstead, in which lay a patient. From 
thence it passed round, excoriated the lower part of the iron head- 
post of the bedstead, and set fire to the floor boards, tearing away 
the ceiling, and passing into the eighth (or middle) ward, fusing 
the lower window weight, and, at the same time, bursting out 
the window, jambs, and walls. Continuing downwards it took 
again the iron weight of the window in the sixth (or lower) ward, 
driving out, as belore, glass, frame, and wall, and passing round 
the iron bedstead nearest the wall, in which lay another sick 
person with a fractured skull ; it fortunately did him no injury, 
a little bleeding subsequent to the concussion. In the 


178 History of Walmer. 

eleventh ward it entered by a window jamb on the west side, 
attracted by a nail, and tore up the flooring of the room above, 
scattering the splinters of the woodwork in all directions round 
the ward, but not injuring a single pane of glass, nor either 
of the numerous patients. I have to thank God that none of 
the latter were injured, though the electric fluid passed romid 
and fused the iron-work ; which in this instance acted as a con* 
ductor, and being covered with the blankets, prevented further 
annoyance than the singeing of a rug. I also take this oppor- 
tunity of suggesting to the board the necessity of conductors, as 
this building is high and exposed. The damage, I apprehend, 
is considerable, by the ruin of the chimneys, pots, &c., which 
fell upon the slating, and broke the circular glass window of 
the operation -room ; and I have given immediate directions for 
the most urgent part of the repairs, requesting the Board's 
sanction thereto. I need but add, that the incessant rains have 
penetrated the roof in all directions ; but hope to prevent any 
damage to the lower ceiling by the attention of labourers with 
old rugs, &c., &c.,". 

Shortly after the occurrence narrated above, the authorities 
decided on the demolition of the old building, and the erection 
of the present more commodious hospital upon the same site. 
Accordingly, on June 4th, 1812, the foundation-stone of the 
Royal Naval Hospital, or, as it is now called, the Royal Marine 
Infirmary, was laid by Commander Perser Dower, "in the 
presence of all the officers " ; and by the end of a year the 
building was sufficiently advanced to receive its first batch of 
patients, to the number of one hundred. 

This hospital is a fine building, situated on the Strand close 
to Deal, and occupying with its various accessories, an area of 
about four and a half acres. Its pedimented front, 365 feet in 
length, which faces towards the sea, has a plain portico in the 
centre ; and the roof is surmounted by a cupola containing a 
clock with four dials. When first completed it was capable of 
accommodating about three hundred patients, which is said to 
have been " nearly the number therein after the battle of 
Waterloo '' ; but it was so constructed that it might at any fnture 
time, at a very slight additional cost, be sufficiently large for 
the reception of fully five hundred. 

Hisioty of Walmer. 


As eatly as the year 1817, some Royal Marines were 
quartered in barracks at the Hospital ; but they seem to have 
been withdrawn after the following year. 

Like the Army Barracks, the Naval Hospital, or at least 
some part of it, was at one time occupied by the men engaged 
in the Coast-Blockade for the repression of smuggling, li was 
thus used in 1824, when the sailors employed in this service 
were present here in such considerable numbers,* that, at the 
end of September in that year, a chaplain was appointed by 
the Admirally " to do duty to the Blockade Men," And for 
many years subsequent to this, in fact down to the time of 

of the Hospital was used as a 

Its, during the Crimean 
tly quartered at Walmer. 
ion at the Hospital; a 
;d to be used as barracks 
cption of the part thus 
ts original 

vith the 

; Crimean War, a portion 
Coastguard Station, 

From the year 185-1, or thereabou 
War. Royal Marines were first permanen 
They were provided with accommodal 
portion of which has ever since continue 
for Royal Marines, 1 
occupied, the buildin 

purpose as a naval hospital ; its wards having been fitted up for 
the reception of the sick and wounded, sent home from the 
fleet in the Baltic. 

The Hospital now serves the purpose of an infirmary for 
the Roj-al Marines stationed here ; though part of it is used as 

Behind the Hospital is a disused burial ground, which, 
although no doubt full of remains, has very few memorials and 
no inscription of any special interest, beyond the following: — 
" In memory of Perser Dower, Commander R. N., who died the 
30th October, 1837, aged 80 years. He laid the Foundation 
Stone of these Buildings, and was for many years Governor of 
the Hospital." 

Previous to the year 1859, the spiritual needs of the 
garrison were supplied by the incumbent or curate of this 
parish ; the first regular military chaplain having been appointed 
on the 31st of January in that year; by which time the chapel 
erected in Canada Road for the use of the forces in 1858, 
appears to have been ready for use. Before that time the troops 
' Sandown Castle was also occupied at tliii time fay the Blockade- men. 

i8o History of Walmer. 

used to attend divine service in the old parish church at Upper 
Walmer. and the incumbent was the chaplain. 

The following is a complete list of the chaplains to the 
garrison : — 

Chaplains to the Forces. 

1. Henry Robinson, M.A., app, 1859. 

2. Matthew Robert Scott. M.A., app. 1860. 

3. Alexander Hugh Hore. M.A., app, 1863. 

4. James Leith Moody, M.A., app, 1864 

5. John Branfill Harrison, M.A., vicar of Walmer^ 

temporally, 1867. 

6. Charles Green, B. A., app, 1867. 

7. John Argyle Welsh Collins, B.A., app. 1867. 

Naval Chaplains. 

1. Robert Hind, L.Th., Durham, app, 1869. 

2. Stephen Hall Jacob, M.A., Kings Coll. London, app. 


3. John Milner. M.A.. F.R.G.S;, app, 1872. 

4. Frederick Davies, M.A., app, 1872. 

5. Joseph Ward Grimes, B.A., app. 1872. 

6. William Edmund Smith. B.A., app, 1877. 

7. Isaac Davies Lewis, B.A., app, 1 879. 

8. William Edmund Smith, re-appoinied^ 1879. 

9. Richard Measham, B.A., app, 1880. 

10. William Dearden, M.A., app, 1882. 

11. Charles Hodgson Harbord. B.A., app, 1882. 

12. John Macgregor Ward, M.A., app, 1885. 

13. James Browne Smyth, B.A., app, 1887. 

14. Benjamin Charles Pidcock, M.A., app, 1889, 

15. Robert O'Donelan Ross-Lewin, M.A., app, 1892. 

16. Frank Icely, B.A., app, 1892. 

17. John Harcourt Berry, M.A., app, 1893. 

^. *^J^£-i^ 




Growth ol the Parish— Poor Law -The Boatmen— Hovellers— The Owling 
Trade — Tales of Smugglers — Protestant Refugee Families — The Life- 
boat — Great Storms — Whirlwind — Her Majesty's JubDee — St. Saviour's 
Church — The New Parish Church — Memorial to Eail Granville, 

AS regards population, il is only in comparatively recent 
years that VValmer has emerged from the state of quite a 
small village ; as the following particulars will show. 

According to a return made in 1578, there were here at 
that time only 81 communicants ; and, as there is no doubt that 
the return included all who were of an age to communicate, the 
total population was, therefore, in all probability, under 200. A 
hundred years ago Irom the present date, the population was 
about 350 ; and, at that time, the only house to represent what is 
now Lower Walmer, was the True Briton Inn ; though, possibly, 
the Windinil! which formerly stood on the beach in Lower 
Walmer, near Deal Castle, may also have been then in existence. 
In ten years, however, from that time, the population had 
increased to more than double; probably in consequence of the 
erection of the barracks about ]795. The extraordinary increase 
shewn by the census taken in 1811 (see table given below), was 
due, chiefly, lo a large increase in the military establishment ; 
but that the fixed population was also on the increase is shewn 
by the circumstance that, in 1831, when the barracks were only 
occupied as a Coastguard Station, the inhahitants numbered as 
many as 1779, That the stimulating cause, however, had been 
furnished by the introduction of the military element, is shewn 
by the answers to the Poor Law Commissioners ia 1834 ; whence 
we learn, that the Government Works (Barracks and Hospital), 
" caused, during the wars, a great influx of people," chiefly of 
the poorer class, many of whom lived in wretched ''hovels" in 
Lower Walmer, or, in other words, in wooden huts, which were 

1 82 History of Waltner. 

never meant to serve more than a temporary purpose. In 1790 
the number of inhabited houses was 70; and these in 1821 had 
increased to 317, with a correspondingly number of families ; and 
in 1831 to 343 houses, inhabited by 372 families; which, from 
the circumstance that so many of the houses were then occupied 
by more than one family, shews that the increase in the popula- 
tion was chiefly among the poorer class. In 1857 the houses 
numbered 412. There are now about 186 houses in Upper 
Walmer, and 513 in Lower Walmer, not including of course any 
of the Government Buildings. The population at the last 
census was 4565. 

The following table shews the gradual increase in the 
population of the parish during the last 100 years; interrupted, 
however, by a temporary decrease between 1811 and 1821 which 
has already been explained : — 

Year 1790 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1861 1861 ISn 1881 1801 
Popn. 860 776 2151 1563 1779 2170 2616 8277 8816 4909 4165* 

The gradual growth of the parish into a place of some 
importance, is still further shewn, by comparing the rateable 
value at different periods during the last 150 years. In 1756 a 
sixpenny rate produced £11 15s. 8d. only, shewing a rateable 
value of £471 6s. 8d. In 1798 a similar rate produced 
£40 15s. Od., shewing a rateable value of £1630. In 1803 the 
parish was revalued, in consequence of which the rateable value 
was increased to £3375 15s. Od. In 1857 the return made to 
the Justices of the Peace under the County Constabulary Act, 
shews the rateable value to have then been £6311. According 
to Kelly's Directory, the rateable value in 1881 was £13,735. 
At the present time the rateable value of the whole parish for 
local purposes is £15,883 10s. Od. ; and recently, with a rate at 
Is. 2d. in the £1, Upper Walmer contributed £275 8s. 9d., and 
Lower Walmer £552 14s. OJd. 

From the passing of the first Reform Bill in 1832, down to 
the year 1885, Walmer was united with Deal and Sandwich in 
the exercise of the elective franchise ; all three places sufifered 
together, in 1880, in consequence of corrupt practices; and, in 

* This number includes the military connected with the Depot, amounting at the 
last census to 1533. It does not, however, include the population of the 
part known as East Mongeham, which has recently (1894) become part of 
Walmer ; but only for ecclesiastical purposes. 

History of Walmer. 


IB85, Sandwich disappeared as a parliamentary borongh, in 

consequence of the Redistribution Act. Walmer is now in the 
electoral division of St, Augustine's. 

L lo 1782, this parish was incorporated under the provisions 
Eof Gilbert's Act, to form the River Union, in conjunction with 
fthe following parishes: — Alkham, Buckland, Caple, Charlton, 
Ewell, Eythorne, Upper Hill Folkestone, Hougbam, St. James's 
Dover, Ringwould, River, and Whitfield — which arrangement 
continued till the year 1835, when the River Union was 
dissolved. Walmer thereupon joined the Eastry Union, which 
was then formed under. the provisions of the Poor Law Amend- 
ment Act (1834). 

The original village of Walmer having been mainly on the 
rising ground at Upper Walmer, the character of the population, 
was, until a comparatively recent date, to a great extent 
agricultural. Nevertheless, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, the 
sea-faring element in this place was not much inferior to what 
we then find at Deal ; for in 1586, when the latter place had six 
vessels with a total tonnage of sixteen, Walmer bad five with a 
total tonnage of eleven. 

The fact is, that the growth of Deal is scarcely of older 
date than that of Walmer. Leland, the antiquary, who was 
librarian to Henry VIII., describes Deal as " a Fissheher village, 
half a myle fro ye shore of the sea" ; which, in plain terms, and 
according to modern standards, means, that Deal was a very 
little place, that its inhabitants were chiefly of tiie sea-faring 
class, and that they were content to live ahoul a mile* from 
the scene of their operations. Hasted says, respecting the 
ancient village of Deal, that, "the only village here was that 
called Upper Deal, which was composed of the habitations of a 
few poor fishermen only," and Pritchard traces the origin of 
Lower Deal to the "settlement of sea-faring people on its sea 
margin," consequent on the increase of trade and commerce, in 
the time of Elizabelh.f Possibly by the time of Charles II., the 

I popi 

ilation of Deal had i) 

sed to SI 

lething like 2000 inhabi- 

Bjtants, but it could scarcely have been more; for it should not be 

• For remarks on Leland's " half a mile " 
t Prichard's History of Deal. p. 2( 

184 History of Walmer. 

forgotten that modem Deal owed its existence, in a great 
measure, to the wars at the end of the last and beginning of the 
present century ; when it suddenly sprang into importance, as a 
place for embarkation of troops and victualling of vessels of war. 
Lower Walmer sprang into being at much about the same 
time as modem Deal, and in consequence of very much the 
same causes. Its inhabitants, too, at least the poorer sort, are 
of much the same character, and earn their living in the same 
way, that is, as the phrase goes, •' on the water " ; while, on the 
other hand, those of Upper Walmer are many of them of the 
agricultural class, or men employed at the extensive Brewery 
and Making-houses belonging to the firm of Thompson and Son. 

It will have already been inferred, from the reasons that led 
to the growth of Lower Walmer, that one of the principal 
employments of the boatmen here, especially in the olden time, 
consisted in taking off provisions to vessels in the Downs. The 
men engaged in this useful service were, and still are, locally 
known as " Hovellers " ; a term of extremely doubtful origin, 
but generally supposed to have arisen from a fancied analogy 
between the Boatmen in their light craft, and the '' Hobilers," 
or light cavalry of bygone days.* 

Another employment of the hovellers, and one for which, 
from their intimate acquaintance with the shoals and quicksands 
of these dangerous waters, they are peculiarly fitted, consists in 
rendering assistance to passing vessels. Full many a one have 
they rescued from certain destruction on the Goodwin Sands; 
and many thousands have they resupplied with '* ground tack- 
ling,'* which had been compelled, through stress of weather, to 
slip their moorings. 

To keep the roadstead free from debris, in the shape of lost 

anchors and chains, is a further service of importance which the 

* May not the word Hovellers be a corruption of ** Owlers," that is, persons 
engaged in the " Owling Trade/' which was the name commonly applied 
to the occupation of the Smugglers some two hundred years ago ? Tlie 
designation of " Owlers '* was most fittingly applied to men whose avoca- 
tion required the shroud of darkness; and that the business of the 
Hovellers is still chiefly carried on at night, is sufficiently shewn by the 
circumstance mentioned in Parish and Shaw's Kentish Dialeet, p. 80^ 
namely, that ** in some families, the children are taught to say in their 
prayers, < God bless father and mother, and send them a good hovd 
to-night.' " 

\History of Walmer. 


~ boatmen render; though this does not in their own parlance 
come under the head of hovelling. That " sweeping," as they 
call it, is, however, a most important work, may readily be 
imagined ; — the value of the Downs as an anchorage depends 
upon it: for if such sources of entanglement as lost anchors, 
were allowed to accumulate on the bottom, the time wonld soon 
come, when no vessel would be able to leave its moorings 
without some sacrifice of time, or tackle, or perhaps of both. 
It may be mentioned here, as illustrating the importance of this 
service, that, in 1607, Robert Hudson and George Rands, of 
Deal, were granted by the Government a pension of £30 per 
annum, "on condition of their clearing the Narrow Seas of lost 
anchors, which cut the cables of ships, and restoring the anchors 
and cables of the king's ships."* 

All the employments that have been enumerated, which 
formerly were very remunerative to the boatmen, have been 
rapidly declining during the last half-century in consequence of 
the adoption of steam, the substitution of chains for hempen 
cables, and the improvements in ships' appointments generally. 

A lucrative means of increasing their earnings formerly 
existed for the boatmen, in the opportunities presented by the 
contraband trade. Several volumes might easily be filled with 
the details of smuggling transactions, in which the boatmen of 
this neighbourhood have figured ; and, not the least interesting 
part of the narration, would be furnished by the ingenuity and 
fertility of resource displayed by the smugglers, afloat and 
ashore, in order to elude the vigilance of the revenue-ofiicers. 

Even as long ago as the year 1700, the whole extent of the 
south-east coast had become notorious for smuggling, and the 
cliffs between Watmer and Dover were described, in an official 
despatch to the Lords of the Treasury, as being " as noted for 
running goods as any part of Kent " ; while, in order to cope 
with this growing evil, the construction was advised of some 
small vessels of a special type, described as follows : — " Not to 
exceed 7 tons, and to contain eight able men, and to be as 
nimble in rowing and sailing as the French shallops or 
lemanores . . . not to carr)- cannon or culverin, but a 
couple of smart guns to sling a pound bullet; nor to carry 
ballast more than arms and ammunition, and the tackle to wind 

• Dlim. St. Papers, Jas 


1 86 History of Walmer. 

up their boat ; nor would (they require) a crab or capstan on 
shore, but would have on board what would perform it quicker 
and with fewer hands."* 

An incident of this time must be here mentioned, which is 
recorded in the ** humble petition " of Richard Tomlin to the 
Earl of Pembroke, dated Feb. 24th, 1701-2. Tomlin, a Deal 
pilot, had been taken on board the Elizabeth Anna in the Downs 
to pilot her to London, and had just got the vessel under way, 
when a tender belonging to the Rantlagh — a man-of-war then 
stationed in the Downs — hailed him. He gave the name of the 
vessel and her destination as requested, but when asked her 
cargo replied ** Htn^s tteih^* The lieutenant in charge of the 
tender thereupon boarded the Elizabeth Anna^ and having laid 
hands on Tomlin, caused him to be taken on board the 
Ranelagh ; where he was bound to two handspikes in the wind- 
lass, stript, and chastised with ten stripes with a two*inch cord, 
by order of the captain ; the lieutenant inflicting the punishment 
with his own hand, and adding two stripes more for his own 

In 1 784 the Government made a raid on the Deal luggers, 
and burnt every one of them that they could lay hands upon. 
This was in the month of December, when in consequence of 
severe weather — heavy gales and almost unexampled frost— 
these boats had nearly all been drawn up high and dry upon the 
shingle. It was Mr. Pitt who instigated this measure, and he 
caused a regiment of soldiers to be sent down to Deal to cany 
it into effect. Although the greatest secrecy had been main- 
tained as to the object of sending down the soldiers, an idea 
somehow got abroad that mischief was intended, and every 
publican in Deal took down his sign-board, so that when the 
troops arrived no quarters could be found for them, except a large 
barn outside the town, which the landlord refused to let except 
for two years certain. This perforce was accepted, but the 
greatest difficulty was experienced in procuring provisions. The 
next day the soldiers were marched down to the beach and 
drawn up so as to cover the line of boats. For a moment the 
impression prevailed, that the men were to be embarked by 
some cutters that had been sent down to cruise along the shore, 
and which now came in close enough to command the beach ; 

* CaL Treasury Papers, Will. III., bux, 35. 

History of Walmer, 


but this illusion was soon dispelled, when the soldiers proceeded 
to set (ire to the whole fleet of luggers. Resistance was useless, 
and the boating commiinily of Deal could only look on helpless, 
though mad with rage, at the wholesale destruction. 

The wars in which this country soon after became engaged 
in consequence of the French Revolution, supplied the Govern- 
ment with plenty of work of another sort, and gave a further 
chance to the smugglers, who certainly made the most of it ; so 
that, at the beginning of this century, the contraband trade was 
as flourishing as ever. But peace having been concluded in 
1815. a vigorous Coast-Blockade was inaugurated in the follow- 
ing year ; by which, after the most determined resistance on the 
part of the smugglers, the death-blow was eventually given to 
the " Owling Trade," The method adopted by the authorities 
was as follows. A large number of men, well officered, whose 
names were on the books of the Ganymede frigate. Captain 
McCuIlock, stationed in the Downs, were detailed for duty at 
various points on the coast, with the strictest orders to search 
all persons and boats coming ashore, and to confiscate all 
excisable goods, as well as the boats of the detected. The 
immediate effect of these measures was of course to sharpen the 
wits of the smugglers, who, by means of various expedients, 
such as false keels, hollow masts, and similar contrivances, 
managed at first to elude the authorities, until betrayed by some 
of their own number. Several cargoes were taken by the 
preventive men before suspicions were aroused ; but at length it 
became almost certain that information had been given by one 
or two men. whose names were known. Then followed revenge 
such as might be expected from men of the smuggling type. 
One morning in the spring of 1821 (March 7th), one of the 
suspected men. named Pain, was suddenly seized when walking 
in the streets of Deal, stript, lied to a roughly constructed frame, 
and carried in a cart through the most public thoroughfares, 
with his body plentifully bedaubed with tar and covered with 
feathers. In passing through the streets another suspected 
informer was encountered, and he was served in exactly the 
same way. After this occurrence the smugglers seem to have 
carried on their trade as before, and conflicts of the most 
violent kind became numerous. 

Those were desperate days, and woe betide the preventive 
man who should be caught on the lonely cUfTs between Walmer 


1 88 History of W aimer. 

and Dover ; he would be certain to be roughly handled, if he 
were not — as happened, it is said, in some instances — brutally 
pushed over the cliff, to be dashed to pieces on the rocks 
beneath. We hear of one man being suddenly seized, tied up 
in a sack, and deposited in St. George's churchyard, to take his 
chance of rescue ; of another being taken out to sea in a boat 
and then thrown overboard, to swim ashore if he could ; and 
instances are on record in which the preventive man, about to 
seize a boat, has had his hand severed by a sweeping blow with 
a cutlass. 

Thus hard did the illicit trade die, but the Government 
were determined, though forced to maintain the Coast-Blockade 
with more or less rigour till 1831. The vessels engaged in this 
service in succession to the Ganymede^ were, first, the Seoim^ 
and subsequently, the Ramillies and Talavera ; and the number 
of men employed in the Blockade must have been very consider- 
able, since some of them were quartered in the South Barracks, 
others at the Royal Naval Hospital, and others again in 
Sandown Castle ; while, in 1824, a chaplain was appointed *' to 
do duty to " these men. An old lady (Mrs. Royse, daughter of 
Admiral Sir Thomas Harvey), who has lived in Walmer over 
eighty years, well remembers the smuggling days ; in fact, her 
husband. Captain Royse, commanded the coastguards there for 
eight and twenty years, and for many years could never go oat 
of his house unarmed. 

The repression of smuggling no doubt contributed, in some 
degree at least, to the gradual diminution in the numbers of the 
noted luggers of this district ; though the improvements in 
navigation, and especially the extensive adoption of steam, 
have, ostensibly at all events, been the principal causes. Almost 
the only employment for these craft now, consists in *' going to 
the westward" with the brave and hardy mariners, six to a 
lugger ; who beat about at the entrance to the channel, on the 
lookout for vessels homeward bound and needing assistance 
through the narrow waters. Their voyages are often a month 
or six weeks long, and not unattended with danger, as many a 
bereaved household has known to its cost ; in proof of whidi I 
need only mention an incident still fresh in the memories of all 
in Walmer, namely, the loss on the night of Oct. 29th, 1887, off 
Shanklin, Isle of Wight, of the Walmer lugger Pride of the 

History of Walmer. 


Sea, with all hands ; or the still more recent loss, on March, fith, 
1892, of the Walmer CaslU. 

Fishing is carried on here with more or less success during 
a considerable portion of the year ; the principal seasons being 
May for mackerel, the amumn for whiting, and the winter 
months for herring, sprats and cod. The sprats are largely 
converted into sardines at the Deal factories. Whitebait 
abounds during the summer months, but is very little caught. 
The distance from London, the high tariffs of Ihe railway 
companies, and the sufficiently heavy charges of the middle- 
men, arc great obstacles to the prosperity of the fishermen ; but, 
besides these drawbacks, their fishing-ground is in the direct 
track of every vessel that passes up or down channel, so that 
losses in nets, torn, or carried away, are very frequent ; while 
they are subject, also, to occasional depredations by crafty 
French or Belgian fishermen, who steal among the nets under 
iC cover of darkness, and create great havoc. 

The local directory still furnishes instances of names in 
.1 and Walmer which are undoubtedly of French, or Walloon 
origin, such for example as the following, viz. :— Constant, 
Giraud, Mercer, Myhill, Mumbray, Mummerie, Taverner, 
Verrier. and Wyboine. Several of these families, as well as 
some others which possibly ought to be included in the list, are 
shown by the Walmer parish registers to have been located here 
from at least the latter part of the seventeenth century, and 
some of them were here much earlier. Thus, to give one or 
two instances, we find the name of Verier in 1 604, and Mumbrey 
and Mumbreie, different spellings doubtless of the same name, 
in 1624. 

But the registers also furnish us with the names of other 
refugee families, which are no longer represented here, as for 
instance, Adgoe, Adie, Ambler, Amler, Bellemy, Brice, Buttrier, 
De L'Angle, Ffrerablie or Flremly, Huguesson, Gant, Gyllow. 
Lombart, Muns, Ombler (doubtless the same as Ambler and 
Amler), Paramore, and others ; of which Amier occurs as early 
as 1561, Bellemy in 1668, Gyllow in 1574, Ombler in 1618, 
Lambart in 1626, Brice and Gant in 1628, Adgoe in 1640, Muns 
in 1641, Ffremblie in 1643 and Adie and Buttrier in 1644. 

Many of these families, no doubt were represented amongst 
lose who took refuge in this country, in consequence of the 

IQO History of l^ aimer. 

religious persecutions in the Netherlands under Philip II. of 
Spain and his faithful servant the Duke of Alva; which was 
certainly the case for instance with the Gyllows or Gillowes, 
who are represented at Sandwich to this day. 

Others may have come over in 1641, in which year the 
Walloon settlement at Canterbury was largely reinforced in 
consequence of the war in Picardy, Artois, and Flanders. Bat 
others, again, were driven from France by the persecutions of 
the Huguenots inaugurated by Louis XIV., by his revocation of 
the edict of Nantes in 1685 ; and, of these last, we have notable 
examples in the names of Hugessen and De UAngle. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Smiles, James Hugessen, the first of the Hugessens 
in England, was a refugee from Dunkirk, who settled at Dover, 
but afterwards removed to Sandwich.* The manor of Walmer 
was from 1627 to 1789 in the possession of this family, the head 
of which is now Lord Brabourne. The family of De L' Angle, 
was represented here, from 1757 to 1771, by John Maximilian 
De L' Angle, who held the living of Walmer during that time. 
Thomas Paramor, of refugee descent, held the living of Walmer 
from 1680 to 1701, and was also rector of East Langdon during 
the same period. 

As throwing further light on the subject of refugee families 
in this place, it may be mentioned, that there were Walloon 
Settlements at Sandwich and Canterbury, and both French and 
Walloons at Dover. The Sandwich settlement dated from the 
time of Queen Elizabeth, who, in the third year of her reign, 
gave liberty to such of these " Strangers " to reside there, but 
not exceeding a certain specified number, "as should be 
approved of by the Archbishop, and the Bishop of London." f 

In the year 1857, the National Lifeboat Institution placed 
the first life-boat at Walmer, which was named, after the club by 
whom it was presented to the Institution, the " Royal Thames 
Yachi Cluhr This boat was here 13 years, and saved twenty- 
one lives. It was succeeded in 1870 by another life-boat, whose 
name is not recorded ; probably because it remained here but a 
very short time, and performed no particular service. This was 

* The Hugue^xotB, by Dr. Smiles, pp. 392, 512. 
t For further infonnation on this subject the reader is referred to the in- 
teresting works of Mr. S. W. Kershaw, viz., «» Protestants from Frtmce m 
their English Homesy'' ^d ** Foreign Refugee Settlements in East Kmi.^* 

History of _ Walmer. 

!placed in 1871 by the " Centurion" a remarkably gooiJ boat, 
which is said on one occasion to have proved its excellent 
qualities as a lITe-boat, by righting itself when capsized 
under canvas. Seventy-two lives were saved by the Centurion ; 
and it remained here until superceded in Hi84 by Ihe present 
boat, known as the " Civil Sirvict, No. 4." 

The crew of the life-boat is composed of the first thirteen 
competent boatmen who secure belts after the belt is rung-, 
together with two appointed coxswains. At the present time 
the first coxswain is John T. Mackins, and the second Henry 

When signals of distress stre seen at night, or when rockets 
are fired from any of the light-ships, a red rocket is sent up from 
the beach, signifying "signals observed, getting ready"; and, 
immediately after the launch, the boatmen ashore signal the fact 
by firing off a green rocket. In the daytime a f5ag is hoisted on 
the flag-staff instead. 

Of the many great storms with which this coast has been 
visited the most ruinous of all, perhaps, was the dreadful gale 
which reached its height on Nov. 26th, 1703. On that occasion 
no less than thirteen men-of-war were wrecked in the Downs; 
including the Restoration and the Stirling Caille, third-rates ; the 
Mary, a fourth-rate ; and the Mortar^ bomb : all lost on the 
Goodwin Sands, with the gteater part of their crews. From the 
Mary a single survivor alone remained, and among those who 
perished in the vessel was Rear-Admiral Basil Beaumont, fifth 
son of Sir Henry Beaumont, of Stoughton, co, Leicester. 

In other localities the destruction wrought by this remark- 
able storm was equally extensive, the number of lives lost " on 
the coast of Holland, and In ships blown away," having been 
estimated at no less than ten thousand. 

It will be remembered that it was in this hurricane that Mr, 
Winstanley, of Eddystone renown, lost his life in his lighthouse, 
in which he had expressed a desire to be "during the greatest 
storm that ever blew under the face of the heavens," 

Another notable storm was that which occurred on February 

18th. 1807 ; on which day. about 5.30 p.m., a tremendous gale. 

we are told, suddenly sprang up from the north-east, and swept 

the Downs in such a terrific manner as surpassed the recollection 

■6/ the oldest inhabitants. 

192 History of Waltner. 

With such fury did it ragt* , that in little more than two hoars 
several vessels had come ashore between Deal Castle and the 
South Foreland ; including a brig at Kingsdown, whose crew 
I>erished to a man, and a large West Indiaman at St. Margaret's 
Bay. A brig at anchor in the Small Downs off Sandown Castle, 
foundered with all hands ; and a similar catastrophe occurred 
beyond Kingsdown. Five other vessels were completely dis- 
mantled ; three more lost bowsprit and one or more masts, and 
several others suffered more or less severely. Three war vessels, 
the Soleha}\ frigate, the Railleur, sloop, and the Devastation^ 
bomb, were noticed to leave the Downs in great distress ; and 
though all of them outrode the gale, the frigate lost her fore 
and main top-masts. 

Altogether, as many as twenty-one vessels were reported 
lost, in this one gale, between the Forelands ; and, to the 
disgrace of everyone concerned, pillage is said to have prevailed 
to an unparalled extent. 

In my Records of Walmer may be seen a picture of Walmer 
beach, as it appeareil after a still more recent storm, namely, that 
of February 13th, 1870. This gale commenced on Wednesday, 
February 9lh, and gradually increased in strength until the 
following Sunday, when it raged with truly fearful violence, 
blowing from the north-east. There were at the time some 
seven or eight vessels only in the Downs, but all of them were 
dragging their anchors before the Friday. Both on that and 
the previous day, the captains had been warned by some boat- 
men, who at great risk put off in luggers, that to attempt any 
longer to ride out the gale, would be a most hazardous 
experiment ; but only two or three regarded this advice. 

Of the five vesssels which remained, not one survived the 
storm. At half-past six on the Saturday evening the Glenduror, 
of Liverpool, a full-rigged ship of 1,400 tons burden, Captain 
Thomas Warland, bound from Java to Rotterdam with a cargo 
of rum, sugar, spices, etc., valued at ;^200,000, parted her first 
cable ; an hour later her remaining cable gave way ; and by 
nine o'clock she had stranded at Kingsdown. 

Meanwhile at 8.30 p.m. another vessel was seen adrift. 
This was the Racine^ of Marseilles, a schooner, bound from 
Havannah to Antwerp with a cargo of sugar. She had been 
riding with three anchors down ; but none of her chains being 

History of Walmer. 

* equal ti 


, they all snapped off, and sbe quickl}' came 
■ Caslle ; where she lay a 

; to the southward of Walm 
complete wreck. 

Of the crews of these two vessels, all on board the 
Ghnduror, were, after much exertion, and at great risk, saved 
by the Kingsdown life-boat ; while the Racine lost one boy 
drowned, the rest being saved by a rope from the shore. 

The Saturday night must have been an anxious time for 
the crews of the three remaining vessels in the Downs ; while 
for the Walmer boatmen, it was also a night of watchfulness. 
One of the vessels, a large barque called the William Harper, 
Captain Leask, from Burianna (Spain) to the Downs for orders, 
with a cargo of locust-beans, was dragging her anchors all 
through the night; and by six o'clock in the morning (Sunday) 
she came ashore, close to the spot then occupied by Sharpe's 
bathing rooms; and there she lay at the mercy of the waves, 
which made a clean breach over her. Her crew owed their 
lives to the boalmen, who, at the utmost hazard, rigged up a 
line and sling, and got all safely to land. 

The next lo come ashore was the Dutch brig Anna Lena, 
Captain Visser, bound from Surinam to Amsterdam, with sugar, 
etc. She struck the ground at 9.30 a.m. a little northward of the 
William Harper, and broke up in less than twenty minutes ; her 
crew of fourteen hands, who were rescued in the same manner 
as the last, being literally dragged through the floating wreckage. 

We come now to the last of the five, namely the barque 
Eglantine, of 415 tons, Capt. Holland, from Alexandria to Dover 
with cotton-seed for the Dover oil-mills. She came ashore, 
just as the last man was rescued from the previous vessel, 
opposite Walmer Lodge, at that time the residence of Miss Hill. 
Her crew were also saved by means of a line and sling. 

Throughout this Sunday, the beach was thronged by the 
inhabitants, eager to render every assistance that lay in their 
power. One of them, Captain (now Admiral) Douglas, R.N., 
made the noblest efforts on behalf of the shipwrecked crews, 
and on three occasions rushed into the sea in his attempts to 
throw a line on board ; while valuable medical assistance was 
rendered by Dr. Davey of Upper Walmer. 


Thursday, Oct. 24th, 1878, Walmer was visited by a 
id, which created an extraordinary amount of havoc in 

194 History of Walnier. 

an incredibly short time. It seems to have commenced at 
Whitfield, about 6 miles S.W. of Walmer, and its track varied 
in breadth from 450 feet to 700 feet. Everything in its 
course suffered the severest damage. At Coldblow a clump of 
young oak-trees was destroyed, while a tub, 3 feet in diameter 
and 2 feet deep, altliough nearly full of water, was carried bodily 
about 100 feet; and wire clothes-lines were wrenched from the 
posts and twisted in the most extraordinary manner. At Walmer 
Court, much damage was done among the stacks and farm 
buildings ; slates from the house were carried 3,400 feet ; and the 
dobris of hay and straw, which must have been carried two or 
three miles, covered the decks and rigging of some vessels at 
anchor in the Downs. Many trees were uprooted or snapped 
off, and immense branches strewed the ground in every direction. 
Eleven elm-trees which had stood in a hedge-row, were piled 
upon each other in a confused heap, and some of the uprooted 
fir-trees were carried 50 yards from their stumps. All the space 
between Walmer Court and Lower Walmer was covered with 

At Lower Walmer, between 30 and 40 yards of the strongly- 
built Barrack wall was thrown down flat ; the roof of Ely House 
was completely taken off, as if it had been done with a razor; 
while the next house was practically gutted, the chimney-stacks 
having fallen in and carried everything with them from roof to 
basement. Nearly every window in the front of the houses on 
the north side of the Archery Ground was blown in. The 
south side also suffered, but in a less degree. At the principal 
gate of the South Barracks the sentry was overturned and 
imprisoned in his sentry-box. The greatest damage, however, 
seems to have been done to two adjoining houses in Cambridge 
Terrace, each of which had its gable blown clean out, so that 
the staircases and bedrooms were exposed to view. The Gran-^ 
ville Arms, close by, was partly unroofed. All the property ia 
this vicinity suffered extremely ; some shops behind Cambridge 
Terrace were totally wrecked, and hardly a house on the sea- 
front escaped very serious damage. 

It was thought by many inhabitants that all this havoc took 
place in less than a minute, an opinion which was singularly 
confirmed by the following calculation. It seems that a coach 
used to leave Deal for Dover at 1.5 p.m. ; on the day of the 

whirlwind a fly left shoitly after the coach, and the ptoprielor of 
these two vehicles, who was driving the coach, happened to 
observe the fly just turning the corner at the Strand as he was 
passing Ely House, a quarter of a mile distant, at that linne 
intact. Now assuming the pace of the vehicles to have been 
six miles an hour, it is evident that the fly would arrive at Ely 
House in /.th of an hour, or 21 minutes, after the coach. 
Before, however, the arrival of the fly at Ely House, the whirl- 
wind had swept across, and all ihe damage been done ; and yet 
strange to say neither of the vehicles encountered the whirlwind. 
whose track at this point was above Jth of a mile ; for if they 
had, they would certainly have been carried up in the air — a fact 
which very materially diminishes the limit of time in which the 
whole occurrence must have taken place. 

Her Majestj''s Jubilee was duly celebrated at Walmer on the 
30th and 21st of June, 1887. the principal festivities having 
been on the latter day. On Monday, June 20th, a Special 
Thanksgiving Service was held in the old parish church at 
3 p.m. The church was thronged, the children from Walmer 
National Schools having added at least five hundred to the 
congregation. These came marching to church with flags and 
banners, and preceded by the Fife and Drum Band of the Royal 
Marines, which accompanied the main body of the youngsters 
from the Lower Walmer Schools to Upper Walmer, where they 
were joined, at the corner of Church Street, by the Upper 
Walmer contingent. After the service, the procession of 
children re-formed, and proceeded to the Brewery; where, by 
kind permission of Messrs. Thompson and Son, a tea was pro- 
vided in the newly-erected malt-house, from the funds raised 
by the Walmer Jubilee Committee. Some 700 children sat 
down to tea, reinforcements of infants too young to attend 
divine service having meanwhile arrived in waggons from Lower 
Walmer. After tea, the National Anthem having been sung-, 
the children adjourned to a neighbouring field, where swings, 
games, races, donkey-rides, and other amusements were pro- 

On the following day, Tuesday, June 2lst, a dinner was 
given, at 1 p m., in Messrs Thompson and Son's malt-house, 
which was suitably decorated for the occasion, to such of the 
adult population as chose to accept the invitation of the 

196 History of Walmer. 

Committee; and these numbered very little short of seven 
hundred persons. Many of the old and infirm people of Lower 
Walmer assembled at the Life-boat House shortly before noon, 
and were conveyed thence to Upper Walmer in waggons, kindly 
lent for the occasion. At the close of the feast, the National 
Anthem was sung ; and each man and woman having been 
presented with an ounce of tobacco, or a quarter of a pound of 
tea, respectively, all thereupon proceeded to the field, as on the 
previous day, where races, tugs>of-war, and other amusements, 
were indulged in. Nor were the sterner sex allowed to have it 
all their own way ; not the least successful among the female 
aspirants for Isthmian fame having been the wife of a boatman 
from Lower Walmer, who carried off several prizes. Towards 
night, at about a quarter to ten, an immense bonfire was lighted on 
the shingle to the northward of Walmer Castle, the firing of which 
was announced and responded to by preconcerted arrangement 
with the Minster people, by the discharge of six rockets. 

A good deal of bunting was displayed, throughout the 
celebration, from the houses both in Upper and Lower Walmer; 
and at night a great many houses were illuminated. 

At the Barracks, the day was observed as a general holiday, 
but without any ceremonial. Punishments for all minor offences 
were remitted, and general leave was granted until 11 p.m. 

In consequence of the large increase in the population 
particularly of Lower Walmer, it became necessary about fifty 
years ago to erect a chapel-of-ease for this part. The first 
active steps were taken by the Rev. H. W. Wilberforce, during 
his short incumbency (1841-3) ; but the building was not 
commenced till a few years later. In 1848, a suj£cient sum of 
money having been raised, not merely for the erection, but also 
for the partial endowment of this church, the foundation stone 
was laid by Harriet Bridges, one of the chief supporters of this 
good work. The church was consecrated by the Abp. of 
Canterbury on July 2nd, 1849, and dedicated to St. Saviour. 
The Rev. C. R. S. Elvin, who for upwards of eight years was in 
charge of Lower Walmer, orginated a fund for the improvement 
of this church ; and, on resigning in 1891, left a nucleus of 
£135 for this object. 

The alterations made to the old parish church in 1816 and 
1826, having completely ruined the ecclesiastical character of 

History of Walmer. 


that edifice, and rendered it utterly unfit for the due celebration 
of divine worship, in due time there arose among the parish- 
ioners a desire for a building, which in appearance should be 
more in harmony with its holy purpose, and in design more 
convenient for the solemnization of the church's rites. The first 
[■efforts for a new parish church were made in 1870, but it was not 
till fifteen years later that the matter assumed a practical form. In 
committee was formed, with Lord Granville as chairman, 
and two years later, April 13th, 1887, the foundation stone was 
laid by Lady Granville. The ceremony of consecration took 
place on April 5th, 1888 ; and by an instrument dated 31st May 
in that year, this church, dedicated, like the old parish church, to 
St. Mary, was formally constituted the parish church of Walmer. 

This church, which was built at a cost of £8.000 from 
designs by Sir Arthur Blomfield, is of Kentish rag with Bath- 
Stone dressings. It is in the Early English style, and consists 
spacious nave with two small aisles, a chancel, north 
id south transepts, and a baptistery. It has commodious 

ries for the clergy and choir, and a good organ. Thanks 

to the generosity of individual parishioners, it has a hand- 
some reredos of opus sectile, and many of the windows are 
already filled with stained glass. A pulpit of Caen stone relieved 
with Purbeck marble, and a brass eagle lectern, have also been 
presented.* The font is of Caen stone and has a flat cover of 
sequoia wood. A feature worthy of mention in this church is 
the chancel roof of sequoia wood, here used for the first time in 
"England ; its reddish hue, somewhat darker than cedar, imparts 
a rich appearance. Sequoia wood was also used in the church 
at Cannfcs, built in memory of the Duke of Albany at the same 
time as Walmer church and by the same architect. 

On the death of Mr. F. G. Ommanney in June 1889. the 
1 of £200 was raised to erect a memorial in recognition of 
work as secretary of the committee for the erection of this 

-•The east window was presented by Mr. and Mrs. May, the west wicdowa 
andbaptistery windows by Mr. and Mrs. Roget, the north transept window 
by Miss Wood, the reredos by Mr. Stoclt, the pulpit by the famfly of the late 
Mr. and Mrs. Win. Deone, and the lectern by Capt. Bushe. A stained 
glass window has also been inserted in the oorth aisle by Mrs. Murray 
Carson, in memory of her husband; and three others, also in the north 
aisle, have tieen given in memory of Mr. Oramanney, by Mr. John 
Matthews and his sons, Mr. A. Matthews and Mr. W. P. Matthews. 

198 History of Walmer. 

church. Part of this money was spent in extending the reredos, 
which now occupies the entire width of the east end, and with 
the balance the lancet windows in the north and south walls of 
the chancel, were filled with tinted, stamped glass. 

On the death of Earl Granville in 1891, it was felt by many 
of his friends and neighbours that some memorial should be 
raised to his memory at Walmer, where, for upwards of a quarter 
of a century, he resided as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports ; 
and naturally the thoughts of those who projected this memorial, 
were turned to the parish church, in the erection of which both 
he and his family had taken so much interest. At the 
suggestion of Mr. Wollaston of Glen Hill, it was proposed to 
raise about £4000, in order to complete the church, by the 
addition of the tower and spire, designed for it by Sir Arthur 
Blomfield. The proposal was warmly received, not only within 
the parish, but by many outside its borders ; and a large 
and influential committee was formed in London, together 
with a local executive committee composed as follows : — 
Lord Herschell (chairman), the Rev. F. B. Blogg, (vicar*), 
W. H. Burch Rosher and John Matthews (churchwardens*), 
A. N. Wollaston, Admiral Douglas, Alexander Tod, Capt. Bushe, 
the Rev. C. R. S. Elvin, Dr. Davey, F. May, and W. Denne ; 
the Hon. Treasurers being the vicar and Mr. Matthews, and the 
Hon. Secretaries Mr. Wollaston and Mr. Rosher. Amongst the 
contributors were many of those, who, during Lord Granville's 
lifetime, were his political opponents ; but in the words of Lord 
Herschell, ** it was not only to a man of distinguished ability 
that those who mourned his loss desired to pay homage, but to 
one of singular courtesy, rectitude, and kindness of heart, who, 
even in the heat of controversy, never willingly gave pain to 
others, or failed to act as became an English gentleman." 
Owing to the national memorial inaugurated in London, the 
subscriptions only reached to about half the required amount ; 
and it was decided to erect the tower alone, without the spire. 

The memorial tower was dedicated in a solemn service on 
April 13th, 1893, when the Archbishop in the course of a most 
appropriate sermon, paid the following tribute to the memory 
of the late Earl : — ** Nearly the last care, the last interests with 

* Ex'Officio. 

History 0/ IValmer, 

which you here w 
so long yout 

of the 


statesman who was 
generous to 


friend, were for this Church. 

\y generous of unthought-of money, 
worked for it. He entereii into the details of its plans and all 
its arrangements. He delighted, as it was rising, to show it to 
Strangers. He was carefu! and anxious as to the best ordering 
and using of the ancient fabric. Nothing, I believe, would have 
pleased him so much as that its tower should rise so soon, and 
should be for ever called his tower — that it should do its 
beautiful offices for the happy, for the sorrowing, for the 
worshipper on land ; and be a landmark, and fling out its 
reminding music far on the sea, whose innumerable vessels he 
loved to watch gliding past, outward, or homeward bound. 
There are great and revered memories, some of the greatest 
memories of war and peace alike, clinging round this ancient 
stronghold of the Cinque Ports. Dwelt in with especial 
affection by Liverpool, by Pitt, by Wellington, by him whose 
frankness and simplicity will be ever proverbial among states- 
men, visited in our greatest and darkest times by Nelson, those 
plain, strong walls have few rivals in English association. But 
among those great shadows of the past will never be forgotten 
that gracious presence which seems scarcely to have departed 
from among us — that fine temper incapable of causing pain, 
that loyalty, not only to power but to weakness, that attention 
to all that leaned upon him, that sanguine hopefulness, that 
large view of human life, even the more kindly because there 
was in it no lack of that humour which is the salt of social inter- 
course. I dwell on these points first, because it was with these that 
everyone of you was familiar. To the great world, as much as 
to you, he was the statesman whose name and work were closely 
interwoven with so many great names and great measures ; the 
wary debater, who with keenest sword-point touched infallibly 
every weak point of an adverse argument; the accomplished 
versatile conversationalist to whom foreign speech was utterly as 
his own, the guest honoured of every Court, free of the inner- 
most circles of all society. But among you was his home, and 
he loved it as it grew up in love and sweetness ; he cared for the 
things you cared for ; he wished what you wish ; and the 
humblest worshipper here may feel that after al! the greatest 
in common, remembering how he held 
English literature to be the preface to 
ur Communion Service." .... 

200 History of Walmer. 

At the conclusion of the service, the memorial tablet, on the 
west wall of the tower porch, was unveiled by Lady Herschell. 
This tablet, which is surmounted by the arms of the Cinque 
Ports is of Sicilian alabaster, and bears the following inscrip- 
tion : — ** The tower of this church was completed April 6th, 
A.D., 1893, to the glory of God, and in memory of the late 
Right Hon. Granville George Leveson-Gower, second Earl 
Granville, P.C., K.G., for over a quarter of a century Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports, and a resident at Walmer Castle ; 
born May llth, 1815; died March 3lst, 1891. The cost was 
defrayed by the numerous friends of the late Lord Warden." 

The peal of bells, dedicated in the same service, were gifts 
by various donors, five of them having been presented by 
General Hill, in memory of the late Miss Lucy Hill of Walmer ; 
another was given by Miss Marian Smith, in memory of the late 
Mr. Arthur Smith, who gave the first £500 to the fund for 
building this church, and subsequently about £400 more ; and 
another was the gift of Mr. A. N. Wollaston and his son Mr. 
G. N. Wollaston. The clock, together with one bell, were 
removed from the old parish church ; the condition having been 
annexed to the gift of the clock to the parish in 1869 by 
Mrs. Eaton Monins — in memory of her husband Major-General 
Eaton Monins — that it should be transferred to the new chnrch 
when built. 




Admiral Sit Thomns Baker, K.C.B.— The family of Boys.— Admiral R. 
Gordon Douglas— Captain Peter Fisher, R.N.— The Han-ey lamily.— 
Admiral William Willmoll Henderson, C.B.— Admiral Sir John Hill,— 
General Sir Robert J. Hughes, K.C.B.— Colonel J. Philip Hunt, C.B.— 
Admiral Su- Richard Lee, K.C.B.— Captain R. Budd Vmcent, R.N., C.B. 

Sir Thomas Baker. K.C.B. 

~*IR Thomas Baker, a distinguished naval officer, n 
many years at the Shrubbery, Upper 


I for 

Walmer, and at his 
death, on Feb. 26th, 1845, was buried at St. George's, Deal, in 
which church there is a monument to his memory. His services 
to his country were many and important. In Jan. 1800, while 
in command of the IVemtst's, 28, he captured the French privateer 
Ze Rtnard (H guns and 65 men). In the summer of the same 
year, being stationed in the North Sea, with a small squadron 
under his command, he fell in with, and, being refused the right 
of search, fought and captured, a Danish frigate called the Frtija, 
together with a convoy of merchantmen, after an action which 
lasted five and twenty minutes. The Danish Government 
protested against the right of searching neutra! vessels under 
convoy, and, the British Government taking a contrary view, the 
result was a hostile confederacy of the Northern powers against 
this country, and a war ensued, which was, however, speedily 
ended by the battle of Copenhagen, 2nd April, 1801. Two 
years later, while in command of the Phcebe, 36, he succeeded in 
capturing a French frigate. La Didon, of 46 guns and 330 men, 
and known to be the fastest sailer in the French navy. The 
action lasted nearly 3J hours within pistol shot, the French 
commander tighting his vessel till she lay on the water a 
complete wreck. Later on in the same year Captain Baker 
assisted in the capture, by Sir R. J. Strachan's squadron, of 
four French linc-of-baitle ships that escaped from Trafalgar; 

202 History of Walmer. 

and in the next year, in company with the Iris, he fell in with 
and destroyed the greater part of a fleet of thirty merchantmen, 
bound from Ferrol to Bilboa, under convoy of several gun-boats. 
In November 1813 he landed a force of marines for the pro- 
tection of the Hague ; for which he was rewarded with the 
order of Wilhelm of the Netherlands. He was nominated a 
Companion of the Bath, June 4th, 1815; became a Colonel of 
Marines, Aug. 12th, 1819; rear-admiral, July 19th, 1821; held 
the chief command on the S. American station, with his flag on 
the Winchester, 76, from 6 March, 1829 to the 3rd March, 1833; 
was nominated a K.C.B., on the 8th January, 1831; promoted 
vice-admiral, 10th Januar}*, 1837; and obtained a good service 
pension of £300 per annum, 19th Feb., 1842. 

The Family of Boys. 

The family of Boys is no doubt of Norman origin. One of 
this name, R. de Boys, is mentioned in the Roll of Battle Abbey, 
and appears to have been one of those who were so munificently 
recompensed by William I. from the spoils of the conquered 
Saxons. John Boys, of Bonnington in Goodnestone, gentleman, 
held that estate in 1355. From Berry we get the following 
particulars : — ** The Bonnington estate — now belonging to Sir 
Brook Bridges, Bart. — forms a large part of Goodnestone-park, 
and has belonged to the ancestors of that respectable family 
(Boys) for several generations. It is recorded in Philipot's Kent, 
that, amongst the title deeds of that estate, there were, in the 
16th century * 17 datelesse deedes* prior to 1355, most of them 
being conveyances and transfers of that estate in the Boys family. 
These, if legible, would probably have enabled this pedigree to 
have been carried back to within a century of the Norman 
Conquest. The family name was first spelt in these deeds, 
De BoscOf and afterwards De BoisT * 

* Admiral Boys of East Dean, Blackheath, writes to me as foHows : — " The 
pedigree I have in my possession is carried to the Norman Conquest and 
far beyond, chiefly from the researches of my father the late Captam 
Edward Boys, R.N. (well kno>\Ti in the recent history of Deal), wba^ 
although a naval officer, was a good French scholar, which enabled him to 
go into French history, and a man of great application, and devoted the 
last years of a long life to genealogy, and especially in tracing the pedigree 
of the Boys family." 


History of Walmer. 203 

The Sandwich and Deal branches were descended from 
John Boys, of Longbeach in Challock, of this county; the 
Sandwich branch having been founded hy his son, of the same 
name ; and the Deal branch by his grandson, William Boys, who 
came to reside in Deaf about the end of the 17th century. This 
William Boys was married to Elizabeth, grand-daughler of Sir 
Robert Nevinson, of Eastry, having been her second husband ; 
and William Boys, of Deal, a commodore in the royal navy, and 
subsequently lieutenant governor of Greenwich Hospital, was 
their grandson. The latter is remembered as the hero of a 
tragic occurrence which happened iu 1746, when he was second 
mate of the Luxembourg. That vessel having taken fire when 
homeward bound from Jamaica, he, with twenty-three others, 
took to the yawl, a Deal-built boat, and kept afloat for thirteen 
days without meat or drink, and with neither compass nor chart, 
until at length rescued off Newfoundland by a passing fishing 
boat. His death, in 1774, is recorded on a monument in the 
Congregational cemetery at Deal. William Boys, F.S.A., eldest 
son of this Commodore William Boys, is well known as the 
historian of Sandwich, in which place he practised a sa surgeon ; 
he died in 18p3 at Walmer, where, during the latter part of his 
life, he resided. Hasted dedicated one of the volumes of his 
History of Kent to him. Eliziibeth a sister of the last-mentioned 
William Boys, became the first link between the families of Boys 
and Harvey ; she having married in 1768, Sir Henry Harvey, 
K.B., of Walmer, Admiral of the White. William Boys, the 
historian of Sandwich, was twice married; namely, first, to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Wise, a merchant of Sandwich; 
and, afterwards, to Jane, daughter of Thomas Fuller, of Staten- 
borongh in Eastry, William Henry Boj-s (a captain of the 
Royal Marines), son of the historian by the first marriage, 
married his cousin Ehzabelh, daughter of Sir Henry Harvey, 
K.B., above mentioned; while, through the issue of the second 
marriage, the Boys's became connected with another important 
family then residing in Walmer, Mary Fuller Boys having been 
married to Rear-Admiral Edward Walpole Browne. Thomas 
Boys, the eldest son of the historian by his second wife, was an 
admiral residing at Ramsgate ; and Edward Boys, M.D., the 
third Son, was Physician to the Fleet, and at one time surgeon at 
the Royal Naval Hospital at Walmer. 

204 History of Walmer. 

Admiral Rohekt Gordon Douglas. 

Admiral Douglas, of Seafield, Lower Walmer, has seen manj 
years of active service. He entered the Navy in 1844, and while 
midshipman in the Grampus on the Pacific Station, jumped over- 
board on a dark and squally night, in a harbour infested with 
sharks, and saved the life of a seaman. When mate of the 
Centaur^ flag-ship of Rear-Admiral Henderson, on the south-east 
coast of S. America, he was landed at Buenos Ayres, to protect 
British interests and property during the war between Rosas and 
Urquiza. As Gunner}' Lieutenant of the Orion he served in the 
Baltic during the Russian War, and on one occasion jumped 
overboard in a heavy gale and sea, in the endeavour to save a 
man who had fallen overboard : at the conclusion of the war he 
received the Baltic medal. Subsequently, he served as Flag 
Lieutenant to Admiral PIdward Harvey, commander-in-chief at 
Sheerness, 1857-60; commanded \ki^ Shearwater^ on iki^ Pacific 
Station 1862-66, receiving a letter of thanks from the Spanish 
commander-in-chief for following out of action the Berenguela 
with the view of saving life, when the Spanish Squadron were 
engaging the batteries at Callao, the Berenguela being at the 
time badly hulled, and on fire near the magazine; was captain of 
the Cossack, Australian Station, 1871-73 ; of the Newcastle^ Flying 
Squadron, 1874-77 ; and of the Warrior, 1878-81. From 1881 to 
1883, he served as Assistant to the Duke of Edinburgh, when 
His Royal Highness was Admiral Superintendant of Naval 
Reserves ; was employed as Rear- Admiral, 1884-86, to put the 
North Sea Fisheries Convention into force, inquiring into the 
Fisheries of the United Kingdom, and establishing cruisers for 
their protection ; was appointed Admiral Superintendent of 
Malta Dockyard, May 1887, and received a letter of thanks from 
the Governor of Malta for services rendered to the inhabitants of 
the island during the cholera, in 1888 ; was A.D.C. to the Queen, 
1880-83 ; and is a younger Brother of the Trinity House. 

Captain Peter Fisher, r.n. 

Captain Peter Fisher, a veteran officer of distinction* died 
at Sheerness Dockyard on August 28th, 1844, being at that 
time Superintendent of that establishment. His service afloat 
embraced the long period of between thirty and forty years, 
during which time he was present in four general actions at sea. 

History of Walmcf 

and in many others on shore ; was at the reduction of three 
large fortresses; assisted at the capture, besides innumerable 
smaller vessels, of fifteen line-of-batl!e ships ; and received four 
woonds, from one of which he never perfectly recovered. At 
the taking of Martinique, and in Lord Howe's action of the 1st 
of June, 179^, he was midshipman of tlie Culloden ; and of the 
London in Lord Bridport's action off L'Onent in 1795, He was 
appointed lieutenant in 1800, in which year he served in the 
Northumberland, in the operations on the coast of Italy, and at 
the surrender of Malta. He also served at the landing in 
Egypt, and was present at the subsequent battles ; was senior of 
the Barflettr, and was wounded in Sir Robert Calder's action ; 
and of the Ardmt at the taking of Montevideo. He was made 
commantier, 27th Dec, 1808; and in that rank served at the 
taking of the islands of Ischia and Procida ; and commanded 
the Mortar bomb, at the siege of Dantzic, and in the operations 
against South Beveland. He attained post-rank Feb. 19th, 
1814; and later on, during the peace, commanded successively 
the Wyt, 26 ; the Ranger, 28 ; the Southampton, 52 ; the Calcutta, 
84 : and the Ocean, 80. He was appointed Superintendent of 
Sheemess Dockyard, Dec. 17lh, 1841, Captain Fisher for 
some time held the Captaincy of Sandown Castle, and was a 
magistrate for the Cinque Ports, as well as for the county. 

^7X1: Harvey Family. 
The Harveys of Walmer and Deal are descended from the 
arveys of Titmanstone, who as early as the reign of Edward 
VI. held the manor of Barfield, now Great and Little Batville 
in that parish. The family were afterwards of Eythorne, then 
of Dane Court in Tilmanstone, and later still of Barfreston. 

Of the Harveys of Barfreston, Richard Harvey, who died 
February 20th, 1798, had, by bis wife Elizabeth, daughter of 
Henry Nicholls, of Barham, seven sons and sis daughters; of 
whom Admiral Sic Henry Harvey, of Roselands, Walmer, was 
the second son, and Captain John Harvey, of Eastry, the third 
son. Both these two brothers commanded ships of the line in 
Lord Howe's action of the " glorious" 1st of June, 1794. John 
lost an arm and sustained injuries in the back from splinters ; 
from which wounds he died after reaching Spithead with his 
^_ vessel the Brumwick ; and parliament voted a monument to his 
^B;;)nemory in Westminster Abbey. 

2o6 History of Walmer. 

It is remarkable that of the six admirals of this family 
mentioned in the following pages, four were knighted, and 
three held the chief command in the West Indies ; the latter 
having been Sir Henry Harve)% his son Sir Thomas Harvey, and 
his nephew Sir John Harvey, second son of the above- 
mentioned Captain John Harvey of the Brunswick, 

Sir Henry Harvey greatly distinguished himself in Lord 
Howe*s memorable victory above mentioned ; on which occasion, 
as Captain Henry Harvey, he commanded the Ramitlies^ a line- 
of-battle ship carrying 74 guns and with a complement of 600 
men. For his part in this action Captain Henry Harvey received 
the gold medal struck in commemoration by order of George III., 
and was raised to the rank of Rear-Admiral of the Blue. On 
June 23rd, 1795, as rear-admiral, he took part, in the Prince of 
Wales, 98, in Lord Bridport's action off L'Orient, when three 
sail of the line were captured ; and shortly afterwards, having 
been appointed commander-in-chief at the Leeward Islands, he 
proceeded in the Prince of Wales to the West Indies, reaching 
Barbadoes on the 19th of June, 1796. He remained on this 
station till 1799, and meanwhile rendered many important 
services ; amongst them being the capture, in conjunction with 
Sir Ralph Abercrombie, of the Island of Trinidad, which was 
taken from the Spaniards in February, 1797. A good idea of 
the operations in which Admiral Harvey was engaged at this 
time may be gathered from one of his despatches, dated 
September 8th, 1798 ; wherein he reports that the vessels of his 
squadron had recaptured, since the previous February, six 
British and sixteen American vessels, besides having detained 
no less than twenty vessels flying neutral colours, on suspicion 
of having enemy's property on board. For his services in the 
West Indies Admiral Harvey was nominated a Knight of the 
Bath. Sir Henry Harvey died at his residence at Upper 
Walmer, on December 28th, 1810, at the age of 74 years. 

Sir Thomas Harvey was the fourth son of Admiral Sir 
Henry Harvey, K.B., with whom he served in the Ramillies as 
master's mate, in Lord Howe's victory of the first of June, 1794 ; 
and subsequently also as lieutenant of the Prince of Wales, 98, in 
Lord Bridport's action off L'Orient on the 22nd of June, 1795, 
when three sail of the line were captured. In 1796 he 
commanded the Pelican sloop of war in which vessel he assisted. 

History of Walmer, 


'in February of the following year, at the reduction of the 
Spanish Island of Trinidad, and was immediately afterwards 
(March 27, 1797) promoted to the rank of post-captain in the 
Prince of Wales, bearing liis father's flag; in which ship he took 
part in the attack on Porto Rico in [he ensuing Aprih Sub- 
sequently, in the Lapwing frigate, he intercepted several 
privateers and letters of marque, and accompanied Lord Hugh 
Seymour against the Dutch colony of Surinam, which surrendered 
on August 20th, 1799. In the Unite frigate he was attached to 
the armament under Rear-Adrairal Duckworth, which, in March 
1801, took possession of the Danish and Swedish West India 
Islands, and was subsequently ordered to escort a large fleet of 
merchantmen to this country. Before leaving the West Indies, 
Captain Thomas Harvey was prcsenled by the inhabitants of 
Montserrat with £100 for the purchase of a piece of plate, in 
recognition of his services to the colony ; and on reaching 
England, he was stationed, during the remainder of the war, off 
Margate, under the orders of Lord Nelson ; whose flag was at 
one lime hoisted on the Unite. Afler having been on half-pay 
from 1802 to the autumn of 1805, he was appointed to the 
Standard, 64; in which he proceeded to the Mediterranean to 
join Lord Collingwood's fleet off Carthagena. In Sir John 
Duckworth's expedition against Constantinople in 1807 he bore 
a conspicuous part, the Standard being one of the vessels 
engaged above Abydos, under Sir Sydney Smith, in the annihila- 
tion of the Turkish Squadron. Subsequently in the return 
passage through the Dardanelles, the Standard wa?, struck by a 
stone shot from the castle of Sestos weighing 770 pounds, and 
of the extraordinary circumference of sis feet two inches. It 
entered the lower deck, killed four men, and having set fire to 
the salt-boxes containing the powder for immediate use, caused 
an explosion, by which one lieutenant, forty seamen, and six 
marines were badly wounded, while an alarm of fire caused four 
men to leap overboard. He afterwards accompanied Sir Joha 
Duckworth to the coast of Egypt, where he arrived two or three 
days after the surrender of Alexandria to the British arms. He 
was nominated a Companion of the Bath on June 4th, 1815; 
obtained a colonelcy in the Royal Marines. April 2nd, 1821; 
was advanced to the rank of rear-admiral, I9th July, 1831 ; and, 
on the death of Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Paget, in January, 
was appointed to succeed that officer as Commander-in- 

2o8 History of Walnur. 

Chief on the North American and West Indies Station. He 
was promoted K.C.B. in April, 1833, and became vice-admiral 
in 1837. He died at Admiralty House, Bermuda, May 28, 1841. 

Admiral Thomas Harvey was the eldest son of Admiral Sir 
Thomas Harvey, K.C.B., and brother of the late Admiral 
Henry Harvey of Sunnyside, Walmer. He obtained post-rank 
Jan. 31st, 1848 ; served under Admiral Sir Charles Napier 
during the Russian War : was Commodore in the Pacific in 
1863 ; and was made a rear-admiral on the active list Dec. 2nd, 
1865. He was in receipt of a Good Service Pension for his 
services afloat, till he obtained his flag-rank. He died at the 
Lodge, Upper Deal, April 8th, 1868, aged 57 years. 

Admiral Henry Harvey who died at Sunnyside, Walmer, on 
May 27th, 1887, was the second son of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Harvey, K.C.B. Under Sir Edward Codrington in the Asia^ 84, 
he officiated as signal midshipman at the battle of Navarino, 
Oct. 20th, 1827, when the Turkish fleet was destroyed by the 
combined forces of England, France, and Russia. Later on he 
served in the Undaunted, 46, Captain Edward Harvey (his uncle) 
at the Cape and on the west coast of Africa ; was attached to 
the Coastguard from 1837 to 1839, when he was appointed to 
the Winc/iiS/er, 50, the flag-ship of his father on the N. America 
and West Indies station. He obtained post-rank in 1852, was 
placed on the retired list in 1866, and at the time of his death 
was a full admiral. He was in the commission of the peace for 
the county of Kent. 

Captain John Harvey, was the third son of Richard Harvey 
Esq. of Barfreston, and was born on July 9th, 1740. Early in 
1782 he was appointed to the Sampson, 64, attached to the 
channel fleet under Lord Howe, who very soon honoured him 
with his particular notice ; and it was at Lord Howe's special 
request, that he was appointed to the Brunswick, second ship 
astern in the action of 1st June, 1794. Captain John Harvey 
and his elder brother. Captain Henry Harvey, contributed in no 
small degree to the success of that day ; some of the chief 
incidents of the fight, so far as they concerned the two brothers, 
having been as follows. In the course of the action, the 
Brunswick became so closely locked with Le Vengeur as to be 
unable to open her midship lower deck ports, which, thereupon, 
were blown off in the eager haste of the crew. At this junctare 

History of Walmer. 209 

2l second French ship, U Achille^ bore down on the Brunswick^ 
with the intention of boarding her ; but a double-shotted broad- 
side from the latter carried away her three masts, and compelled 
her to strike her colours ; which, however, were shortly after- 
wards rehoisted, in consequence of the inability of the Bruns- 
wick to take possession. Captain Henry Harvey now perceiving 
his brother's ship to be closely pressed, came to his assistance, 
having been previously engaged with Le Pelletier, Passing close 
under the stern of Le Vengeur, the Ramillies gave her two 
tremendous broadsides ; after which she proceeded to take 
possession of VAchille, Le Vengeur at length struck to the 
Brunswick, but the latter having lost all her boats could not take 
possession. The loss of the Brunswick in this action was 45 
killed and 113 wounded ; while she had thrice caught fire, and 
twenty-three of her guns were disabled. Captain John Harvey 
died of his wounds at Spithead, having lost an arm and sustained 
injuries to his back from a falling splinter. His remains were 
buried at Eastry on the 5th of July, having been attended to the 
gates of Portsmouth, on the 2nd, by Earl Howe and the 
principal officers of the fleet ; and parliament voted a monument 
to his memory in Westminster Abbey. 

Admiral Sir John Harvey was the second son of Captain 
John Harvey of the Brunswick, As Lieutenant of the Iphigenia^ 
32, he was present at the hard-wrought capture of the French 
36 gun frigate. Inconstant, 25th Noy. 1793. In 1794 he served 
in the Europa, in which ship he saw much active service on the 
coast of St. Domingo, and was present at the capture of Port 
au Prince. He became post-captain Dec. 16th, 1794, and on 
July 30th, 1795, was appointed to the Prince of Wales, 98, 
bearing the flag of his uncle. Admiral Sir Henry Harvey ; under 
whom he served at the reduction of the island of Trinidad, in 
February 1797. As captain of the Amphitrite, he assisted, in 
March 1801, at the reduction of the Virgin Islands, by the 
military and naval forces under General Trigge and Admiral 
Duckworth. Four years later, after various important services, 
he took part, as captain of the Agamemnon, 64, in Sir Robert 
Calder's action with the combined squadrons of France and 
Spain (July 22nd, 1805); and in the following August was 
present in the attack by the veteran Cornwallis on the rear of 
the Brest fleet in Berth eaume Bay. He afterwards, in June, 


2IO History of Walmer. 

1809, commanded the Leviathan^ 74, on the Mediterranean 
station ; and on October 25th assisted in driving ashore, near 
the mouth of the Rhone, three French line-of-battle ships and 
a frigate. In the summer of 1810 his ship had her mainmast 
shivered by lightning. He was next appointed, in October of 
the latter year, to the Royal Sovereign, 110, employed in the 
blockade of Toulon; and on August 12th, 1812, obtained the 
command of one of the Royal Yachts. On December 4th, 
1813, he was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral ; and two 
years later hoisted his flag on the Antelope^ 50, as Commander- 
in-Chief at the Leeward Islands. He arrived at Barbadoes on 
March 2nd, 1816, and retained the appointment for three years. 
He became vice-admiral 27th May, 1825 ; promoted K.C.B. in 
June, 1833, and Admiral of the Blue, 10th January, 1837. He 
died at the Oaks, Upper Deal, February 17th, 1837. 

Admiral Sir Edward Harvey was the third son of Captain 
John Harvey. As midshipman of the Prince of Wales, a second- 
rate bearing the flag of his uncle. Sir Henry Harvey, K.B., and 
commanded by his brother. Captain John Harvey, afterwards Sir 
John Harvey, K.C.B. , he was present at the taking of the island 
of Trinidad, as well as at the destruction of a Spanish squadron, 
consisting of four line-of-battle ships and a frigate, in Chaguara- 
mus Bay, in February, 1797. On Oct. 11th, 1797, in the 
Beaulieu, 40 gun frigate, he shared in the action off Camper- 
down, in which the Dutch fleet was destroyed ; and in 1801, as 
lieutenant of the Souihampion, he took part in the reduction of 
the Spanish and Swedish West India Islands. In the following 
year he was appointed to the Apollo, 36, which was lost on the 
coast of Portugal on April 2nd, 1804, during a heavy gale, in 
which about forty merchantmen were also wrecked on the 
neighbouring beach. The Apollo lost 61 officers and men. 
Subsequently as commander he performed many important 
services, and. in 1840, took part in the operations on the coast 
of Syria and the blockade of Alexandria, for which he was 
rewarded by the Grand Seignior with a gold medal, sabre, and 
decoration. As a rear-admiral he was second in command of 
the Mediterranean fleet, and superintendent of Malta Dockyard, 
from 1848 to 1853; and as a vice and full admiral was com- 
mander-in-chief at the Nore from 1857 till 1860. He received 
a good service pension as an admiral ; and was rewarded by 

Her Majesty for his long and distinguished services by being 
nominated a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath. He died at 
Walmer on the fourth of May, 1865, aged 82 years. 

Admiral William Willmot Hendersos. c.b., k.h. 

Admiral Henderson, who died at sea on July I2th, 1854. in 
his 66th year, first served in the navy in May, 1799, on board 
the Royal George, 100 guns, the flag-ship of Lord Bridport. 
In the Bttlcisle, 74, Capt. Wm. Hargood, he took part in Lord 
Nelson's pursuit of the combined squadrons to the W, Indies, 
and afterwards in the Battle of Trafalgar. Amongst other 
actions in which he subsequently distinguished himself, being 
then a lieutenant, was that at Lissa, where, with an armament of 
X56 guns and 879 men, the British inflicted a signal defeat on a 
Fran CO- Venetian armament of 284 guns and 2,655 men, the 
battle lasting for six hours. For his part in this victory, 
Lieutenant Henderson was rewarded with the rank of com- 
mander, his comraision being antedated to the, day of the 
victory; he having in the meanwhile figured conspicuously at 
Ragosniza, where a British force of three gun-boats and 300 
troops, captured and destroyed a convoy of 28 sail. On his 
return home from the scene of these exploits in the Pomoni, 38, 
Captain R. Barrie, he was wrecked off the Needles, October 
14th. 1811. Two years later we find him engaged in convoying 
merchantmen to the West Indies; and in August, 1815, he 
assisted at the reduction of the French island of Guadeloupe. 
He attained post-rank October 9th, 1815 ; and was created a 
Knight of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, on January 13th, 
1835. On July 25th, 1837, he was appointed to the Edinburgh, 
72 ; in which ship he took part, some three years later, in the 
operations on the coast of Syria, including the bombardment of 
Acre. For these services he was rewarded (December 18th. 
1840) with the Companionship of the Bath, and the Turkish 
Order of Honour. As a rear-admiral he held the chief command 
of Her Majesty's naval forces on the south-east coast of South 
America. Admiral Henderson was a magistrate for the Cinque 
Forts, and held the captaincy of Sandown Castle from 1848 to 


212 History of Walmer. 

Admiral Sir John Hill. 

This distinguished officer entered the navy on September 
25th, 1781, as a first-class volunteer on board H.M. bomb., 
Infernal^ commanded by his uncle, Captain James Alms ; and 
on April 20th, 1788, joined the sloop, Nautilus^ Captain Thomas 
Bouldcn Thompson, stationed at Newfoundland. He was 
advanced to the rank of lieutenant on July 28th, 1794. At the 
battle of the Nile, August 1st, 1798. he was senior lieutenant of 
the Minotuar^ 74 ; and for his services on that memorable 
occasion was rewarded with the rank of commander, by 
commission dated the following October 8th. In 1801 he 
served with the army in Egypt, under Sir Ralph Abercrombie. 
On March 24th, 1813, he was appointed to an Agency for 
Transports ; and he discharged the duties connected with that 
office for a considerable length of time in the Baltic, and on the 
coasts of Holland and France. He attained post-rank October 
28th, 1815, about which time he served at Ostend under the 
Duke of Wellington ; and afterwards, by special request of the 
Duke, at Calais, as Captain and Resident for three years, until 
the return of the British troops from France in 1818. In 1820 
Captain Hill was appointed Superintendent of the Victualling 
Yard at Deptford, which post he held for nearly 18 years ; being 
appointed Superintendent of Sheemess Dockyard, March 9th, 
1838; and, a second time, to Deptford, December 11th, 1841. 
**In addition to naval service," writes his daughter, the late Miss 
Lucy Hill, ** my father was employed on three special missions to 
Ireland and Scotland under the Treasury, and on several secret 
and confidential services under the Admiralty. He had the 
honour to receive the approbation of H.M. King William IV., 
and Knighthood, on his return from special mission to Ireland^ 
August 31st, 1831 ; and also the approbation of H.M. Qaeen 
Victoria, on his return from special mission to Scotland in 1837." 
Sir John Hill was appointed captain of Sandown Castle, 20th 
September. 1851 ; and in the same year a magistrate for the 
Cinque Ports, and Commissioner of Salvage. He died at 
Walmer Lodge, January 20th, 1855, at the age of 81 years; 
leaving a widow, Lucy, {nie Swinburne, and widow of Joseph 
Barrett, Esq.) who survived him nearly eight years, and died at 
Walmer Lodge, September 2nd 1862, at the great age of 97 

History of Wahner. 

General Sir R. J. Hughes, k.c.b. 
General Hughes served in the Crimea 1855-56 and took 
part in the occupation of Kertch, for which he received the 4th 
Class of the Medjidie and Turkish medal ; he commanded 
SDCcessively the 88th, Connaught Rangers, and the 63rd, West 
Suffolk Regiment. In the Afghan War of 1878-80 he commanded 
a Brigade under Sir Donald Stewart, G.C.B., conducted the 
operations beyond Khelat-i-Ghilzie and fought at Shahjui, being 
in supreme command, and received the thanks of the Governor 
General in Council. Subsequently he shared in the memorable 
march from Candahar to Cabul, the battle of Ahmed Kheyl and 
the action of Ozoo ; commanded the Ghuznee Field Force : and 
for his services was mentioned in despatches and rewarded with 
the Companionship of the Bath, receiving the Afghan War Medal 
1878-80, with clasp for Ahmed Kheyl. From 1880-83 he com- 
manded the Presidency District of Bengal. General Hughes 
was nominated a K.C.B. May 26th, 1894. 

Colonel John Philip Hont, c.b. 
The following particulars of Colonel Hunt's services have 
been extracted from the Gentleman's Magazine ; — " This gallant 
officer entered the army in 1799, accompanied the 52nd Regt. 
to the Ferrol in 1800, and was present in the action of the 
Heights. He accompanied Sir John Moore as his aide-de-camp 
in the expedition to Sweden, and afterwards to Portugal, and 
served throughout that arduous campaign until the embarkation 
of the troops at Corunna. He also served with the 2nd Battalion 
during the Walcheren campaign. In January, 1811, he embarked 
for the Peninsula, and was present in the pursuit of Massena. 
the action of Sabugal, the battle of Fuentes D'Onor, and 'all 
the various affairs in which the Light Division was engaged in 
that campaign ; during the last three months of which, and at 
the affair at Alfayates, he commanded the second Battalion. 
He commanded the 1st Battalion at the siege and assault of 
Badajoz, on which occasion the command of the 2nd Brigade of 
the Light Infanlry devolved on him ; and for his conduct on 
that day he was promoted to the brevet rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. He commanded the same brigade when the army 
went to repel Marshall Marmont from his predatory incursion 
JBto Portugal ; commanded the 1 st battalion of the 5!^nd 

214 History of Wa Inter. 

throughout the campaign of 1812. including the battle of 
Salamanca and the action of San Munos, and served with the 
Light Division during the operations of Marshall Soult to 
relieve Pampeluna. In 1813 he commanded the volunteers of 
the Light Division at the assault of San Sebastian, and was 
twice severely wounded ; and for his conduct on that occasion 
he was promoted to an effective lieutenant-colonelcy in the 60th. 
Colonel Hunt died at Walmer, Nov. 26th, 1858, aged 77 years. 
He had received the gold medal and three clasps, and the silver 
medal and two clasps for his services in the Peninsula, which 
were also rewarded with the Companionship of the Bath." 

Admiral Sir Richard Lek, k.c.b. 

This officer commenced his naval career in 1777, serving in 
the sloop, Spccdtvell, under Captain John Harvey, whose name 
is so gloriously associated with the first of June ; and in 1780 he 
took part, in the Triumph, 74, in Sir G. B. Rodney's actions of 
May 15th and 19th. In the same vessel he proceeded to the 
relief of New York, and having assisted on the passage in the 
recapture of the Lion, an armed Jamaican, was put in charge of 
her as prize-master. Some important services, now rendered by 
him, gained the commendation of Sir G. B. Rodney, and his 
promotion to the rank of lieutenant ; together with the thanks 
of the merchants of New York, who awarded him a handsome 
present. In 1782, Lieutenant Lee was present with Lord 
Hervcy in the Raisonable, 64, at the relief of Gibraltar, as well 
as at the subsequent action off Cape Spartel. Later on, when 
commander, he assisted under Admiral McBride at the defence of 
Nii^port ; and obtained his commission as post-captain, June 
7th, 1794. On March 29th, 1802, he lost his ship, the Assistance, 
50, by shipwreck, between Dunkirk and Gravelines. In 1805 he 
obtained the command of the Courageux, a third-rate, in which 
he assisted Sir R. J. Strachan's squadron in the capture, off 
Cape Ortegal, of four French line-of-battle ships. For his 
services on this occasion he was honoured with the thanks of 
Parliament, and was presented with a sword of the valae of 
£100, by the committee of the Patriotic Fund. Captain Lee 
subsequently joined the squadron under Sir Samuel Hood, in 
the Monarchy 74 ; and bore a prominent part in the engagement 
of September 25th, 1806, with five frigates and two brigs; on 

History of Walmer. 215 

-which occasion, being in advance with the Monarchy he engaged 
three frigates in close action for more than two hours, capturing 
two of them, VArmide and La Minerve, The third frigate, 
which made oflf on the approach of Sir Samuel Hood, was 
subsequently taken by the Centaur and Mars ; the latter of 
which had also previously captured L' Indefatigable, In this 
action Sir Samuel Hood lost his right arm ; while Captain Lee's 
ship was so shattered that the prisoners had to be taken on 
board another vessel. Later on, Captain Lee was engaged at 
the blockade of the Tagus, and escorted the royal family of 
Portugal and their attendants to South America ; and, in 1809, he 
assisted in the occupation of the island of Walcheren by the 
forces under Sir R. J. Strachan and the Earl of Chatham. He 
was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral on August 12th, 1812 ; 
and nominated a K.C.B. on January 2nd, 1815 ; while on 
the following 31st of May the Knight Commandership of the 
Portuguese Order of the Tower and Sword, was, with the royal 
license, conferred upon him, ** in testimony of the high sense 
which the Prince Regent of Portugal entertains of his great 
merit, and of the services rendered by him to the House of 
Braganza." On July 19th, 1821, he was advanced to the rank 
of vice-admiral, and at the time of his death, which took place 
August 5th, 1837, was an Admiral of the Blue. His wife, 
Elizabeth Honora, was a sister of Admiral Sir Thomas Baker, 
K.C.B. ; she died at Walmer on May 8th, 1860, at the advanced 
age of 92 years. 

Captain Richard Budd Vincent, c.b. 

Captain Richard Budd' Vincent was a native of Newbury, 
Bucks, and first served in the navy under Vice-Admiral Barrmg- 
ton, whom he accompanied in the fiag-ship, Britannia^ to the 
relief of Gibraltar in 1782, In the partial action off Cape 
Spartel, on October 29th, between Lord Howe's fleet and the 
combined squadrons, the Britannia played a prominent part, 
her loss on that occasion being eight men killed and 13 
wounded. Mr. Vincent was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, 
November 3rd, 1790, In 1793 he was present with Lord 
Howe's fleet off Toulon in the Terrible^ 74, in which also he 
served during the siege of Corsica. At the mutiny at the Nore 
in 1797 he had charge of the Triumph^ 74 ; and his judicious 

2i6 History of Walmer. 

conduct on that occasion added considerably to his previous- 
reputation. On April 29th, 1802, he was promoted to the rank 
of commander ; and, on May 17th, following, obtained the 
command of the Arrow, mounting twenty-eight 32-pounders ; 
with which vessel he was employed in the repression of the 
contraband trade on the coast of Devon. The Arrow was paid 
off Februar}', 1803, but shortly afterwards was again com- 
missioned under Commander Vincent ; who for several important 
services rendered with her, chiefly in convoying merchantmen 
to and from the Mediterranean, received the high commendation 
of the illustrious Nelson. About this time he was presented at 
Constantinople with a valuable sabre by the Capitan Pacha. 
The incident referred to on his tablet in Walmer Church, also- 
took place about this date. It was at daybreak on February 3rd, 
1805, while Commander Vincent, in the Arrow, was on his way 
from Malta to England with a large convoy, and having under 
his command the bomb Acheron, Commander Farquhar, that the 
French frigates, VHoriense and U Incorruptible, belonging to the 
Toulon fleet, appeared in sight and commenced the chase* 
which lasted till late the following day, and terminated in a 
desperate engagement and the loss of both the Arrow and the 
Acheron, The Arrow did not strike her colours till she was 
thoroughly crippled ; her running rigging having been shot to 
pieces, her lower masts badly injured, her standing rigging 
much cut, her steering apparatus disabled, and several of her 
guns dismounted ; while she had received so many shot between 
wind and water, as to render her unsafe. Of her crew of 125 
men and boys (several invalid gentlemen, and a lady and her 
female attendant, being also on board), 13 were killed and 27 
wounded. The survivors had to be taken off in the enemy's 
boats, those of the Arrow having been too much injured. 
Captain Vincent remained a prisoner till the following May, 
when, with his crew and passengers, he was released and con- 
veyed to Gibraltar, a brig having been supplied for that purpose 
by Lord Nelson. On his return to England in the month of 
June, he was tried by Court-Martial for the loss of the Arrow, 
and "most honourably acquitted." Two days after, he was 
raised to post-rank by commission dated April 8th, 1805, and, 
three months later, the following resolution was passed by the 
committee of the Patriotic Fund : — " That a sword of the value 

History of Walmer. 217 

-■--—- — 

of £100, or that sum of money, at his option, be presented to 
Captain Richard Budd Vincent, acting as Commodore on the 
occasion, for so nobly supporting the honour of the British flag, 
and successfully protecting the convoy under his care," The 
merchants trading to the south of Europe presented him with a 
farther sum of £50 ; whilst, three or four years later, the 
merchants of Malta presented him with a valuable service of plate, 
in commemoration of the same event. He was nominated a 
Companion of the Bath in June, 1815, and retired from active 
service in the following year. He married July, 1805, Philippa, 
youngest daugher of Captain Richard Norbury, R.N., of Droit- 
wich, CO. Worcester; and died 18th, August, 1831, aged 64 



Flota — Sea-wee<i5 — Zoophyies — I^epidoptera — Shdla. 


(The following is the substance of a Paper on the local Flora, by 

ike Sen. C. R. S. Elvin, reid at a Meeting of the Deal and 

Walmer Teachers' Guild, on March ith, 1890.^ 

IF there is a spot in the British Isles where the local 
botanist can revel in "specimens," it is the south-east 
corner of Kent. Variety of soil and situation imply botanical 

variety as well, and there is scarcely a spot in the king'dom 
whose natural features are more diverse and distinct. 

A few words as to the soil of this neighbourhood. To the 
southward and westward there are the chalky cliffs and downs, 
rising to a considerable height, and broken by gravelly and loamy 
valleys, with here and there even a clayey spot ; a kind of loamy 
basin forms the site of Lower Walmer and Deal, and this 
stretches away northward to the sandhills and marshes of 
Sholden and Worth ; while further north still are the salt- 
marshes of Sandwich ; and, inland, the peaty bogs of Ham. 

And then as to situation. Our maritime position is an 
important factor which must not be overlooked ; nor should we 
forget such an important circumstance as the contiguity of the 
continent of Europe ; broken no doubt far back in the ages, bat 
with results that are stilt apparent, both in the plants and fauna 
of this district. 

Then, too, there are other influences which might easily 
be enumerated, such, for instance, as the effects of cultivation, 
especially on land like that round Sandwich, which has been 
reclaimed from the sea in comparatively recent times ; but the 
catalogue is sufficiently complete. 

History of Walmer. 



To sum up, ihereTore, we have hill and dale, open down, 
both wild and cultivated, cornfields and woodland, shingle and 
sand, gravel and clay, salt-raarsh and peaty bog, rich loamy 
meadows and bare rugged chalk ; variety enough to excite the 
keenest expectation. 

Now as to the facts. It has been computed that the average 
number of species produced by any single county is less than 
half the total number of species found in our island. Weill 
this district alone has about five hundred species, and all within 
a radius of seven miles from Walmer ; not a bad number when 
we recollect that all the British species together amount to under 
eighteen hundred. And if we e.ttend our observations a few 
miles further, llie local list will be easily increased to a very 
considerable extent. A walk in any direction, at the proper 
season of the year, will afford abundant evidence that our local 
flora is both rich and varied ; but the most productive localities 
are the shingle and undercliff at Kingsdown and St. Margaret's, 
the sandhills, the marshes, and last, but by no means least, the 
part known as Ham Ponds. But, without going so far afield, 
there is much that is interesting, and a good sprinkling of the 
rare, in the fields and on the downs immediately round Walmer ; 
while even such unpromising habitats as the walls of Deal 
Castle, and the land and roadway immediately contiguous, are 
Sot without their botanical treasures. But let us pass on to a 
jnoie detailed account of the principal species, taking tbem as 
far as possible according to their seasons, and beginning with 
'lovely Spring : — 

" When daisies pied, and violets blue. 
And ladysmocks all silver while. 
And cuckoo-buds of yellow hue. 

Do paint the meadows with dchght." 
the first to appear, flowering in genial seasons, even 
d nestling in the shelter of thorny bank or thick-set 
le Wood Anemone {A Nemorosd) with its favorite 
contemporaries, the Primrose, the Violet, and the Lesser 
Celandine {R. Ficaria) ; the last-named setting every batik aglow 
with the golden hue of its glossy star-like flowers. About the 
same time appears another flower, the Coltsfoot {T. far/ara), 
obnoxious enough to the farmer, but interesting to the botanist. being one of the few plants whose flowers appear before the 

in Mai 

coppice, i 

220 History of W aimer. 

|f:av^H, The feathery pappus, by means of which the seecb of 
thU plant an: wafted far and wide, is much used by the goldfinch 
for linin|{ itM neftt, and ruhtics manufacture a potent reme^ for 
iA)\\y^\\% from itft cottony leaves. The Marsh Marigold {jCaUka 
paluxtrii)^ whoHe golden flowers bedeck the sides of streams and 
dykeH at thJM time, Ih a well-known favorite ; and wanderers in 
tlie MandhillH are ac(|uaintcd with the humble Danish Scarvj- 
graMH (6*. J)amca\ wliicli takes its name from its anti-scorbatic 
pro|)ertieH. TheHc are some of the chief productions of March ; 
all common flowers, but nil beautiful and welcome; natnre 
reserves her rarities for more genial weather. 

We come now to April, when the meadows are speckled 
with Cuckoo flowers {Cardamine praUnsis), and the banks reflect 
the azure of the sky in brilliant patches of Ground Ivy 
{N, Ultchoma) ; when, too, the earliest of the future harvest of 
native orchids begin to appear ; the Early Purple Orchis 
{(), Mascula)^ which mingles in woods and meadows with the 
Wild Hyacinth and Dog Mercury ; and the Early Spider Orchis 
{O, aranifera), which, in some seasons, occurs in great abund- 
ance on the neighbouring clitVs. 

In May the floral treasures become more numerous. Then 
the woods at Waldershare prvvluce the curious Herb-Paris, 
known to country-folk by the poeiical name of True-Love-Knot, 
and to the prosaic botanist as Pans quadri/olia. Then, too, 
begins the great harvest of orchids ; O. Alarw appears in 
meadows, together with the commoner O. macula/ay and the 
mimetic (>, w^aVaVu. or FIv Orv^his : the woods at Waldershare, 
Betteshanger, KvthvHuo and Oxney, produce the WTiite HeUe- 
borine ^^\ ^'u*iui/i^/.*it^^ ihe graceful Tway-blade (Zir/rra oua/a), 
the scaly Wai'lesijii luivls* Nest Oa^his v.*'^". JVliik^tRrtir), and the 
military (>./k>vi4 ; v^hilo v'^n the neighbouring downs is found the 
equally rare O. u^iuSu.\i. Alter such u catalogue of real treasures, 
it is a work oi: su^vr^^rv^gution to speak of Ragged Robins^ 
Stitch worts* Spc<\lwellsx auvi mjiny o:her common species*, whidt 
bedeck the marshes^ j^rv^v^s and banks in everr directtoa ; 
feel inclined lo pass by ^nh^^^.ie^i the Common 
{F. vui^ans\ the Kue-leavevi Sa.vj>age ^^. :r:tiizaii£tiat% 
Marsh Fenny ;vorc ^AT. :;ui^;^:;i\ ilie Common -^rTfiM 
(5L <jtU£airuM^, the Meadow Bugle ^*:t. '^pnets^ : aoii <lm 
Traveller' 5 Joy i^C. r//tt/.dw\ which in Aucuma nroiiers t&r fen 

History of Waltner. 221 

hoary with its withered achenes. There are, however, one or 
two more plants of the less-known sort that remain to be 
noticed under this month ; such, for instance, as the Sea Buck- 
thorn, or Sallow Thorn {^H, Rhamnoides), whose narrow silvery 
leaves are conspicuous on the sandhills ; the Vernal Callitriche, 
or Water Starwort (C Vema), which graces every dyke ; the 
Broad-leaved Garlic {A» ursinum), which you may mistake at 
Waldershare, but only in the distance, for the Lily of the Valley; 
and the beautiful Spring Vetch ( V, lathyroides\ whose dwarfish 
form embellishes the meadow around Deal Castle. 

Yet all these treasures are but the first-fruits, in comparison 
with the floral wealth that awaits the plant-lover, in the three or 
four following months. In June. July, and August, there is 
scarcely a spot on cliff or down, on shingle or sand, or even in 
the lonely dykes, that does not teem with vegetable life. 
Whichever way we turn, we find the most ample material for 
investigation — and quality no less than quantity. Even the very 
poppies of this district are characteristic ; and the Common Red 
is, to a great extent, replaced by the beautiful crimson of the 
rarer P» Argemone^ and the still deeper hue of P, hyhridum and 
P, dubium. Then, too, on the shingle above high-water mark, 
we meet with the large Yellow Horned Poppy {G, luieum), the 
delicate colour of whose flowers blends well with its hoary, 
glaucous foliage. Visit the marshes, and you will now find 
every dyke covered from bank to bank with the white flowers of 
the curious Water Buttercup {R, aquatilis) ; while, springing up 
here and there, are large patches of Water Violet (ZT. palusiris), 
with its whorls of pink and yellow flowers : there, too, you will 
find the wonderful Bladderwort {U, vulgaris), which spends the 
greater part of its life at the bottom of the water ; but now 
develops numbers of small air-bladders, and, rising to the 
surface, flowers in the genial air of June. Visit the cliffs, and 
you will find in greatest plenty the lemon-coloured flowers of 
the Sea Cabbage {B, oleracea) — parent of all the garden varieties ; 
and the dry-looking heads of the Carline Thistle (C vulgafis\ 
whose glossy straw-coloured involucral scales — which look like 
petals and remind us of everlastings — are lying flat in the sun- 
shine, but on the approach of moisture will rise and form a sort 
of pent-house over the enclosed florets. Turn your steps to the 
Sandhills and there search for the rare Silene Conica, the 

222 History of Walmer. 

parasitic Broom-rapes, the Sea-side Stork's-bill {^E, Mariiimum\ 
the beautiful Sea Bindweed (C Soldanella) and the deadly 
Henbane {Hyoscyamus niger) ; the last named is a powerful 
narcotic and a useful member of the pharmacopeia. There, too, 
in damp spots amongst the sand you will find the curious Sub- 
terranean Clover (71 Suhterraneum), one of some ten or a dozen 
species of Trifolium to be found in this neighbourhood, and 
remarkable for the power with which nature has endowed it of 
burying its own seeds in the adjacent soil. Three other species 
of Trefoil should also be noticed as occurring there — the Straw- 
berry-headed Trefoil {T, fragiferum\ the Hop Trefoil {T. pro- 
cumbens), and the Hare's-foot Trefoil {T, arvense): all most 
appropriately named after their several characteristics. The 
leguminous plants are now indeed in the ascendant ; for what 
with the Prickly Rest Harrow {0» arvensis) ; the Spotted Medicks 
{M, maculaia, minima and denticulata) ; the handsome Kidney 
Vetch or Lady's Fingers (-4. Vulnerarid) ; the delicate creamy 
Birdsfoot, veined with crimson {0, perpusillus)\ the abundant 
Saint-foin {O, sativa), often cultivated for fodder; the several 
species of Vetch ; the twelve or more species of Trifolium^ 
already mentioned ; and some other members of this extensive 
family : it is scarcely possible to walk even a few yards without 
coming across some of them. Several more Orchids are also 
now to be found, commonest amongst them (9. laiifolia^ 
O, pyramidalis and the sweet-scented Gymnadenia Conopsea — the 
last is abundant at Knight's Bottom and Freedown — ; the 
rarer species being the Butterfly Orchis {H, hifolia) at Kings- 
down, the Musk Orchis (ZT. monorchis) at St. Margaret's, and the 
Man Orchis {A, anthropophord) at Northbourne. One more 
plant and then we will pass from the June list — the Nottingham 
Catch -fly (*$*. nutans) whose large white flowers may be found 
in abundance near Knight's Bottom ; the evening is the time 
when they expand, and then the air is sweet with their delicious 

Already we have sufficient indication of the richness of our 
local flora ; and yet we have not touched at all upon the later 
summer and autumn species, which are far too numerous to 
mention in any detail. However, a few of the more interesting 
species, which flower at this time, must be referred to. such as 
the Dianihus Caryophyllus — progenitor of all the Pinks and 

History of Walmer. 


Carnations in cultivation — which authorities are all agreed is 
found on the walls of Deal and Sandown Castles, but which I 
have not discovered, in spite of ample search, nearer than. 
Rochester Castle, Then, too. there is the uhiquilous Pellitory 
{P. officinalis), gifted as to its stamens with the wonderful power 
of springing outwards when touched and so shedding their 
pollen; and there also at Sandown is the Seaside Spurrey 
\S, Marina); while at Deal Castle, raising its golden heads a 
yard above the ramparts is the Spotted Hieraciam {H. Murorum) 
in luxuriant abundance. 

Nor can we leave the marshes without another reference : 
now, indeed, is the time to sec them in all their glory! — 
Flowering Rush, Water Plantains, Buckbean, Arrowheads, Cats- 
tails, Meadow-sweet, Bur-reeds, St, John's Worts, Duckweeds, 
learwoits. Willow Herbs, Pondweeds, Loose-strife, Flea-bane, 
Ragworts, Forget-me-not. Red-ratt!e. Gipsy-wort, and many 
Other things of more or less interest all bursting into bloom 
together, and converting those desolate places into a veritable 
Eden. At one spot at Ham Ponds the Kracefu! form of the 
Marsh Buckler Fern {Aspidium TMypteris) is to be found; and 
^in several places between Deal and Sandwich, the dyke sides are 
completely covered with the Marsh Mallow [^A . officinatii), noted 
for its velvety leaves and blush-coloured flowers, 

plant immortalized by Shakespeare is the Samphire 
{J^rithmum marilimum), which the cliffs produce in plenty; it 
makes the best of pickles, though the far inferior Glasswort 
(iS. htrbacea) of the sail marshes is often substituted for it. While 
cliffs, you may gather the beautiful Sea Lavender 
[!(jS. himruosa) ; and close by on the shingle the Seaside Ever- 
itasling Pea (£. maritimus), resplendent with its purple flowers 
♦ariegated with crimson and blue. The walk homewards will 
:give you the Rock Rose {H. vulgare), the Rose-coloured 
Centaury {E. Ceniaurium), the Yellow-wort (C. ptrfoliata), the 
Blue Chicory (C7, Inlybus), Devil's-bit Scabious {S. sucdsa), and 
Bluebottle (C. cyanus), the purple Knapweed (C. Scabiosa), the 
hoary Ragwort {S. Unuifolius), two or three species of 
Stone-crop, the pink and blue Bugloss {E. vulgare) the lurid 
Houndstongue {C qfficinah). and Vervain {V. officinalis), in- 
gredient in the mystic bowl believed to be so potent against 
witches. Many of these endure throughout August and Septem- 

224 History of Waltner. 

ber, in more or less profusion. Another remarkable plant to be 
seen in August, and which will repay a walk of four miles out to 
its habitat, northward of No. 2 Battery, is the Sea Holly 
{^E, maniimum\ a rigid glaucous plant, with curious thistle-like 
heads, which, nevertheless, belongs to the Umbelliferae. This, 
too, is the time to find the Chenopodium olidum^ or stinking 
Goosefoot, appropriately named, as all agree who once have 
touched it — a humble, innocent looking weed in gardens and by 
waysides near the sea, and much too plentiful ; it will impress 
itself on the memory of the unwary beyond all doubt. 
And now as the poet says : — 

"Autumn, nodding o'er the plain, 
Comes jovial on ; 
and still we linger in the fields, and pluck wild flowers on cliflf, 
and sand, and shingle. Now is the time for a late visit to the 
salt marshes. The spot to go to is Stonar, or go by boat to the 
mouth of the Stour, and cull as the reward of your toil, the 
Seaside Wormwood {A, inaritima\ the Starwort (-4. trifolium\ 
known in gardens as the Michaelmas Daisy, several Oraches, the 
Sea Healh {F, 1(bvis\ and the slender Hare's Ear {B. Unuissimum). 
It is too late now for other treasures which are to be found at 
these places in their proper season, such as the Great Sea 
Lavender (5. Ltmonium\ most showy of the genus, the Adder's 
Tongue Fern {0, vulgatum), the aromatic Caraway {Carum 
Carui), and the Callous-Fruited Dropwort {CEnanthe pimpin- 
elloides) ; but you may still discover the Grass Wrack (Z. Marina\ 
with its cord-like stems and grassy leaves, and the sea-side 
Trigloclin {T, mariiimuni). The last visits of the season should 
also now be paid to other favourite nooks. St. Margaret's Bay 
will yield the Golden Rod (.S*. Virgaurea) ; Kingsdown, the 
Ploughman's Spikenard (/. Conyzd) ; the Downs, the Autumn 
Gentian ((?. Amarella)\ while all along the undercliff will 
generally be found, in great profusion, the spiral flower-stalks of 
the graceful Ladies' Tresses {N, spiralis), with their delicate 
greenish flowers, fragrant in the evening. 

But October comes, and then our pleasant labours cease : 

" For now the leaf 
Incessant rustles from the mounful grove, 
Oft starting such as, studious, walk below, 
And slowly circles through the waving air, 

History of Walmer. 


Fled is the blasted verdure of the fields ; 
And, shrunk into their beds, the flowery race 
Their sunny robes resign." 

Except where the initials F.G.* occur after a species, the 
following list is the result of personal observation during a 
residence of eight years and upwards at Walmer. To keep it 
within limits those species which are of general occurrence have 
been, as far as possible, excluded. 

Aceras anthropophora 
Adoxa Moscatellina 
Agraphis nutans 
Agrimonia Eupatoria 
Alisma plantago 

„ ranunculoides 
Allium carinatum 

„ ursinum 

„ vineale 
Althaea officinalis 
Anagallis tenella 
Anthriscus vulgaris 
Anthyllis vulneraria 
Apargia autumnalis 

,, hispida 
Apium graveolens 
Arabis hirsuta 
Arenaria trinervis 
Armeria vulgaris 
Artemisia maritima 
„ vulgaris 
Asperula cynanchica 
Aspidium thelypteris 
Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum 
Aster Tripolium 
Astragalus glycophyllus, F.G. 

„ hypoglottis 

Atriplex angustifolia 







Atriplex hastata 
„ laciniata 
Barbarea vulgaris 
Bartsia Odontites 
Beta maritima 
Borago officinalis 
Brassica oleracea 
Bupleurum tenuissimum 
Butomus umbellatus 
Cakile maritima 
Calamintha Acinos 
Callitriche autumnalis 

„ verna 

Calluna vulgaris 
Calystegia Soldanella 
Carduus Marianus 

„ tenuiflorus 
Carex arenaria 
Carlina vulgaris 








* A Floral Guide for East Kent, etc., by Mr. H. Cowell, 1839. 



History of Walmer. 







Carum Carui 

Centaurea Calcitrapa, F.G. 
„ Scabiosa 
Centranthus ruber 
Cerastium arvense 
Ceratophyllum demersum 
Chelidonium majus 
Chenopodium album 

Chlora perfoliata 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthe- 

Cichorium Intybus 
Circsea lutetiana 
Cladium Mariscus 
Clematis Vitalba 
Cnicus acaulis 
Cochlearia danica 

,, officinalis 

Conium maculatum, F.G. 
Cornus sanguinea 
Cotyledon Umbellicus 
Crambe maritima 
Crepis biennis 





Crithmum maritimum 
Cuscuta Trifolii 
Cynoglossum officinale 
Daphne Laureola 
Dianthus Armeria 

„ Caryophyllus 
Diplotaxis muralis 








Diplotaxis tenuifolia 
Dipsacus pilosus 

„ sylvestris 
Echium vulgare 
Epilobium angustifolium 
Epipactis palustris 
Equisetum arvense 
Erigeron acris 
Eriophorum angustifolium 
Erodium cicutarium 
Eryngium maritimum 
Erythraea Centaurium 
Eupatorium cannabinum 
Euphrasia officinalis 
Fedia olitoria 
Filago germanica 

„ minima 
Foeniculum vulgare 
Frankenia laevis 
Galeopsis ladanum 
Galium erectum 
„ verum 
Gentiana Amarella 
Geranium sanguineum 
Glaucium luteum 
Glaux maritima 
Gymnadenia conopsea 
Habenaria bifolia 






History of Walmer. 




Helianthemum vulgare 
Helleborus viridis 
Helminthia echioides 
Herminium Monorchis 
Hieracium murorum 
Hippocrepis comosa 
Hippophae rhamnoides 
Hippuris vulgaris 
Honckenya peploides 
Hordeum maritimum 
Hottonia palustris 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris 
Hyoscyamus niger, F.G. 
Hypericum dubium 

Hypochoeris radicata 
Inula Conyza 
Iris Pseudacorus 
Isatis tinctoria 
Jasione montana, F.G. 
Juncus acutiflorus 
,, compressus 
„ squarrosus 
„ uliginosus 
Juniperus communis, F.G. 
Lactuca saligna 

„ virosa 
Lamium amplexicaule 

,, incisum 
Lathvrus maritimus 
sylvestris, F.G. 
Lavatera arborea 










• ♦ 



Lemna trisulca 
Lepidium latifolium 
Lepturus incurvatus 
Linaria Cymbalaria 
Linum angustifolium 
Liparis Loeselii 
Listera ovata 
Lithospermum arvense 

,, officinale 

Lotus major 
Lychnis Flos-cuculi 
Lycopus europaeus 
Lysimachia Nummularia 
Lythrum Salicaria 
Marrubium vulgare 
Medicago denticulala 

„ maculata 

,, minima 
Melilotus leucantha 

„ officinalis 
Mentha aquatica 
,, arvensis 
Menyanthes trifoliata 
Mercurialis annua 
Myriophyllum verticillatum 
Neottia spiralis 
Nuphar luteum 
Nymphaea alba 
CEnanthe fistulosa 

Onobrychis saliva 
Ononis arvensis 
Onopordum Acanthium 
Ophioglossum vulgatum 
Ophrys apifera 




History of Walmer. 





Ophrys aranifera 

„ muscifera 
Orchis fusca, F.G. 

,, latifolia 

„ maculata 

„ mascula 

„ Morio 

Origanum vulgare 
Orobanche caryophyllacea 
Papaver Argemone 

,, dubium 

„ hybridum 
Parietaria officinalis 
Paris quadrifolia, F.G. 
Pastinaca sativa 
Pedicularis palustris 
Petasites vulgaris 
Petroselinum sativum 
„ segetum 

Phalaris arundinacea 
Phleum arenarium 
Picris hieracioides 
Pimpinella saxifraga 
Plantago Coronopus 

Poa bulbosa 
Polygala vulgaris 
Polygonatum multiflorum 
Polypodium vulgare 
Potamogeton natans 

Poterium Sanguisorba 
Psama arenaria 
Pteris aquilina 
Pulicaria disenterica 





Ranunculus aquatilis 
„ sceleratus 

Reseda lutea 

,, luteola 
Rhamnus catharticus 
Rhinanthus Crista-galli 
Rosa villosa 
Rubia peregrina 
Rumex Hydrolapathum 
Sagina nodosa 
Sagittaria sagittifolia 
Salicomia herbacea 
Salix arenaria 
Salsola Kali 
Salvia pratensis 

„ Verbenaca 
Samolus Valerandi 
Sanicula Europaea 
Saxifraga tridactylites 
Scabiosa Columbaria 

n succisa 
Scandix pecten 
Scirpus carinatus 
y, paucifiorus 
„ pungens 
Scolopendrium vulgare 
Scrophularia aquatica 
Scutellaria galericulata 

«> minor 

Sedum acre 
Senecio aquaticus 







History of Walmer. 






Senecio sylvaticus 
„ tenuifolius 
Sherardia arvensis 
Silene conica 
„ nutans 
Sison Amomum 
Slum angustifolium 

„ latifolium 
Smyrnium Olusatrum 
Solanum dulcamara 

■ „ nigrum 
Solidago Virga-aurea 
Sparganium natans 

Spergula arvensis 
Spergularia marina 

„ rubra 

Spiraea Ulmaria 
Spiranthes autumnalis 
Stachys palustris 
„ sylvatica 
Statice binervosa 

„ Limonium, F.G. 
Stellaria glauca 

Suaeda maritima 
Tamarix anglica 
Tamus communis 
Tanacetum vulgare 
Teucrium Scorodonia 
Thlaspi arvense 
Thrincia hirta 
Thymus Serpyllum 
Torilis Anthriscus 












Torilis nodosa 
Tragopogon pratensis 
Trifolium arvense 
Triglochin maritimum 

,. palustre 

Trigonella ornithopodioides 
Triticum junceum 
Tussilago farfara 
Typha angustifolia 

,, lati folia 
Ulex Europaeus 
Utricularia minor 

,, vulgaris 

Valeriana dioica 

,, officinalis 
Verbascum Thapsus 
Verbena officinalis 
Veronica Beecabunga 

,, Buxbaumii 
Viburnum Lantana 
Vicia Cracca 
„ lathyroides 
„ sativa 
,, sylvatica 
Vinca major 
„ minor 
Viola hirta 
Zostera marina 



History of J^almer. 


There are doubtless many places that offer greater facilities 
for a study of the British Marine Algae than Walmer, though 
this is not nearly so unfavourable a centre as it appears on a first 
acquaintance. A visit to the rocks at Kingsdown will give 
ample employment, while a search along the shore at Walmer 
itself will prove anything but fruitless. The following list 
contains the names of those species only which have been 
picked up here, detached from their moorings — for seaweeds 
have no roots — and thrown tip by the waves. 



Callithamnion pedicellatum 

Ceramium decurrens 


Chondrus crispus 

Chorda filum 

Chylocladia articulata 

Cladophora flexuosa 
„ laetevirens 

„ rupestris 

Corallina officinalis 

Cystoceira ericoides 

Dasya coccinea 
„ ocellata 

Delesseria alata 


san guinea 
„ ruscifolia 

Desmarestia aculeata 
Dictyota dichotoma 
Ectocarpus siliculosa 
„ littoralis 

Enteromorpha compressa 
„ intestinalis 

„ percursa 

Fucus canaliculatus 




Furcellaria fastigiata 
Griffithsia equisetifolia 

„ setacea 
Gymnogongrus plicatus 
Halidrys siliquosa 
Himanthalia lorea 
Laminaria digitata 

„ saccharina 
Laurencia caespitosa 
Nitophyllum laceratum 
„ Versicolor 

Phyllophora rubens 
Plocamium coccineum 
Polyides rotundus 
Polysiphonia elongata 

„ nigrescens 

Ptilota sericea 
Rhodomela subfusca 

„ lycopodioides 

Rhodymenia ciliata 

Ulva latissima 







History of Walnier. 


The lover of ihe marvellous will find no more fascinating 
study than that of the British Zoophytes ; yet hew Tew, com- 
paratively, give any heed to these gems of creative wisdom. 
What proportion of those who wander on the sea-shore, for 
recreation and amusement, can even distinguish a zoophyte from 
a sea-weed ? Yet in these days there is very little excuse for 
such ignorance, though it is not very long ago that it was truly 

" Involved in sea-wrack, here you find a race. 

Which Science, doubling, knows not where to place." 
Those who have not hitherto investigated this subject, should 
do so at the earliest opportunity. Let them go to the beach 
and search for one of those tubular clusters, for instance, so 
commonly washed up after a storm, and which are readily 
distinguished from their resemblance to an aggregation of 
"oaten pipes" — the Tubularia indivisa of Linnaus. In its 
living stale each tube is occupied by an inmate, whose ruddy 
head, with its numerous radiating tentacles, or feelers, looks very 
like a composite flower of extreme delicacy and beauty. There 
will be no difficulty in securing a specimen recently detached 
from the neighbouring " rocks." Take it home and introduce 
it into the marine aquarium — which you either have or ought to 
have in your possession, if you live by the sea-side — and you will 
be able, in all probability, to witness an instance of the marvellous 
recuperative power possessed by many of the lower forms of life. 
A specimen thus obtained will flourish for a time, but soon grows 
sickly, when its heads begin to droop, and at length one by one 
fall off. Your first impulse will naturally be to remove the 
apparently lifeless object; but wait awhile, and soon you may 
observe new signs of life at the extremities of some of the tubes. 
When this is the case a few hours will suffice to completely 
develop new heads, which will be protruded from the tubes, fully 
furnished with tentacles, and in every way as complete and 
vigorous as ever were their predecessors. But we must leave 
these wonders and be content with a bare list of the principal 
species to be met with here, either washed up, or on the rocks 
at Kingsdown. 

Actinea equina Aglaophenia pluma 

Adamsia Rondeletii Alcyonidiura gelalinosum 


History of Walmer. 

Alcyonidium hirsutum 
», parasiticum 

Alcyonium digitatum 

Arnathia lendigera 

Antennularia antennina 
„ ramosa 

Bowerbankia imbricata 

Bugula p]umosa 

Caberia Ellisii 

Cellaria fistulosa 

Cellepora ramulosa 

Crisia cornuta 


Diastopora obelia 

Eudendrium rameum 

Flustra foliacea 
„ papyracea 

Halecium halecinum 



Hydrallmania falcata 
Membranipora pilosa 
Microporella ciliata 
Notamia bursaria 
Obelia geniculata 
Schizoporella linearis 

„ unicornis 

Scrupocellaria reptans 

„ scruposa 

Sertularia abietina 
Sertularella rugosa 
Tealia crassicornis 
Tubularia indivisa 

,, larynx 
Tubulipora fiabellaris 
Vesicularia spinosa 





A complete list of all the species found in this district 
would probably include nearly three-quarters of the whole 
British List, there being so many species that are generally 
distributed. The following list, therefore, for which I am 
indebted to Geo. W. Bird, Esq., of West Wickham, merely 
includes some seventy species, which are amongst the rarest and 
most local of those that occur in East Kent, between Folkestone 
and Sandwich — several of them having been taken nowhere else 
in the British Isles. 

Aporia crataegi 
Pieris Daplidice 
Colias Hyale 


Colias Edusa v. Helice 
Argynnis Latona 
Melitaea artemis 
Melanargia Galatea 


Deilephila Galii 
Macroglossa Bombyliformis 
Sesia Ichneumoniformis 

Sesia Chrysidiformis 
Nola Centonalis 
Lithosia Pygmaeola 



W 1 

of Walnur. 233 ^^k 

Deiopeia Pulchella 

Epischnia Farrella ^^k 

Callimorpha Dominula 

Myelois Ceratoniie ^H 

Pygjera Anachoreta 

Nyctegretes Achatinella ^^H 

Leucaoia Vitellina 

Ephestta Passuletla ^^^^H 

„ Albipuncta 

Gymnancycta Canella .^^^^^^H 

Tapinostola Bondii 

Oncocera Ahenella ^^^^H 

„ Sparganii 

Melissoblaptes Anellus ^^^^^H 

Dianthoecia Albimacula 

Sericoris Euphorbiana , ^^^^^^^| 

Plusia Orichalcea 


Eugonia Alniaria 

Cnephasia Cinctana ^^^^^^| 

Acidalia Ochrata 

Bactra Furfurana ^^^^H 


Grapholitha Cascana ^^H 


Stigmonota Leplastrierana ^H 

Aplasia Ononaria 

Catoptria Microgrammana ^^| 

Cidaria Suffumata 

Euptccilia Mtissehliana ^^| 

Odontia Dentalis 

Flavicillana ■ 

^^ Mecyna Polygotialis 

Diplodoma Marginepunctella ^H 

^L Spilodes Palealis 

Tinea Simplicella B 

^^1 Fsamotis Putveralis 

Depressaria Depresaella ^H 

^^H Margarodes Uninalis 

Ultimella -^ 

^^K Flaptyptilia Zetterstedti 

Gelechia Hippophaella 

^^V Oxyphilus LxCus 


^^K AlimEeseoptUus Zophodactylu 

Lita Blandulella 

^^V LeiopCilus LienigiaDus 

Argyrites PJctella 

^H Chilo Cicatricellus 

Doryphora Palustrella " 

^^K Crambus Alpinellus 

Parasia Neuroplerella 

^H Fascelinellus 

Cedestris Gysselinella 

^H Salinellus 

Gracilaria Ononides 


Coleophora VulnerariK 


^^1 The rollowing list of shells, which are to be found in this 

^^V neighbourhood, includes altogether some ninety species, and 

^^t might no doubt be still further increased by closer investigation. 

^H A few land species, and some from the marshes have been 

^^K included, but by far the greater number are marine. The most 

^K productive locality is of c 

ourse Pegwell Bay, where many 

^^H beautiful specimens may be 

obtained by means of dredging. 

^B Some parts of the shore are i 

ndeed literally covered with dead 

^^B valves, and as many as seventy species may be picked up at one 


History of Walmer. 

spot close to No. 2 Battery. Amongst the species that ought to 
turn up, but which have hitherto escaped my observation, are 
Solen pellucidus — said to occur ''on the east coast, oj0f Kent" ; 
Leucina Leucoma^ which has been taken at Ramsgate ; Pisidium 
niiidumy a fresh-water species, said to occur at Sandwich ; and 
Littorina neriioideSy with regard to whose habitat " the rocky 
shores of Kent " are mentioned as likely, in Forbes and Hanley's 
British Mollusca, 

Aclis unica 
Adeorbis subcarinata 
Anomia ephippium 
Area lactea 
Bithinia tentaculata 
Buccinium undatum 
Caecum glabrum 
Cardium echinatum 

„ edule 

„ Norvegicum 
Cerithium reticulatum 
Chemnitzia formosa 
Chiton cinereus 
Corbula nucleus 
Cyclostoma elegans 
Cypraea Europaea 
Defrancia linealis 
Dentalium Tarentinum 
Donax anaticus 
Emarginula reticulata 
Fissurella reticulata 
Fusus antiquus 

„ Islandicus 
Helix Carthusiana 
Hydrobia ulvae 
Lacuna crassior 

„ vincta 
Limnaeus stagnalis 
Littorina littoralis 




Littorina rudis 
Lutraria elliptica 
Mactra elliptica 
„ solida 
„ stultorum 
Modiola modiolus 
Murex erinaceus 
Mya truncata 
Mytilus edulis 
Nassa incrassata 
„ reticulata 
Natica monilifera 

„ nitida 
Nucula nitida 
„ nuculus 
„ radiata 
Odostomia decussata 
„ dolioliformis 

„ spiralis 

Patella athletica 
Pecten opercularis 
Phansianella pulla 
Pholas Candida 
„ dactylus 
„ parva 
Planorbis comeus 








History of Walmer. 






Pleurostoma rufa 
Purpura lapillus 
Rissoa calathus 




Saxicava rugosa 
Scalaria clathratula 
„ communis 
Scrobicularia piperata 
Solen ensis 

„ siliqua 
Tapes puUastra 




Tapes virginea 
Tellina crassa 
Teredo navalis 
Trochus cinerareus 
Utriculus obtusus 


Acacia tree, Queen Elizabeth's, 79, 148, 152. 
Adelaide of Saxe Meiningen, 7, 8, 150, 153. 
Admiralty, Court of, 134, note. 
Aid, 20 Edw. III., 47. 
Ainesford, Wm. de, 42. 
Albert, Prince. See Prince Consort, 
Albertivilla, Hugh de, 40. 
Albrincis, family of, 40. 
Almshouses, Harriet Cooke, 15. 
Altar- tomb, remains of, 15. 
Alterations to Old Parish Church, 66, 67. 
Ancrum, Earl of, 132. 
Anne of Cleves, landing of, 7, 150, 151. 
Appropriation of Walmer Church, 54, 55, 58, 72. 
Archbishop Benson, 198. 
Area of Parish, i, 6. 
Armada, Spanish, 78-81. 
Auberville, family of, 15, 40-42. 
Averenches, barony of, 42. 
„ family of, 40. 

Baker, Adm. Sir Thomas, 14, 201-2. 
Balliol, Sir Alex, de, 43, note. 
Barracks, history, 174-180 ; 

old barracks at Deal, 174 ; 

ludicrous incident, 174 ; 

Vlth Dep6t Battalion, 175 ; 

R. M. Depdt, 175 ; chaplains, 180. 
Batteries, No. i and 2, 5, 6, 138. 
Beachlands, 7, 

Beacon-refuge, Capt. Bullock's, 157. 
Beaumont, Admiral Basil, 191. 
Bell, ancient at Walmer Castle, 22. 
Bells of Old Parish Church, 66. 
Benefice, 55, 72. 

Blake and Van Tromp, engagements, 36, 38. 
Boatmen, their employments, 9, 184-9 ; 
„ decline of trade, 185 ; 
„ grant in 1607, 185. 
Boatmen's Reading Rooms, 9, 383. 


Index. 2^^ 

Boats at Walmer in 1586, 79. 
Borsholder, 28-30, 44. 
Boundaries, i, 7, 11, 17. 
Boyce, Sir John, 113, 114, note, 118. 
Boys, family of, 68, 202-3 J 

Capt. Christopher, 71, 129 ; 

Henry Boys, 139 ; 

Thomas, 130, 203 ; 

Admiral William, 14 ; 

Commodore William, 203. 
British cinerary urns, discovery of, 28. 
Bromstone, Rev. Anthony, 60, 64. 
Browne, Admiral Walpole, 15. 
Bulwarks, 9, 75, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 141. 
Buonaparte, expected invasion, 137-144. 
Burghersh, Lady, letter of, 154. 
Burial Ground at R.N. Hospital, 8, 179 ; 

„ at N. Barracks, 8, 175-6. 

Butts, The, 17. 
Byng, Capt., 83, 84, 85, 89, 130-1. 

Caesar, Julius, 9, 16, 20. 

Calais, loss of, 35, 78 ; light at, 23. 

Cambridge, Duke of, 150, 153, note ; Duchess of, ib. 

Camp Hospital, 177. 

X)ampeggio, Cardinal, 7. 

Cannon, Admiral, 13. 

Cannon-balls, discovery of, 11. 

Canterbury, Walloon Settlement, 190. 

Carmarthen, Marq. of, 131. 

Carrington, Lord, 131, 141, anecdote of, 145. 

Castles, General History, 75 et seq, ; foundation, 75, completion, 76, King's 
inspection, 76, 150, 151 ; under Lord Warden, 76 ; establishment 
of, 77 ; do. temp. Cromwell, 117 ; do. temp. Chas. II., 1 19 ; description, 
77 ; engineer, 78 ; reinforcements, 78 ; visit of Elizabeth, 78 ; 
armada, 79 ; decay, 82, 85 ; survey, 82 ; presentments, 82, 90 ; 
petition, 83 ; repairs, 86, 89 ; the Grreat Rebellion, 91 et seq* 
{See Insurrection in Kent) ; garrisons reduced, 119 ; peace proclaimed, 
125 ; seized for Prince of Orange, 126. (See also Royal Visitors and 
Deal, Sandorwn, and Walmer Castles), 

Celtic tumuli, 17. 

Chancery, Lord Warden's Court of, 134. 

Channel cutting off Thanet, 3. 

Chaplains, Garrison, i8o. 

Church History. (See Old and New Parish Churches and St» Saviour's), 

Church Plate, 58. 

Churches granted to Langdon Abbey, 54. 

Churches visible from Walmer Hill, 17. 

238 Index. 

Cinque Ports, membership of, 32-35 ; flag of, 172, note, (See Preface), 

Cinque Ports' Militia, 174 ; anecdote of, tb, 

„ Pilots, 135 ; volunteers, 21, 138-9, 140-1. 

Civil War, The great, 91. (See Insurrection in Kent). 

Civil War Tracts, 98 et seq. Declaration of Navy, 98 ; the oath, 99 ; storming 
of Walmer Castle, loi ; letter from Portsmouth, 103 ; fight at 
Walmer Castle, ^. ; further declaration, 104 ; oath, 105 ; arrival of 
Flemish ships, 106 ; fight near Deal Castle, 108 ; Prince's first fruits, 
109; Colonel Rich's letter, no; list of prisoners, 112 ; late fight at 
Deal, ib, ; list of officers taken, 113; Colonel Rich to the speaker, 
114; victory by Prince of Wales, 116. 

Clanwilliam, Earl of, 132. 

Clarence, Duke and Duchess of, 150, 153. 

Clergymen deprived, 60. 

Cliff formerly at Walmer Castle, 5, 87, 88. 

Coast blockade, 22, 175, note, 179, 187-8. 

Coast changes, 2-6. 

Coast defence, temp. Hen. VIII., 75-6. 

Coastguards, 9, 20, 175, 179, 188. 

Coins, Roman, discovery of, 3. 

Communicants temp. Elizabeth, 59, t8o. 

Constable of Dover Castle, 136. 

Contraband trade, 185-8. (See Smugglers.) 

Controversy, Hawkes and Isham, 20. 

Convent at Walmer, 15, 19 ; chapel, ih. 

Conyers, Lord, 19. 

Cotmanton, ancient manor, 43 note. 

Court Baron, 52. 

Court Leet, 29. 

Courts of the Cinque Ports — Admiralty, 35, 134, note, 136 ; Brotherhood and 
Guestlmg, 33 ; Chancery, 134 ; Lodemanage, 135, 137, 160 ; 
Shepway, 134, 137. 

Coventry, Sir John, 125. 

Crevequer, Hamo de, 40. 

Criol De, family of, 16, 42 et seq. ; Alice, 49 ; Bertram, 42 ; Gilbert, 46, 47, 
note\ Sir John, ib.\ Lettice, 47; Nicholas, 41 note^ 42, 43, note\ 
Nicholas I., 55 ; Nicholas II., 43-45 ; Nicholas III., 45, note^ 46, 47, 
note ; Nicholas IV., 47 ; Roesia, 46, 47, note ; Simon, 43 note ; Sir 
Thomas, 47-49. 

Crown V. Lord of the Manor, 86-89. 

Cyclone. (See Whirlwind at Walmer). 

Dalhousie, Earl and Marq. of, 131, 136, 137, 163, i66. 

Dane Pits, 18. 

Deal, 5, 6, 7, 34, 35, 39, 66, 81, 89, 94, 123, 124, 125, 126, 139, 144, 152, 153, 
15s. i74» 176, i77» 183, 184, 189; plague at, 37-38; destruction of 
luggers, 186-7 ; population at various dates, 38, note^ 183 ; discovery 
of human bones, 38 ; boats in 1586, 79 ; the old barraclu, 174 ; 
growth of, 183-4 J description by Leland, 3, 183. 

Index. 239 

Deal Castle, 2, 5. 6, 75, 85, 95, 97 99, loi, 104, 107, 108, in, 114, 117, 118, 
119, 124, 125, 128, 145, 181; chiefly in Walmer, 7; establishment, 
77 ; presentments, 82 ; incident with "Hollanders," 84 ; incident with 
French, 85; prisoners, 118, note^ 119; captains, 130-132; additions, 
145 ; shaken by earthquake, 127 ; captaincy, 136 ; Anne of Cleves at, 
151 ; Katherine of Braganza, 153. 

De L* Angle, 189, 190. 

Denne, family of, 66. 

Deputy from Sandwich, 33. 

Derby, Countess of, 164. 

De Ruyter, engagements, 38, 124. 

Desborough, Colonel John, 36. 

De Witt, engagement, 124. 

Digby, Lord, escape from Deal, 7. 

Directory for public worship, 64. 

Domesday Book, 24, 40. 

Donnington Castle, defence of, 1 14, note, 

Dorset, Duke of, 134, 136, 145. 

Douglas, Admiral, 10, 193, 204. 

Dover Castle, 85, 93, 94, 95, loi, 118. 

Dover, Priory of, 56, 58. 

Dover, Refuges at, 190. 

Dower, Commander Perser, 177, 178, 179. 

Downs, description, 23, 135 ; lightships, etc., 23 ; naval actions, 12, 36, 38, 89, 
118, 124; Nelson in the, 22, 135, 143; H.M.S. Victory in, 251 ; 
Admiral Duncan in, 140 ; an infernal machine, 144; Weser expedition, 
ib. ; the Queen's yacht, 159. 

Drill Ground, 8, 10. 

Drill, Marines at, 8, 10, 22. 

Drinking Fountain, 9. 

Drum Ale-house, 14. 

Drum Hill, view from, 14. 

Duke's House, The, 13 ; pew, 67 ; room, 161, 162-5. 

DufFerin, Marquis of. 136, 137, 169. 

Duncan, Admiral, 140. 

Dimldrk, 23. 

Dutch War of 1652, 36, 118 ; do. 1666, 123-125. 

Earthquakes, 4, 127. 

Earthworks, 11, 15, notd 16, 75. 

East Mongeham, 16, 182, note, 

Eastry, 18, note. 

Eastry Union, 183. 

Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, 53. 

Edye, Major, 8. (See Preface), 

Elective Franchise, 182-3. 

Elvin, Rev. C. R. S., 196. 

Encroachments of Sea, 3-6, 20, 82, 83, 86-89, ^28, 138. 

240 Index. 

Engagements, in Downs, 12, 36, 89, 118, 124. 

English Revolution of 1688, 125-7 ; excitement at Dover, 126 ; alarm fix)m the 

Downs, ib. ; capture of King at Faversham, 127. 
Etymology of Walmer, 24-25. 

Fairfax, lOO, 129. 

Falkland House, 15. 

Farming the sick and wounded, 176. 

Faversham, 139 ; visit of Lord Warden, 45. 

Feversham, Abbot of, 32. 

First-fruits, 55, 72. 

Fisher, Capt. Peter, 71, 133, 204-5. 

Fishing seasons, 189. 

Flahault, Count de, 149. 

Flora, 218, et seq. 

Fogge, family of, i6, 68, 71 ; Eleanor, 50 ; Sir John, 49-50 ; Sir William, 49, 50. 

Folkestone, the lord of, 15 ; manor of, 40 43, note\ Priory of, 56, 57, 58. 

Footpaths, II, 12, 15, 16, 19. 

Foreign names, refugee, 189-190, note. (See Preface), 

Fox, Chas. Jas., 129, 148. 

Freedown, 17. 

Free-warren, claim of Nichs. de Criol, 29-30, 44. 

French Invasion, expected, 21, 125, 138-143 ; prep, against, 138-140. 

French Revolution, 137. 

Gales, great, 191 -5. 

George II. at Deal, 7. 

Gladstone, Mr., anecdote, 172-3. 

Glanville, Ranulph, de, 54. 

Glebe, 72. 

Glen at Upper Walmer, 12, 15, 19, 147. 

Godwin, Earl, demesnes of, 4. 

Godwin Island, 4. 

Golf ground, 18. 

Goodwin Sands, 4 ; beacon-refiige on, 157. 

Gordon, Colonel R., 70. 

Gothic House, 14. 

Gram, Andrew, 19. 

Granville, Countess, 169; Earl, 12, 21, 74, 136, 137, 166, 197; additions to 
Walmer Castle, 145-6, 171 ; improvements to grounds, 148; trees 
planted by, 149 ; memorial tower, 166, 198-200 ; anecdote, 167 ; the 
Walmer relics, 169 ; memorial at Castle, 171. 

Green, Mr. Alfred, 13. 

Growth of the parish, 181-2, 183-4, ^9^« 

Groyns at Deal and Walmer, 5, 20. 

Guilford, Earl ot, 131, 136. 

Guns at Walmer Castle, 21, 172. 

Index. 24 1 

Han'ey, family of, 203, 205-211; Capt. Edward, 133; Sir Edward, 14, 133, 
2 10-2 1 1 ; Admiral Hemy, 14, 208 ; Sir Hemy, 19, note^ 70, 203, 205, 
206, 208, 209; Sir John, 206,' 209-210; Capt. John, 205, 208-9; 
Richard, 141, 205 ; Admiral Thomas, 208 ; Sir Thomas, 13, 19, note, 
i88, 206. 

Hashenperg, Von, 78. 

Hatchment, Wellington's, 68. 

Hawkes, William, 12, 20, 19 note^ 51. 

Hawkesbury, Lord, 136, 141. 

Hawkes Hill, 12, 19 note^ 20. 

Haydon at Walmer Castle, 165. 

Henderson, Admiral, 7, 70, 133, 211. 

Herschell, Lord, 132, 198. 

Hill, Sir John, 11, 70, 133, 212. 

Historical trees, 1 1, 12, 2i, 79, 148-9. 

Hobiler, derivation, 30, note, 

Holdemess, Earl of, 136, 137, 145. 

Hospital (See Royal Naval Hospital). 

Houses, number of, 182. 

Hovellers, 184 ; derivation, %b,y note, 

Howe, Lord, ist. June, 21, 205, 206, 208. (See Preface.) 

Hugessen, family of, 189, 190; James, 51, 87, 88: Sir James, 51 ; William, 
51, 52, 87, 88 ; Wm. Western, 52, 176. 

Hughes Gen. Sir R. J., 10, 213. 

Hundred of Comilo, i. 

Hunt, Colonel, 213-214. 

Hutchinson, Colonel, 12 1-3. 

Impropriation, 58. 

Incnmbents, 72-74. 

Infirmary, R.M., 176, 179. 

Ingham, SirThos. 118, 119, 129. 

Inhabitants, fined by Lord Zouche, 35 ; petition re fine, ih, ; petition re Brom- 

stone, 64 ; sea-faring in 1626, 35 ; (See Statistics,) 
Insurrection in Kent, 91-117, petition of Kent, 92 ; muster at Rochester, 93 ; 

advance to Blackheath, ib, ; muster on Barham Downs, ih, ; revolt of 

fleet, 94, 95, 97 ; list of ships, 105, ; siege of Dover Castle, 94, loi ; 

surrender of castles, 96, 97 ; affairs at Canterbury, 100 ; rout of 

Royalists, 100. (See also Civxl War Tracts,) 
Isham family of, 50-51 ; Edward, 129 ; Henrry, 20, 51. 

James II., visits to Deal, 150, 152, 153; captured at Faversham, 127. 
James, G. P. R. the novelist, 14. 

Keith, Lord, 153. 

Kent, Duchess of, 150, 154. 

Kentish miles, length of, 2. 

Keriel, Sir Thomas, 47-49 ; Sir William de, 47. 

2^2 Index. 

Kin>;»«i<i\vn, 5. (;, 7. 12. 18. \i\. 

Kinj»'s liooks, 72. 

King's German Legion, 10, 17, note, 

Kiricl, Nicholas, 46. 

Knatchbull Sir Edward, 52. 

Knight*s Bottom, 12, 19. 

Knight's Fees hehl by Nichs. dc Criol, 42. 

Kricll, Sir John de, 46. 

Kyricl, Sir Thomas, 48. 

Langdon Abbey, 40, 41, notCy 54-58, 72. 

La Rochellc, relief of 35. 

Lathe of St. Augustine, i. 

LaiKH, The, 13. 

I^ec, Sir Richard, 13, 214-215. 

Leeds, Duke of, 131. 

Lcith, family of, 176 ; Frederick, 12 ; George, 52, 139, 176. 

Geo. J. P., 129, 
Leland, description of Deal, 3, 183 ; do. of Walmer, i. 
Leland's distances, 2, 183. 
Life-boat, 9, 190-1. 
Lepidoptcra, 232. 
Lighthouses, S. Foreland, 17. 
Lights, various points, 23. 
Light-ships, 18, 23. 
Lisle, family of, 69 ; Edmund, 68, 69, 83, 84, 85, 86, 129 ; Edward, 129 • 

Nicholas, 69, 85 ; William, 68, 69. 
Liverpool, Earl of, 12, 136, 137, 145, 153, 164; meadows purchased by, 12, 147. 
Liverpool House 12. 
Livescy, Sir Michael, 108, noU^ 113. 
London, distance from, 2. 
Long-bow, use of, 17. 
Lord Warden, claim to flotsam, etc. 136 ; courts of 134-5 J former salaiy, ib. ; 

flag of, 112, note \ office of 136; do temp. Cromwell, 36; proposed 

abolition 137; installation, ib.\ oflficial residence, 134, 136-7; salute, 

172. (See Preface.) 
Lord Wardens, resident at Walmer, 136. 
Lothian, Marquis of, 14, 132. 

Lower Walmer, boundary, 11 ; growth of 181-2, 184, 196; houses in, 182. 
Low Island, now Goodwin Sands, 4. 
Lnggers, at Walmer, 9 ; raid on, 186 ; decrease of, 188 ; use of, ih, ; loss oiib^ 

Mahon, Viscount, 141, 164. 
Manor of Walmer, 40-52, 87-89. 
Margaret of Burgundy, 34. 
Marshland, detached, i. 
Martello towers, as to, 20. 
Maryborough, Lord, 131. 

Index. 243 

Meadows at Walmer Castle, 12, 147. 

Mellor, Sir John, 18. 

Memoirs, short — Sir Thomas Baker, 201-2 ; Adm. Gordon Douglas, 204 ; 

Capt. P. Fisher, 204-5 ; Sir Henry Harvey, 206 ; Sir Thomas Harvey; 

206-8 ; Adm. Thomas Harvey, 208 ; Adm. Henry Harvey, ib. ; Capt. 

John Harvey, 204, 208-9; Sir John Har\ey, 209-210 ; Sir Edw. 

Harvey, 210; Adm. W. W. Henderson, 211 ; Sir John Hill, 212 ; 

Sir R. J. Hughes, 213 ; Colonel Hunt, 213-214; Sir Richard Lee, 

214-15 ; Capt. R. Budd Vincent, 215-217. 
Men pressed in 1628, 35. 

Mennes, family of, 129-130; Capt. John, 86; Sir John, 129. 
Militaiy Burial Ground, 8, 1 75-6. 

MinshuU, Baron, 51 ; Michael de, ib. ; Sir Richard de, 51, 87. 
Moat, ancient at Walmer Court, 15, 54. 
Monk, engagement. 36, 124. 
Monuments in old parish church, 68-72 ; Fisher, 71 ; Fogge, ib. ; Gordon, 70; 

Harvey, ib. ; Henderson, ib. ; Hill, 71 ; L*Isle, 69 ; Vincent, ib. 
Montresor, Admiral, 13. 
Momington, Earl of, 131. 
Muneville, Nigel de, 40 ; Wm. de, ib. 

Naval Burial Ground, 8, 74, 179. 

Naval Hospital, 8, 74, 176-9. 

Naval Yard at Deal, 6. 

Nelson in the Do\vns, 22, 135, 143; at Walmer Castle, 22, 170; attacks on 

Boulogne flotilla, 143 ; the Victory in the Downs, 144 ; Nelson in 

Deal, 144. 
New Parish Church, 12, 74, 196-200. 
Nonconforming ministers deprived, 66. 
Norman mansion, ruins of, 15, 41, note. 
North, Lord, 131, 136. 
North Barracks, 8, 74, 174, 175. 

Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, 40. 

Ommanney, F.G., memorial, 197. 

Old parish church, 15, 16, 53-74, 196; dedication, 53 ; foundation, ib. ; granted 

to Langdon Abbey, 54 ; license to monks, 55 ; description, 66. 
Orientation of parish church, 26. 
Oryell (Criol) Johannes de, 47 note\ Nicholas de, ib. 
Owling Trade, 22, 184, note, 187. 
Oxenbridge, Sir Robert, 50. 

Palmerston, Lord, 16, 136, 137, 163, 166, 172. 

Palm-tree, Kenticism for yew, 148. 

Parish, position of, i. 

Parish Church (Ste Old and New). 

Parishes, adjacent, i. 

Parish Registers, 74. 

244 Index. 

Path made by Blockade-men, 22 ; by Lord Liverpool, ib. 
Peche, Sir Gilbert, 45. 
Pennington, Sir John, 85, 86, 132, 152. 
Perambulation of Parish, 6-23. 
Perkins, Lady, 87; Sir George, 51, 87, 129. 
Perkin Warbeck, defeat of, 6, 34. 

Petitions — to the Lord Warden, 35 ; re Bromstone, 87 ; Kentish, 92. 
Petrie, Mr. Flinders, 15, 19. 
Philip of Spain, 81. 
Pindar, Peter, lampoon, 143. 

Pitt, William, 16, 20, 21, 22; activity of, 21, 140, 142; interviews with 
Nelson, 22, 170 ; preparations against invasion, 21, 138-144 ; appointed 
Lord Warden, 136; character, 140; colonel C.P. Volunteers, 142; 
whether enrolled private, 142 note\ hospitality, 140, 170-1 ; death of, 
144 ; additions to castle, 145 ; improvements to grounds, 146-7 ; trees 
planted by, 148; his room, 171; relics, 22, 168-171. 
Plague at Deal, etc., 36-38, 123. 
Poor Law, 183. 

Population, various dates, 38, 180-2, note. 
Prayer Book, abolished, 64. 
Premonstratensians, order of, 54, 56. 
Pretender expected, 127. 
Pride of the Sea, loss of, 188-9. 

Prince Consort, visit to Walmer Castle, 155-9; visits beacon-refuge, 157-8; 
visit to Dover, 156 ; visit to Ramsgate, 156-7 ; inspects Hmnderer^ 
157 ; meet at Betteshanger, ib, ; last visit to castle, 159. 
Piince of Orange, 125-127. 
Princess Amelia, resident at Walmer, 14, 
Princess Mary, 7. 
Prisoners in Deal Castle, 118, note. 
Protestant refugee families, 189-190, note. 
Puritans in church livings, 60. 
Purse (Cinque Ports), 32 ; payments to, 34. 

Queen Adelaide, 7, 8, 150, 153. 

Queen Elizabeth, visit to Sandwich, 78, 151 ; tradition as to Sandown Castle, 

79, 151, 152. 
Queen Henrietta Maria, 7, 150, 152. 
Queen Mother, 7, 130, 152. 
Queen Victoria, visits to Walmer Castle, 154-9 ; visit to Dover, 156 ; royal 

birthday, ib, ; visit to Ramsgate, 156-7, anecdote, 158 ; in the Downs, 

159; memorials of, 168, 170. 

Rainsborough, Colonel, 94, 95, 96, 131. 

Rateable value, 182. 

Rebellion, Great, 91 ; fate of castles, ib. (See Insurrection in Kent), 

Recession of sea, as to, 2-5, 16, 20. 

Recorder, jurisdiction, 33. 

Index, 245 

Rectory (See Appropriation), 

Recusants, 59. 

Refugee names, 189-90. 

Refugee Settlements in E. Kent, 79, 190, note. 

Registers (See Parish Registers). 

Relics at Walmcr Castle, 22, 162-4, 168-171. 

Reliefs, 42. 

Rich, Colonel, 115. 

Richborough harbour, 4 note. 

Richlieu, Cardinal, 35. 

Richmond, Duke of, 40. 

Rising in Kent (See Insurrection). 

River Union, 183. 

Rocket Apparatus, 9, 23. 

Roman Catholic Chapel, 15, 19. 

Roman remains in sandhills, 3. 

Roman road, remains of, 8, 15. 

Romano-British remains, 13, 25-28. 

Rope walk, 8. 

Royal Birthday kept at Walmer Castle, 156. 

Royal Marine Bicycle Corps, 8. 

R.M. Infirmary, 176, 179, 

Royal Marines at Walmer, 8, 10, 22, 124, 125 (Yellow Company), 175, 179. 

(See Preface). 
R. Naval Dockyard, 6. 
R.N. Hospital, 8, 74, 176-9. 
R. Signal Tower, 7. 
Royal Visitors at the Castle, 150-9 ; Henry VHI., 150, 151 ; Anne of Cleves, 

ib. ; Elizabeth, xb. ; Charles I., 150, 152 ; Henrietta Maria, t^. ; 

Anne of Denmark, xb. ; Charles II., 150, 152, 153 ; Katherine of 

Braganza, 150. 153 ; James H., 150, 152, 153 ; Prince Rupert, 152 ; 

Duke and Duchess of Clarence, 150, 153 ; Adelaide, 150, 153 ; 

William IV., xb. ; Duchess of Kent and Princess Victoria, 150, 154 ; 

King and Queen of Belgians, xb. ; Queen Victoria, 150, 154, 155-9 ; 

Prince Consort, xb. ; Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, 150, 153 

note ; Princess Augusta of Saxony, 153. 
Royalists, sufferings of, 66, 118. 
Royse, Captain, 188; Admiral Harvey, 14. 
Ruins at Walmer Court, 15, 41, note, 54. 

St. Augustine's, electoral division, 183. 

St. Clare, I2, 19. 

St. Clare Cottage, 15. 

St. Margaret's, 5, 17 ; beach road to, 5, 6. 

St. Margaret's Bay, 5, 6. 

St. MUdred's, 13. 

St. Saviour's, 9, 74, 196. 

Samian pottery, discovery of, 28. 


246 Index. 

Sandown Castle, 86, 96, 106, 117, 125; establishment 77; Queen Elizabeth 
at, 79, 151, note^ 152 ; presentments, 82 ; sm^ey, 85; fight near, 113; 
Colonel Hutchinson at, 12 1-3; barely habitable, 128; a coastguard 
station, ib. ; sold, ib. ; demolished, ib, ; captains, 132-3. 

Sandgate Castle, 78, 151, note. 

Sandwich, connection with, 32-35, 38, 182-3 » payments to purse, 33 ; trained 
bands, 34 ; changes over to Lancaster, ib, ; cess on houses, ib» ; 
soldiers for the Lord Warden, ib, ; vessel for Queen's service, 35 ; 
Court of Admiralty at, %h, ; plague at, 37-38 ; new charter, 38-39 ; 
Kentish rising, 97, 99 ; visit of Henry VIII., 150 ; do. Queen 
Elizabeth, 78-79, 15 1-2 ; do. Charles II.. etc., 152-3; Revolution, 
1688, 126 ; Walloon settlement, 190. 

Sandwich, Earl of, 95 note^ 152 

Sayer, William, 58. 

Scenes described — the Drill Ground, 8, 10 ; the beach, 9 ; the downs, 23. 

Scott, family of, 49, 50. 

Sea, recession, 2-3, 20 ; ravages of, 3-6, 20, 82, 83, 86-89, 128, 138. 

Sea fencibles (review of luggers), 141. 

Sea-walls, 5, 20, 82, 86, 87. 

Sea-weeds, 230. 

Semaphores established, 138. 

SheUs, 233-5. 

Shingle, bank of, 3 notCi 20 ; deposit of, 5-6 ; removal of, 6. 

Shore, nature of, 20. 

Shrubbery, the, 14. 

Sladden, Richard, 51, 87. 

Sloop, or brig of war, off Walmer Castle, 21. 

Small downs, 7. 

Smith, W. H., 137, 171, 172; appd. Lord Warden, 136; death of 167; 
Walmer relics, 168-9. 

Smith, Arthur, 14, 200 ; General, 14 ; Sir Sidney, 144 ; W. F. D., 169. 

Smugglers, tales of, 186-8 ; raid on luggers, 186. 

Smuggling, 22-23, 185-9 

Soil, description, i. 

Solemn League and Covenant, 59 et seq, ; the Walmer copy, 61-64. 

South Barracks, lo. See Barracks. 

Stanhope, Countess, 11 ; Earl, 11, noie, 140, 141, 142, 153, 165, 171 ; Lady 
Hester, at Walmer Castle, 12, 20, 141, 142-3, 146-7 ; her improve- 
ments. 146-7. 

Statistics — ^vessels and mariners, 35 ; pop., 38, 180-2, note; communicants, 59 • 
houses, 182. 

Stephens, Lieut., 8. 

Storms, remarkable, 4, 191 -5. 

Superior Lords. (See Folkestone). 

Sydney, Earl, 132, 155, ftote^ 165. 

Talle5nrand, Prince, 171. 
Tavemer, Capt, 131. 

Index. 247 

Taxatio Eccles. P. Nichs. IV., 55. 

Tenths etc., 55, 72. 

Thanet, 3, 4, 7, 14, 16. 

Time-baU, 7. 

Titus, Colonel Silius, 124, 125, 131. (See Preface.) 

Tod, Mr., 10. 

Toll-gate, 7 note. 

Tournaments at Knight's Bottom, 19. 

Trained Company, the, 123, 125. 

Upchurch Pottery, discovery of, 25, 27. 

Valor Ecclesiasticus, 56. 

Van Tromp, naval actions, ii, 36, 38, 89, 118. 

Vases, Roman, discovered, 3, 25, 27. 

Vicarage, House, 14, 15, 72. 

Vicars, 73. 

Victory H.M.S., in Downs, 144. 

View of frank-pledge, 29, 30, 44. 

Views, picturesque, 9, 12, 14, 17, 23. 

Village of Walmer, ancient, 38. 

Vincent, Capt. A. A., 7 ; Capt. R. Budd, 69, 215, 217. 

Walcheren expedition, 74, 177. 

Walloon settlements in E. Kent, 79, 190. 

Walmer, etymology, 24-25. 

Walmer Castle, (lugger) loss of, 189. 

Walmer Castle, 5, 7, 11, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 ; trees at, 12, 21, 79, 148-9 : 

guns at, 21, 172 ; Pitt at, 21-22 (See Pitt,)\ Nelson at, 22, 170; 

Wellington at, 22 (See Wellington) ; relics, 22, 162-4, 168-171 ; 

ancient bell, 22 ; foundation, 75 ; establishment, 77, 117, 1 19-120, ; 

ordnance, 81, 86 ; incident with Hollanders, 84; do. with French, 85 ; 

lawsuit, 86-89 ; captains, 128-130; captain murdered, 130; residence 

of Lord Warden, 134; the ramparts, 135 ; additions, 144-6; grounds, 

146-9 ; a fox killed in the castle, 167; a saluting station, 172. (See 

also Castles^ Lord Wat dens y Royal Visiiorsy etc.) 
Walmer Court, ruins there, 15, 41, note\ ancient moat, 15. 
Walmer Lodge, 10- 1 1 . 
Walmer Volunteer Company, 139. 
Walmerc, Johannes de, 31, 47, note. 
War with France and Holland, A.D. 1666, 123-25. 
Warbeck, Perkin, landing of, 6, 34. 
Warwick, Earl of, 34, 116, 117. 
Watch on sea-coast, 30-32. 

Watts, Captain J. J., 129, 130, 162 ; Richard, 123, 124. 
WcUesley House, 13. 
Wellesley, Sir Arthur, 13, 144 ; Marq. of (letter), 140. 

248 Index. 

' " ■ ■' ■ " ' ■ ■ 

Wellington, Duke of, 11, 13, 16, 22, 129, 136, 163, 169; the Duke's House, 
13 ; his pew, 67, 165 ; his room, 159, 160, 161, 162-5 ; his Watedoo 
telescope, 1 1 ; hatchment, 68 ; his royal guests, 153-9 ; last official 
lisit to Dover, 159 ; death at Walmer Castle, 160-1 ; engraving of 
his room, 164-5; relics, 163-4, 168-170 ; trees planted by, 148-9; 
anecdotes, 147-8, 165-6. 

Weser expedition, 144. 

Whirlwind at Walmer, 193-5. 

Wilberforce, Bishop, anecdote by, 145. 

Waiiam IV., 7. 

Wollaston, Mrs., 9. 

Woodnesborough, 18, note. 

Yellow Co., Maritime Regt., 124, 125. 

Yew-trees, ancient, 16, 53. 

York, Duke of, 140, 152, 153 ; Maritime Regt., 124, 125. (See Prrface). 

Yorkists, sympathy of Ports, 34. 

Zoophytes, 231-3. 

Zouchc, Lord, 5 ; petition to, 35 ; as Lord Warden, 82, 89. 

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